AtCSLD3 and GhCSLD3 mediate root growth and cell elongation downstream of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: CSLD3, a gene of the cellulose synthase-like D family, affects root hair elongation, but its interactions with ethylene signaling and phosphate-starvation are poorly understood. Here, we aim to understand the role of CSLD3 in the context of the ethylene signaling and phosphate starvation pathways in Arabidopsis plant growth. Therefore, we performed a comparative analysis of the csld3-1 mutant, CSLD3-overexpressing lines, and ethylene-response mutants, such as the constitutive ethylene-response mutant i-ctr1. We found that CSLD3 overexpression enhanced root and hypocotyl growth by increasing cell elongation, and that the root growth was highly sensitive to ethylene treatment (1 µM ACC), in particular under phosphate starvation. However, the CSLD3-mediated hypocotyl elongation occurred independently of the ethylene signaling pathway. Notably, the typical induction of root hair and root elongation by ethylene and phosphate-starvation was completely abolished in the csld3-1 mutant. Furthermore, i-ctr1 csld3-1 double-mutants were hairless like the csld3-1 parent, confirming that CSLD3 acts downstream of the ethylene signaling pathway during root growth. Moreover, the CSLD3 levels positively correlated with cellulose levels, indicating a role of CSLD3 in cellulose synthesis, which may explain the observed growth effects. Our results establish how CSLD3 works in the context of the ethylene signaling and phosphate-starvation pathways during root hair growth, cell elongation, and cell wall biosynthesis.
Project description:Enhanced root hair production, which increases the root surface area for nutrient uptake, is a typical adaptive response of plants to phosphate (Pi) starvation. Although previous studies have shown that ethylene plays an important role in root hair development induced by Pi starvation, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hps5, that displays constitutive ethylene responses and increased sensitivity to Pi starvation due to a mutation in the ethylene receptor ERS1. hps5 accumulates high levels of EIN3 protein, a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signaling pathway, under both Pi sufficiency and deficiency. Pi starvation also increases the accumulation of EIN3 protein. Combined molecular, genetic, and genomic analyses identified a group of genes that affect root hair development by regulating cell wall modifications. The expression of these genes is induced by Pi starvation and is enhanced in the EIN3-overexpressing line. In contrast, the induction of these genes by Pi starvation is suppressed in ein3 and ein3eil1 mutants. EIN3 protein can directly bind to the promoter of these genes, some of which are also the immediate targets of RSL4, a key transcription factor that regulates root hair development. Based on these results, we propose that under normal growth conditions, the level of ethylene is low in root cells; a group of key transcription factors, including RSL4 and its homologs, trigger the transcription of their target genes to promote root hair development; Pi starvation increases the levels of the protein EIN3, which directly binds to the promoters of the genes targeted by RSL4 and its homologs and further increase their transcription, resulting in the enhanced production of root hairs. This model not only explains how ethylene mediates root hair responses to Pi starvation, but may provide a general mechanism for how ethylene regulates root hair development under both stress and non-stress conditions.
Project description:Plant development is regulated by both synergistic and antagonistic interactions of different phytohormones, including a complex crosstalk between ethylene and auxin. For instance, auxin and ethylene synergistically control primary root elongation and root hair formation. However, a lack of chemical agents that specifically modulate ethylene or auxin production has precluded precise delineation of the contribution of each hormone to root development. Here, we performed a chemical genetic screen based on the recovery of root growth in ethylene-related <i>Arabidopsis</i> mutants with constitutive "short root" phenotypes (<i>eto1-2</i> and <i>ctr1-1</i>). We found that ponalrestat exposure recovers root elongation in these mutants in an ethylene signal-independent manner. Genetic and pharmacological investigations revealed that ponalrestat inhibits the enzymatic activity of the flavin-containing monooxygenase YUCCA, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the indole-3-pyruvic acid branch of the auxin biosynthesis pathway. In summary, our findings have identified a YUCCA inhibitor that may be useful as a chemical tool to dissect the distinct steps in auxin biosynthesis and in the regulation of root development.
Project description:Phosphate is an essential macronutrient in plant growth and development; however, the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in soil is often suboptimal for crop performance. Accordingly, plants have developed physiological strategies to adapt to low Pi availability. Here, we report that typical Pi starvation responses in Arabidopsis are partially dependent on the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway. SL treatment induced root hair elongation, anthocyanin accumulation, activation of acid phosphatase, and reduced plant weight, which are characteristic responses to phosphate starvation. Furthermore, the expression profile of SL-response genes correlated with the expression of genes induced by Pi starvation. These results suggest a potential overlap between SL signaling and Pi starvation signaling pathways in plants.
Project description:A mutant previously isolated from a screen of EMS-mutagenized Arabidopsis lines, per1, showed normal root hair development under control conditions but displayed an inhibited root hair elongation phenotype upon Pi deficiency. Additionally, the per1 mutant exhibited a pleiotropic phenotype under control conditions, resembling Pi-deficient plants in several aspects. Under Pi deficiency, the accumulation of Pi and iron was increased in the mutant when compared to the wild-type. Inhibition of root hair elongation upon growth on low Pi media was reverted by treatment with the Pi analog phosphite, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is not the result of a defect in Pi sensing. Reciprocal grafting experiments revealed that the mutant rootstock is sufficient to cause the phenotype. Transcriptional profiling of per1 and wild-type plants subjected to short-term Pi starvation revealed genes that may be important for the signaling of Pi deficiency. We conclude that UBP14 function is crucial for adapting root development to the prevailing local availability of phosphate. Experiment Overall Design: Col-0 and per1 mutant plants were grown under control conditions or subjected to phosphate starvation for 10 h
Project description:Multiple phytohormones, including auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, play vital roles in regulating cell development in the root epidermis. However, their interactions in specific root hair cell developmental stages are largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches as well as transcriptional analysis in order to dissect their distinct and overlapping roles in root hair initiation and elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana Our results show that among auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, only ethylene induces ectopic root hair cells in wild-type plants, implying a special role of ethylene in the hair initiation stage. In the subsequent elongation stage, however, auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin enhance root hair tip growth equally. Our data also suggest that the effect of cytokinin is independent from auxin and ethylene in this process. Exogenous cytokinin restores root hair elongation when the auxin and ethylene signal is defective, whereas auxin and ethylene also sustain elongation in the absence of the cytokinin signal. Notably, transcriptional analyses demonstrated that auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin regulate a similar set of root hair-specific genes. Together these analyses provide important clues regarding the mechanism of hormonal interactions and regulation in the formation of single-cell structures.
Project description:Ethylene controls myriad aspects of plant growth throughout developmental stages in higher plants. It has been well established that ethylene-responsive growth entails extensive crosstalk with other plant hormones, particularly auxin. Here, we report a genetic mutation, named 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) resistant root1-1 (are1-1) in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) encodes a Raf-related protein, functioning as an upstream negative regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the ctr1-1, a kinase-inactive allele exhibited slightly, but significantly, longer root length, compared to ACC-treated wild-type or ctr1-3, a null allele. Our genetic studies unveiled the existence of are1-1 mutation in the ctr1-1 mutant, as a second-site modifier which confers root-specific ethylene-resistance. Based on well-characterized crosstalk between ethylene and auxin during ethylene-responsive root growth, we performed various physiological analyses. Whereas are1-1 displayed normal sensitivity to synthetic auxins, it showed modest resistance to an auxin transport inhibitor, 1-Nnaphthylphthalamic acid. In addition, are1-1 mutant exhibited ectopically altered DR5:GUS activity upon ethylenetreatment. The results implicated the involvement of are1-1 in auxin-distribution, but not in auxin-biosynthesis, -uptake, or -sensitivity. In agreement, are1-1 mutant exhibited reduced gravitropic root growth and defective redistribution of DR5:GUS activity upon gravi-stimulation. Taken together with genetic and molecular analysis, our results suggest that ARE1 defines a novel locus to control ethylene-responsive root growth as well as gravitropic root growth presumably through auxin distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:An evolutionarily ancient plant hormone receptor complex comprising the ?/?-fold hydrolase receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2) mediates a range of developmental responses to smoke-derived butenolides called karrikins (KARs) and to yet elusive endogenous KAI2 ligands (KLs). Degradation of SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) after ligand perception is considered to be a key step in KAR/KL signaling. However, molecular events which regulate plant development downstream of SMAX1 removal have not been identified. Here we show that <i>Lotus japonicus</i> SMAX1 is specifically degraded in the presence of KAI2 and MAX2 and plays an important role in regulating root and root hair development. <i>smax1</i> mutants display very short primary roots and elongated root hairs. Their root transcriptome reveals elevated ethylene responses and expression of <i>ACC Synthase 7</i> (<i>ACS7</i>), which encodes a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. <i>smax1</i> mutants release increased amounts of ethylene and their root phenotype is rescued by treatment with ethylene biosynthesis and signaling inhibitors. KAR treatment induces <i>ACS7</i> expression in a KAI2-dependent manner and root developmental responses to KAR treatment depend on ethylene signaling. Furthermore, in <i>Arabidopsis</i>, KAR-induced root hair elongation depends on <i>ACS7</i> Thus, we reveal a connection between KAR/KL and ethylene signaling in which the KAR/KL signaling module (KAI2-MAX2-SMAX1) regulates the biosynthesis of ethylene to fine-tune root and root hair development, which are important for seedling establishment at the beginning of the plant life cycle.
Project description:Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of <i>Arabidopsis</i> to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic [arsenite, As(III)] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III) downregulated <i>TTG1</i> and <i>GL2</i> (negative regulators of fate determination) and upregulated <i>GEM</i> (positive regulator), suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III). Cd and As(III) increased the transcript levels of genes involved in root hair initiation (<i>RHD6</i> and <i>AXR2</i>) and root hair elongation (<i>AUX1</i>, <i>AXR1</i>, <i>ETR1</i>, and <i>EIN2</i>) except <i>CTR1. DR5</i>::<i>GUS</i> transgenic <i>Arabidopsis</i> showed a higher <i>DR5</i> expression in the root tip, suggesting that Cd and As(III) increased the auxin content in the root tip. Knockdown of <i>TTG1</i> in <i>Arabidopsis</i> resulted in increased root hair density and decreased root hair length compared with the control (Col-0) on 1/2 MS media. This phenotype may be attributed to the downregulation of <i>GL2</i> and <i>CTR1</i> and upregulation of <i>RHD6</i>. By contrast, <i>gem</i> mutant plants displayed a decrease in root hair density and length with reduced expression of <i>RHD6</i>, <i>AXR2</i>, <i>AUX1</i>, <i>AXR1</i>, <i>ETR1</i>, <i>CTR1</i>, and <i>EIN2</i>. Taken together, our results indicate that fate determination, initiation, and elongation of root hairs are stimulated in response to Cd and As(III) through the modulation of the expression of genes involved in these processes in <i>Arabidopsis</i>.
Project description:Root hairs are an extensive structure of root epidermal cells and are critical for nutrient acquisition, soil anchorage, and environmental interactions in sessile plants. The phytohormone ethylene (ET) promotes root hair growth and also mediates the effects of different signals that stimulate hair cell development. However, the molecular basis of ET-induced root hair growth remains poorly understood. Here, we show that ET-activated transcription factor ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) physically interacts with ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 6 (RHD6), a well-documented positive regulator of hair cells, and that the two factors directly coactivate the hair length-determining gene RHD6-LIKE 4 (RSL4) to promote root hair elongation. Transcriptome analysis further revealed the parallel roles of the regulator pairs EIN3/EIL1 (EIN3-LIKE 1) and RHD6/RSL1 (RHD6-LIKE 1). EIN3/EIL1 and RHD6/RSL1 coordinately enhance root hair initiation by selectively regulating a subset of core root hair genes. Thus, our work reveals a key transcriptional complex consisting of EIN3/EIL1 and RHD6/RSL1 in the control of root hair initiation and elongation, and provides a molecular framework for the integration of environmental signals and intrinsic regulators in modulating plant organ development.
Project description:Root architecture responds to environmental stress. Stress-induced metabolic and nutritional changes affect the endogenous root development program. Transcriptional and translational changes realize the switch between stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation, lateral root or root hair formation and root functionality for stress acclimation. The current work explores the effects of stress combination of arsenic toxicity (As) and hypoxia (Hpx) on root development in Arabidopsis thaliana. As revealed previously, combined As and Hpx treatment leads to severe nutritional disorder evident from deregulation of root transcriptome and plant mineral contents. Both As and Hpx were identified to pose stress-specific constraints on root development that lead to unique root growth phenotype under their combination. Besides inhibition of root apical meristem (RAM) activity under all stresses, As induced lateral root growth while root hair density and lengths were strongly increased by Hpx and HpxAs-treatments. A dual stimulation of phosphate (Pi)-starvation response was observed for HpxAs-treated plant roots; however, the response under HpxAs aligned more with Hpx than As. Transcriptional evidence along with biochemical data suggests involvement of PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1; PHR1-dependent systemic signaling. Pi metabolism-related transcripts in close association with cellular iron homeostasis modulate root development under HpxAs. Early redox potential changes in meristematic cells, differential ROS accumulation in root hair zone cell layers and strong deregulation of NADPH oxidases, NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases and peroxidases signify a role of redox and ROS signaling in root architecture remodeling under HpxAs. Differential aquaporin expression suggests transmembrane ROS transport to regulate root hair induction and growth. Reorganization of energy metabolism through NO-dependent alternate oxidase, lactate fermentation, and phosphofructokinase seems crucial under HpxAs. TOR and SnRK-signaling network components were potentially involved in control of sustainable utilization of available energy reserves for root hair growth under combined stress as well as recovery on reaeration. Findings are discussed in context of combined stress-induced signaling in regulation of root development in contrast to As and Hpx alone.