Deletion of the chloroplast LTD protein impedes LHCI import and PSI-LHCI assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
ABSTRACT: Nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyll- and carotenoid-binding proteins (LHCPs) are imported into the chloroplast and transported across the stroma to thylakoid membrane assembly sites by the chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway. The LHCP translocation defect (LTD) protein is essential for the delivery of imported LHCPs to the CpSRP pathway in Arabidopsis. However, the function of the LTD protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has not been investigated. Here, we generated a C. reinhardtii ltd (Crltd) knockout mutant by using CRISPR-Cas9, a new target-specific knockout technology. The Crltd1 mutant showed a low chlorophyll content per cell with an unusual increase in appressed thylakoid membranes and enlarged cytosolic vacuoles. Profiling of thylakoid membrane proteins in the Crltd1 mutant showed a more severe reduction in the levels of photosystem I (PSI) core proteins and absence of functional LHCI compared with those of photosystem II, resulting in a much smaller PSI pool size and diminished chlorophyll antenna size. The lack of CrLTD did not prevent photoautotrophic growth of the cells. These results are substantially different from those for Arabidopsis ltd null mutant, indicating LTD function in LHCP delivery and PSI assembly may not be as stringent in C. reinhardtii as it is in higher plants.
Project description:In bacteria, membrane proteins are targeted cotranslationally via a signal recognition particle (SRP). During the evolution of higher plant chloroplasts from cyanobacteria, the SRP pathway underwent striking adaptations that enable the posttranslational transport of the abundant light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs). The conserved 54-kDa SRP subunit in higher plant chloroplasts (cpSRP54) is not bound to an SRP RNA, an essential SRP component in bacteria, but forms a stable heterodimer with the chloroplast-specific cpSRP43. This heterodimeric cpSRP recognizes LHCP and delivers it to the thylakoid membrane whereby cpSRP43 plays a central role. This study shows that the cpSRP system in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii differs significantly from that of higher plants as cpSRP43 is not complexed to cpSRP54 in Chlamydomonas and cpSRP54 is not involved in LHCP recognition. This divergence is attributed to altered residues within the cpSRP54 tail and the second chromodomain of cpSRP43 that are crucial for the formation of the binding interface in Arabidopsis. These changes are highly conserved among chlorophytes, whereas all land plants contain cpSRP proteins with typical interaction motifs. These data demonstrate that the coevolution of LHCPs and cpSRP43 occurred independently of complex formation with cpSRP54 and that the interaction between cpSRP54 and cpSRP43 evolved later during the transition from chlorophytes to land plants. Furthermore, our data show that in higher plants a heterodimeric form of cpSRP is required for the formation of a low molecular weight transit complex with LHCP.
Project description:Assembly of light-harvesting complexes requires synchronization of chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis with biogenesis of light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs). The chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) pathway is responsible for transport of nucleus-encoded LHCPs in the stroma of the plastid and their integration into the thylakoid membranes. Correct folding and assembly of LHCPs require the incorporation of Chls, whose biosynthesis must therefore be precisely coordinated with membrane insertion of LHCPs. How the spatiotemporal coordination between the cpSRP machinery and Chl biosynthesis is achieved is poorly understood. In this work, we demonstrate a direct interaction between cpSRP43, the chaperone that mediates LHCP targeting and insertion, and glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR), a rate-limiting enzyme in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Concurrent deficiency for cpSRP43 and the GluTR-binding protein (GBP) additively reduces GluTR levels, indicating that cpSRP43 and GBP act nonredundantly to stabilize GluTR. The substrate-binding domain of cpSRP43 binds to the N-terminal region of GluTR, which harbors aggregation-prone motifs, and the chaperone activity of cpSRP43 efficiently prevents aggregation of these regions. Our work thus reveals a function of cpSRP43 in Chl biosynthesis and suggests a striking mechanism for posttranslational coordination of LHCP insertion with Chl biosynthesis.
Project description:The bacterial signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates the cotranslational targeting of membrane proteins and is a high affinity complex consisting of a SRP54 protein subunit (Ffh) and an SRP RNA. The chloroplast SRP (cpSRP) pathway has adapted throughout evolution to enable the posttranslational targeting of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (LHCPs) to the thylakoid membrane. In spermatophytes (seed plants), the cpSRP lacks the SRP RNA and is instead formed by a high affinity interaction of the conserved 54-kD subunit (cpSRP54) with the chloroplast-specific cpSRP43 protein. This heterodimeric cpSRP recognizes LHCP and delivers it to the thylakoid membrane. However, in contrast to spermatophytes, plastid SRP RNAs were identified within all streptophyte lineages and in all chlorophyte branches. Furthermore, it was shown that cpSRP43 does not interact with cpSRP54 in chlorophytes (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). In this study, we biochemically characterized the cpSRP system of the charophyte Chaetosphaeridium globosum and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Interaction studies demonstrate low affinity binding of cpSRP54 to cpSRP43 (Kd ~10 ?M) in Chaetosphaeridium globosum and Physcomitrella patens as well as relatively low affinity binding of cpSRP54 to cpSRP RNA (Kd ~1 ?M) in Physcomitrella patens. CpSRP54/cpSRP43 complex formation in charophytes is supported by the finding that specific alterations in the second chromodomain of cpSRP43, that are conserved within charophytes and absent in land plants, do not interfere with cpSRP54 binding. Furthermore, our data show that the elongated apical loop structure of the Physcomitrella patens cpSRP RNA contributes to the low binding affinity between cpSRP54 and the cpSRP RNA.
Project description:The biosynthesis of most membrane proteins is directly coupled to membrane insertion, and therefore, molecular chaperones are not required. The light-harvesting chlorophyll a,b-binding proteins (LHCPs) present a prominent exception as they are synthesized in the cytoplasm, and after import into the chloroplast, they are targeted and inserted into the thylakoid membrane. Upon arrival in the stroma, LHCPs form a soluble transit complex with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) consisting of an SRP54 homolog and the unique cpSRP43 composed of three chromodomains and four ankyrin repeats. Here we describe that cpSRP43 alone prevents aggregation of LHCP by formation of a complex with nanomolar affinity, whereas cpSRP54 is not required for this chaperone activity. Other stromal chaperones like trigger factor cannot replace cpSRP43, which implies that LHCPs require a specific chaperone. Although cpSRP43 does not have an ATPase activity, it can dissolve aggregates of LHCPs similar to chaperones of the Hsp104/ClpB family. We show that the LHCP-cpSRP43 interaction is predominantly hydrophobic but strictly depends on an intact DPLG motif between the second and third transmembrane region. The cpSRP43 ankyrin repeats that provide the binding site for the DPLG motif are sufficient for the chaperone function, whereas the chromodomains are dispensable. Taken together, we define cpSRP43 as a highly specific chaperone for LHCPs in addition to its established function as a targeting factor for this family of membrane proteins.
Project description:The mechanisms involved in the posttranslational targeting of membrane proteins are not well understood. The light-harvesting chlorophyll proteins (LHCP) of the thylakoid membrane are a large family of hydrophobic proteins that are targeted in this manner. They are synthesized in the cytoplasm, translocated across the chloroplast envelope membranes into the stroma, bound by a stromal factor to form a soluble intermediate, "transit complex", and then integrated into the thylakoid membrane by a GTP dependent reaction. Signal recognition particle (SRP), a cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein, is known to mediate the GTP dependent cotranslational targeting of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. We show that chloroplasts contain an SRP consisting of, cpSRP54, a homologue of SRP54 and a previously undescribed 43-kDa polypeptide (cpSRP43) instead of an RNA. We demonstrate that both subunits of cpSRP are required for the formation of the transit complex with LHCP. Furthermore, cpSRP54, cpSRP43, and LHCP are sufficient to form a complex that appears to be identical to authentic transit complex. We also show that the complex formed between LHCP and cpSRP, together with an additional soluble factor(s) are required for the proper integration of LHCP into the thylakoid membrane. It appears that the expanded role of cpSRP in posttranslational targeting of LHCP has arisen through the evolution of the 43-kDa protein.
Project description:The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (LHCP) belong to a large family of membrane proteins. They form the antenna complexes of photosystem I and II and function in light absorption and transfer of the excitation energy to the photosystems. As nuclear-encoded proteins, the LHCPs are imported into the chloroplast and further targeted to their final destination-the thylakoid membrane. Due to their hydrophobicity, the formation of the so-called 'transit complex' in the stroma is important to prevent their aggregation in this aqueous environment. The posttranslational LHCP targeting mechanism is well regulated through the interaction of various soluble and membrane-associated protein components and includes several steps: the binding of the LHCP to the heterodimeric cpSRP43/cpSRP54 complex to form the soluble transit complex; the docking of the transit complex to the SRP receptor cpFtsY and the Alb3 translocase at the membrane followed by the release and integration of the LHCP into the thylakoid membrane in a GTP-dependent manner. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and dynamics behind the posttranslational LHCP targeting to the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:The chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and its receptor, chloroplast FtsY (cpFtsY), form an essential complex with the translocase Albino3 (Alb3) during post-translational targeting of light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins (LHCPs). Here, we describe a combination of studies that explore the binding interface and functional role of a previously identified cpSRP43-Alb3 interaction. Using recombinant proteins corresponding to the C terminus of Alb3 (Alb3-Cterm) and various domains of cpSRP43, we identify the ankyrin repeat region of cpSRP43 as the domain primarily responsible for the interaction with Alb3-Cterm. Furthermore, we show Alb3-Cterm dissociates a cpSRP·LHCP targeting complex in vitro and stimulates GTP hydrolysis by cpSRP54 and cpFtsY in a strictly cpSRP43-dependent manner. These results support a model in which interactions between the ankyrin region of cpSRP43 and the C terminus of Alb3 promote distinct membrane-localized events, including LHCP release from cpSRP and release of targeting components from Alb3.
Project description:Integration of thylakoid proteins by the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) posttranslational transport pathway requires the cpSRP, an SRP receptor homologue (cpFtsY), and the membrane protein ALB3. Similarly, Escherichia coli uses an SRP and FtsY to cotranslationally target membrane proteins to the SecYEG translocase, which contains an ALB3 homologue, YidC. In neither system are the interactions between soluble and membrane components well understood. We show that complexes containing cpSRP, cpFtsY, and ALB3 can be precipitated using affinity tags on cpSRP or cpFtsY. Stabilization of this complex with GMP-PNP specifically blocks subsequent integration of substrate (light harvesting chl a/b-binding protein [LHCP]), indicating that the complex occupies functional ALB3 translocation sites. Surprisingly, neither substrate nor cpSRP43, a component of cpSRP, was necessary to form a complex with ALB3. Complexes also contained cpSecY, but its removal did not inhibit ALB3 function. Furthermore, antibody bound to ALB3 prevented ALB3 association with cpSRP and cpFtsY and inhibited LHCP integration suggesting that a complex containing cpSRP, cpFtsY, and ALB3 must form for proper LHCP integration.
Project description:Protein targeting is critical in all living organisms and involves a signal recognition particle (SRP), an SRP receptor, and a translocase. In co-translational targeting, interactions among these proteins are mediated by the ribosome. In chloroplasts, the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding protein (LHCP) in the thylakoid membrane is targeted post-translationally without a ribosome. A multidomain chloroplast-specific subunit of the SRP, cpSRP43, is proposed to take on the role of coordinating the sequence of targeting events. Here, we demonstrate that cpSRP43 exhibits significant interdomain dynamics that are reduced upon binding its SRP binding partner, cpSRP54. We showed that the affinity of cpSRP43 for the binding motif of LHCP (L18) increases when cpSRP43 is complexed to the binding motif of cpSRP54 (cpSRP54pep). These results support the conclusion that substrate binding to the chloroplast SRP is modulated by protein structural dynamics in which a major role of cpSRP54 is to improve substrate binding efficiency to the cpSRP.
Project description:While the composition and function of the major thylakoid membrane complexes are well understood, comparatively little is known about their biogenesis. The goal of this work was to shed more light on the role of auxiliary factors in the biogenesis of photosystem II (PSII). Here we have identified the homolog of LOW PSII ACCUMULATION 2 (LPA2) in Chlamydomonas. A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lpa2 mutant grew slower in low light, was hypersensitive to high light, and exhibited aberrant structures in thylakoid membrane stacks. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) was reduced by 38%. Synthesis and stability of newly made PSII core subunits D1, D2, CP43, and CP47 were not impaired. However, complexome profiling revealed that in the mutant CP43 was reduced to ~23% and D1, D2, and CP47 to ~30% of wild type levels. Levels of PSI and the cytochrome b6f complex were unchanged, while levels of the ATP synthase were increased by ~29%. PSII supercomplexes, dimers, and monomers were reduced to ~7%, ~26%, and ~60% of wild type levels, while RC47 was increased ~6-fold and LHCII by ~27%. We propose that LPA2 catalyses a step during PSII assembly without which PSII monomers and further assemblies become unstable and prone to degradation. The LHCI antenna was more disconnected from PSI in the lpa2 mutant, presumably as an adaptive response to reduce excitation of PSI. From the co-migration profiles of 1734 membrane-associated proteins, we identified three novel putative PSII associated proteins with potential roles in regulating PSII complex dynamics, assembly, and chlorophyll breakdown.