Stimulation of the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-Dependent Translation of Enterovirus 71 by DDX3X RNA Helicase and Viral 2A and 3C Proteases.
ABSTRACT: The translation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. EV71 IRES comprises five highly structured domains (domains II-VI) in the 5'-untranslated region of the viral mRNA. A conserved AUG triplet residing in domain VI is proposed to be the ribosome entry site. It is thus envisaged that the highly structured conformation of domain VI may actually reduce the accessibility of the AUG triplet to the ribosome. This study identified a DEAD-box family RNA helicase, DDX3X, that positively regulated the EV71 IRES-dependent translation. The helicase activity of DDX3X was required for the stimulation of EV71 IRES activity; however, DDX3X was no longer important for the IRES activity when the secondary structure of domain VI was destabilized. DDX3X interacted with the truncated eIF4G which bound specifically to domain V. Thus, we proposed that DDX3X might bind to domain VI or a region nearby via the interaction with the truncated eIF4G, and subsequently unwound the secondary structure of domain VI to facilitate ribosome entry. Additionally, we demonstrated that the viral 2Apro and 3Cpro enhanced the IRES-dependent translation via their protease activities. Together, these results indicate that DDX3X is an important RNA helicase involved in EV71 IRES-dependent translation and that IRES translation is enhanced by viral infection, partly mediated by viral protease activity.
Project description:Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements are high-order RNA structures that promote internal initiation of translation to allow protein synthesis under situations that compromise the general cap-dependent translation mechanism. Picornavirus IRES elements are highly efficient elements with a modular RNA structure organization. Here we investigated the effect of Mg(2+) concentration on the local flexibility and solvent accessibility of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) IRES element measured on the basis of selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) reactivity and hydroxyl radical cleavage. We have found that Mg(2+) concentration affects the organization of discrete IRES regions, mainly the apical region of domain 3, the 10 nt loop of domain 4, and the pyrimidine tract of domain 5. In support of the effect of RNA structure on IRES activity, substitution or deletion mutants of the 10 nt loop of domain 4 impair internal initiation. In addition, divalent cations affect the binding of eIF4G, a eukaryotic initiation factor that is essential for IRES-dependent translation that interacts with domain 4. Binding of eIF4G is favored by the local RNA flexibility adopted at low Mg(2+) concentration, while eIF4B interacts with the IRES independently of the compactness of the RNA structure. Our study shows that the IRES element adopts a near-native structure in the absence of proteins, shedding light on the influence of Mg(2+) ions on the local flexibility and binding of eIF4G in a model IRES element.
Project description:Death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/p97) is a homolog of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) that promotes the IRES-driven translation of multiple cellular mRNAs. Central to its function is the middle domain (MIF4G), which recruits the RNA helicase eIF4A. The middle domain of eIF4G consists of tandem HEAT repeats that coalesce to form a solenoid-type structure. Here, we report the crystal structure of the DAP5 MIF4G domain. Its overall fold is very similar to that of eIF4G; however, significant conformational variations impart distinct surface properties that could explain the observed differences in IRES binding between the two proteins. Interestingly, quantitative analysis of the DAP5-eIF4A interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry reveals a 10-fold lower affinity than with the eIF4G-eIF4A interaction that appears to affect their ability to stimulate eIF4A RNA unwinding activity in vitro. This difference in stability of the complex may have functional implications in selecting the mode of translation initiation.
Project description:Enteroviruses use a type I Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) structure to facilitate protein synthesis and promote genome replication. Type I IRES elements require auxiliary host proteins to organize RNA structure for 40S ribosomal subunit assembly. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 stimulates enterovirus 71 (EV71) translation in part through specific interactions with its stem loop II (SLII) IRES domain. Here, we determined a conjoined NMR-small angle x-ray scattering structure of the EV71 SLII domain and a mutant that significantly attenuates viral replication by abrogating hnRNP A1 interactions. Native SLII adopts a locally compact structure wherein stacking interactions in a conserved 5'-AUAGC-3' bulge preorganize the adjacent helices at nearly orthogonal orientations. Mutating the bulge sequence to 5'-ACCCC-3' ablates base stacking in the loop and globally reorients the SLII structure. Biophysical titrations reveal that the 5'-AUAGC-3' bulge undergoes a conformational change to assemble a functional hnRNP A1-RNA complex. Importantly, IRES mutations that delete the bulge impair viral translation and completely inhibit replication. Thus, this work provides key details into how an EV71 IRES structure adapts to hijack a cellular protein, and it suggests that the SLII domain is a potential target for antiviral therapy.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation.The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially enhance the translation of virus protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes Sam68 actively participating in the life cycle of EV71 at a molecular level. These studies will not only improve our understanding of the replication of EV71 but also have the potential for aiding in developing a therapeutic strategy against EV71 infection.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of Picornaviridae, is associated with severe central nervous system complications. In this study, we identified a cellular microRNA (miRNA), miR-197, whose expression was downregulated by viral infection in a time-dependent manner. In miR-197 mimic-transfected cells, EV71 replication was inhibited, whereas the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity was decreased in EV71 strains with or without predicted miR-197 target sites, indicating that miR-197 targets host proteins to modulate viral replication. We thus used a quantitative proteomics approach, aided by the TargetScan algorithm, to identify putative target genes of miR-197. Among them, RAN was selected and validated as a genuine target in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) reporter assay. Reduced production of RAN by RNA interference markedly reduced the synthesis of EV71-encoded viral proteins and virus titers. Furthermore, reintroduction of nondegradable RAN into these knockdown cells rescued viral protein synthesis. miR-197 levels were modulated by EV71 to maintain RAN mRNA translatability at late times postinfection since we demonstrated that cap-independent translation exerted by its intrinsic IRES activity was occurring at times when translation attenuation was induced by EV71. EV71-induced downregulation of miR-197 expression increased the expression of RAN, which supported the nuclear transport of the essential viral proteins 3D/3CD and host protein hnRNP K for viral replication. Our data suggest that downregulation of cellular miRNAs may constitute a newly identified mechanism that sustains the expression of host proteins to facilitate viral replication.Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a picornavirus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA that globally inhibits the cellular translational system, mainly by cleaving cellular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), which inhibits the association of the ribosome with the host capped mRNA. We used a microRNA (miRNA) microarray chip to identify the host miRNA 197 (miR-197) that was downregulated by EV71. We also used quantitative mass spectrometry and a target site prediction tool to identify the miR-197 target genes. During viral infection, the expression of the target protein RAN was upregulated considerably, and there was a parallel downregulation of miR-197. The nuclear transport of viral 3D/3CD protein and of the host proteins involved in viral replication proceeded in an RAN-dependent manner. We have identified a new mechanism in picornavirus through which EV71-induced cellular miRNA downregulation can regulate host protein levels to facilitate viral replication.
Project description:The 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA genome contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is indispensable for viral protein translation. Due to the limited coding capacity of their RNA genomes, EV71 and other picornaviruses typically recruit host factors, known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), to mediate IRES-dependent translation. Here, we show that EV71 viral proteinase 2A is capable of cleaving far upstream element-binding protein 1 (FBP1), a positive ITAF that directly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region to promote viral IRES-driven translation. The cleavage occurs at the Gly-371 residue of FBP1 during the EV71 infection process, and this generates a functional cleavage product, FBP11-371. Interestingly, the cleavage product acts to promote viral IRES activity. Footprinting analysis and gel mobility shift assay results showed that FBP11-371 similarly binds to the EV71 5' UTR linker region, but at a different site from full-length FBP1; moreover, FBP1 and FBP11-371 were found to act additively to promote IRES-mediated translation and virus yield. Our findings expand the current understanding of virus-host interactions with regard to viral recruitment and modulation of ITAFs, and provide new insights into translational control during viral infection.
Project description:Picornaviruses use internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) to translate their genomes into protein. A typical feature of these IRESs is their ability to bind directly to the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G component of the eIF4F cap-binding complex. Remarkably, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES requires eIF4E for its translation, but no mechanism has been proposed to explain this. Here we demonstrate that eIF4E regulates HAV IRES-mediated translation by two distinct mechanisms. First, eIF4E binding to eIF4G generates a high-affinity binding conformation of the eIF4F complex for the IRES. Second, eIF4E binding to eIF4G strongly stimulates the rate of duplex unwinding by eIF4A on the IRES. Our data also reveal that eIF4E promotes eIF4F binding and increases the rate of restructuring of the poliovirus (PV) IRES. This provides a mechanism to explain why PV IRES-mediated translation is stimulated by eIF4E availability in nuclease-treated cell-free extracts. Using a PV replicon and purified virion RNA, we also show that eIF4E promotes the rate of eIF4G cleavage by the 2A protease. Finally, we show that cleavage of eIF4G by the poliovirus 2A protease generates a high-affinity IRES binding truncation of eIF4G that stimulates eIF4A duplex unwinding independently of eIF4E. Therefore, our data reveal how picornavirus IRESs use eIF4E-dependent and -independent mechanisms to promote their translation.
Project description:DDX3X is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that has been implicated in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism including translation initiation and the assembly of stress granules (SGs). Recent genomic studies have reported recurrent DDX3X mutations in numerous tumors including medulloblastoma (MB), but the physiological impact of these mutations is poorly understood. Here we show that a consistent feature of MB-associated mutations is SG hyper-assembly and concomitant translation impairment. We used CLIP-seq to obtain a comprehensive assessment of DDX3X binding targets and ribosome profiling for high-resolution assessment of global translation. Surprisingly, mutant DDX3X expression caused broad inhibition of translation that impacted DDX3X targeted and non-targeted mRNAs alike. Assessment of translation efficiency with single-cell resolution revealed that SG hyper-assembly correlated precisely with impaired global translation. SG hyper-assembly and translation impairment driven by mutant DDX3X were rescued by a genetic approach that limited SG assembly and by deletion of the N-terminal low complexity domain within DDX3X. Thus, in addition to a primary defect at the level of translation initiation caused by DDX3X mutation, SG assembly itself contributes to global translation inhibition. This work provides mechanistic insights into the consequences of cancer-related DDX3X mutations, suggesting that globally reduced translation may provide a context-dependent survival advantage that must be considered as a possible contributor to tumorigenesis.
Project description:Tethered hydroxyl-radical probing has been used to determine the orientation of binding of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) (PV-1(M)) internal ribosome entry site/segment (IRES)-the question of which RNA-binding domain (RBD) binds to which sites on the IRES. The results show that under conditions in which PTB strongly stimulates IRES activity, a single PTB is binding to the IRES, a finding which was confirmed by mass spectrometry of PTB/IRES complexes. RBDs1 and 2 interact with the basal part of the Domain V irregular stem loop, very close to the binding site of eIF4G, and RBDs3 and 4 interact with the single-stranded regions flanking Domain V. The binding of PTB is subtly altered in the presence of the central domain (p50) of eIF4G, and p50 binding is likewise modified if PTB is present. This suggests that PTB stimulates PV-1(M) IRES activity by inducing eIF4G to bind in the optimal position and orientation to promote internal ribosome entry, which, in PV-1(M), is at an AUG triplet 30 nt downstream of the base of Domain V.
Project description:Since the 1980s, epidemics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses have occurred in Asian countries and regions, causing a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are indispensable for the initiation of translation in enteroviruses. Several cellular factors, as well as the ribosome, are recruited to the conserved IRES during this process. Quinacrine intercalates into the RNA architecture and inhibits RNA transcription and protein synthesis, and a recent study showed that quinacrine inhibited encephalomyocarditis virus and poliovirus IRES-mediated translation in vitro without disrupting internal cellular IRES. Here, we report that quinacrine was highly active against EV71, protecting cells from EV71 infection. Replication of viral RNA, expression of viral capsid protein, and production of virus were all strongly inhibited by quinacrine. Interaction of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) with the conserved IRES was prevented by quinacrine. Coxsackieviruses and echovirus were also inhibited by quinacrine in cultured cells. These results indicate that quinacrine may serve as a potential protective agent for use in the treatment of patients with chronic enterovirus infection.