A tripartite complex of suPAR, APOL1 risk variants and ?v?3 integrin on podocytes mediates chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predicts chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence and progression. Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene variants G1 and G2, but not the reference allele (G0), are associated with an increased risk of CKD in individuals of recent African ancestry. Here we show in two large, unrelated cohorts that decline in kidney function associated with APOL1 risk variants was dependent on plasma suPAR levels: APOL1-related risk was attenuated in patients with lower suPAR, and strengthened in those with higher suPAR levels. Mechanistically, surface plasmon resonance studies identified high-affinity interactions between suPAR, APOL1 and ?v?3 integrin, whereby APOL1 protein variants G1 and G2 exhibited higher affinity for suPAR-activated avb3 integrin than APOL1 G0. APOL1 G1 or G2 augments ?v?3 integrin activation and causes proteinuria in mice in a suPAR-dependent manner. The synergy of circulating factor suPAR and APOL1 G1 or G2 on ?v?3 integrin activation is a mechanism for CKD.
Project description:Two coding sequence variants (G1 and G2) of Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene have been implicated as a higher risk factor for chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in African Americans when compared with European Americans. Previous studies have suggested that the APOL1 G1 and G2 variant proteins are more toxic to kidney cells than the wild-type APOL1 G0, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To determine whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to podocyte toxicity, we generated human podocytes (HPs) that stably overexpressed APOL1 G0, G1, or G2 (Vec/HPs, G0/HPs, G1/HPs, and G2/HPs). Propidium iodide staining showed that HP overexpressing the APOL1 G1 or G2 variant exhibited a higher rate of necrosis when compared with those overexpressing the wild-type G0 counterpart. Consistently, the expression levels of nephrin and podocin proteins were significantly decreased in the G1- or G2-overexpressing cells despite the maintenance of their mRNA expressions levels. In contrast, the expression of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein ((GRP78), also known as the binding Ig protein, BiP) and the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 (eIF1) were significantly elevated in the G1/HPs and G2/HPs, suggesting a possible occurrence of ER stress in these cells. Furthermore, ER stress inhibitors not only restored nephrin protein expression, but also provided protection against necrosis in G1/HPs and G2/HPs, suggesting that APOL1 risk variants cause podocyte injury partly through enhancing ER stress.
Project description:Introduction:Apolipoprotein-L1 (APOL1) risk variants G1 and G2 increase the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including HIV-related CKD, among African Americans. However, such data from populations living in Africa, especially children, remain limited. Our research aimed to determine the prevalence of APOL1 risk variants and to assess the association between these variants and early-stage CKD in the general pediatric population and HIV-infected children. Methods:In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 412 children from the general population and 401 HIV-infected children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). APOL1 high-risk genotype (HRG) was defined by the presence of 2 risk variants (G1/G1, G2/G2, or G1/G2), and low-risk genotype (LRG) by the presence of 0 or 1 risk variants. The main outcome was elevated albuminuria, defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. Results:APOL1 sequence analysis revealed that in the general population, 29 of 412 participants (7.0%) carried HRG, 84 of 412 (20.4%) carried the G1/G0 genotype, and 61 of 412 (14.8%) carried the G2/G0 genotype. In HIV-infected children, 23 of 401 (5.7%) carried HRG, and the same trend as in the general population was observed in regard to the prevalence of LRG. Univariate analysis showed that in the general population, 5 of 29 participants (17.2%) carrying HRG had elevated albuminuria, compared with 35 of 383 (9.0%) with LRG (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-6.0; P = 0.13). In HIV-infected children, participants who carried APOL1 HRG had almost 22-fold increased odds of albuminuria compared to those with LRG. Conclusion:The APOL1 risk variants are prevalent in children living in DRC. HRG carriers have increased odds of early kidney disease, and infection with HIV dramatically increases this probability.
Project description:People of recent sub-Saharan African ancestry develop kidney failure much more frequently than other groups. A large fraction of this disparity is due to two coding sequence variants in the APOL1 gene. Inheriting two copies of these APOL1 risk variants, known as G1 and G2, causes high rates of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy and hypertension-associated end-stage kidney disease. Disease risk follows a recessive mode of inheritance, which is puzzling given the considerable data that G1 and G2 are toxic gain-of-function variants. We developed coisogenic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice harboring either the wild-type (G0), G1 or G2 forms of human APOL1. Expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) via plasmid tail vein injection results in upregulation of APOL1 protein levels together with robust induction of heavy proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in G1/G1 and G2/G2 but not G0/G0 mice. The disease phenotype was greater in G2/G2 mice. Neither heterozygous (G1/G0 or G2/G0) risk variant mice nor hemizygous (G1/-, G2/-) mice had significant kidney injury in response to IFN-γ, although the heterozygous mice had a greater proteinuric response than the hemizygous mice, suggesting that the lack of significant disease in humans heterozygous for G1 or G2 is not due to G0 rescue of G1 or G2 toxicity. Studies using additional mice (multicopy G2 and a non-isogenic G0 mouse) supported the notion that disease is largely a function of the level of risk variant APOL1 expression. Together, these findings shed light on the recessive nature of APOL1-nephropathy and present an important model for future studies.
Project description:Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants G1 and G2, compared to the common allele G0, are major risk factors for non-diabetic kidney disease in African descent populations. APOL1 is a minor protein component of HDL, as well as being expressed in podocytes and vascular cells. Reverse cholesterol transport involves the transport of cholesterol to HDL by cellular ATP-binding cassette; ABCA1 and ABCG1 with subsequent delivery from peripheral tissues to the liver. With impaired reverse cholesterol transport, lipid accumulation occurs and macrophages morphologically transform into foam cells, releasing inflammatory factors. We asked whether the APOL1 risk variants alter peripheral cholesterol metabolism and specifically affect macrophage cholesterol efflux. Tissues and bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes were isolated from wild-type mice (WT) and from BAC/APOL1 transgenic (APOL1-G0, APOL1-G1, and APOL1-G2) mice, which carry a bacterial artificial chromosome that contains the human APOL1 genomic region. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages using M-CSF, and then polarized into M1 and M2 macrophages. Cholesterol content, cholesterol efflux, and ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression were measured. Kidney, spleen, and bone marrow-derived macrophages from APOL1-G1 and -G2 mice showed increased cholesterol accumulation and decreased ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA levels. BM-derived macrophages from APOL1-G1 and -G2 mice showed significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared to WT or APOL1-G0 macrophages. Taken together, the evidence suggests that APOL1-G1 and -G2 risk variants impaired reverse cholesterol transport through decreased expression of cholesterol efflux transporters suggesting a possible mechanism to promote macrophage foam cell formation, driving inflammation in the glomerulus and renal interstitium.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 kidney-risk variants (KRVs) cause CKD in African Americans, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. Modifying factors are required, because a minority of individuals with APOL1 high-risk genotypes develop nephropathy. Given that APOL1 function is pH-sensitive and the pH of the kidney interstitium is <7, we hypothesized the acidic kidney interstitium may facilitate APOL1 KRV-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells conditionally expressing empty vector (EV), APOL1-reference G0, and G1 or G2 KRVs were incubated in media pH 6.8 or 7.4 for 4, 6, or 8 h. Genotype-specific pH effects on mitochondrial length (µm) were assessed using confocal microscopy in live cells and Fiji derivative of ImageJ software with MiNA plug-in. Lower mitochondrial length indicated fragmentation and early dysfunction.<h4>Results</h4>After 6 h doxycycline (Dox) induction in pH 6.8 media, G2-expressing cells had shorter mitochondria (6.54 ± 0.40) than cells expressing EV (7.65 ± 0.72, p = 0.02) or G0 (7.46 ± 0.31, p = 0.003). After 8 h Dox induction in pH 6.8 media, both G1- (6.21 ± 0.26) and G2-expressing cells had shorter mitochondria (6.46 ± 0.34) than cells expressing EV (7.13 ± 0.32, p = 0.002 and p = 0.008, respectively) or G0 (7.22 ± 0.45, p = 0.003 and p = 0.01, respectively). Mitochondrial length in cells incubated in pH 7.4 media were comparable after 8 h Dox induction regardless of genotype. APOL1 mRNA expression and cell viability were comparable regardless of pH or genotype after 8 h Dox induction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Acidic pH facilitates early mitochondrial dysfunction induced by APOL1 G1 and G2 KRVs in HEK293 cells. We propose that the acidic kidney interstitium may play a role in APOL1-mediated mitochondrial pathophysiology and nephropathy.
Project description:Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) wild type (G0) plays a role in the metabolism of sphingolipids, glycosphingolipids, sphingomyelin and ceramide, which constitute bioactive components of the lipid rafts (DRM). We asked whether APOL1 variants (APOL1-Vs) G1 and G2 carry the potential to alter the metabolism of sphingolipids in human podocytes. The sphingolipid pattern in HPs overexpressing either APOL1G0 or APOL1-Vs was analysed by using a thin mono- and bi-dimensional layer chromatography, mass-spectrometry and metabolic labelling with [1-3H]sphingosine. HP G0 and G1/G2-Vs exhibit a comparable decrease in lactosylceramide and an increase in the globotriaosylceramide content. An analysis of the main glycohydrolases activity involved in glycosphingolipid catabolism showed an overall decrease in the activeness of the tested enzymes, irrespective of the type of APOL1-Vs expression. Similarly, the high throughput cell live-based assay showed a comparable increased action of the plasma membrane glycosphingolipid-glycohydrolases in living cells independent of the genetic APOL1 expression profile. Importantly, the most significative modification of the sphingolipid pattern induced by APOL1-Vs occurred in DRM resulted with a drastic reduction of radioactivity associated with sphingolipids. G1/G2-Vs present a decrease amount of globotriaosylceramide and globopentaosylceramide compared to G0. Additionally, ceramide at the DRM site and lactosylceramide in general, showed a greatest fall in G1/G2 in comparison with G0. Additionally, the levels of glucosylceramide decreased only in the DRM of human podocytes overexpressing G1/G2-Vs. These findings suggest that altered sphingolipidsprofiles may contribute to the deranged functionality of the plasma membrane in APOL1 risk milieu.
Project description:Development of higher rates of nondiabetic glomerulosclerosis (GS) in African Americans has been attributed to two coding sequence variants (G1 and G2) in the APOL1 gene. To date, the cellular function and the role of APOL1 variants (Vs) in GS are still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of overexpressing wild-type (G0) and kidney disease risk variants (G1 and G2) of APOL1 in human podocytes using a lentivirus expression system. Interestingly, G0 inflicted podocyte injury only at a higher concentration; however, G1 and G2 promoted moderate podocyte injury at lower and higher concentrations. APOL1Vs expressing podocytes displayed diffuse distribution of both Lucifer yellow dye and cathepsin L as manifestations of enhanced lysosomal membrane permeability (LMP). Chloroquine attenuated the APOL1Vs-induced increase in podocyte injury, consistent with targeting lysosomes. The chloride channel blocker DIDS prevented APOL1Vs- induced injury, indicating a role for chloride influx in osmotic swelling of lysosomes. Direct exposure of noninfected podocytes with conditioned media from G1- and G2-expressing podocytes also induced injury, suggesting a contributory role of the secreted component of G1 and G2 as well. Adverse host factors (AHFs) such as hydrogen peroxide, hypoxia, TNF-?, and puromycin aminonucleoside augmented APOL1- and APOL1Vs-induced podocyte injury, while the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on podocyte injury was overwhelming under conditions of APOLVs expression. We conclude that G0 and G1 and G2 APOL1 variants have the potential to induce podocyte injury in a manner which is further augmented by AHFs, with HIV infection being especially prominent.
Project description:Two common missense variants in APOL1 (G1 and G2) have been definitively linked to CKD in black Americans. However, not all individuals with the renal-risk genotype develop CKD, and little is known about how APOL1 variants drive disease. Given the association of APOL1 with HDL particles, which are cleared by the kidney, differences in the level or quality of mutant APOL1?HDL particles could be causal for disease and might serve as a useful risk stratification marker. We measured plasma levels of G0 (low risk), G1, and G2 APOL1 in 3450 individuals in the Dallas Heart Study using a liquid chromatography-MS method that enabled quantitation of the different variants. Additionally, we characterized native APOL1?HDL from donors with no or two APOL1 risk alleles by size-exclusion chromatography and analysis of immunopurified APOL1?HDL particles. Finally, we identified genetic loci associated with plasma APOL1 levels and tested for APOL1-dependent association with renal function. Although we replicated the previous association between APOL1 variant status and renal function in nondiabetic individuals, levels of circulating APOL1 did not associate with microalbuminuria or GFR. Furthermore, the size or known components of APOL1?HDL did not consistently differ in subjects with the renal-risk genotype. Genetic association studies implicated variants in loci harboring haptoglobin-related protein (HPR), APOL1, and ubiquitin D (UBD) in the regulation of plasma APOL1 levels, but these variants did not associate with renal function. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the risk of renal disease associated with APOL1 is probably not related to circulating levels of the mutant protein.
Project description:Two coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene (termed G1 and G2) are strongly associated with increased risk of nondiabetic kidney disease in people of recent African ancestry. The mechanisms by which the risk variants cause kidney damage, although not well-understood, are believed to involve injury to glomerular podocytes. The intracellular localization and function of APOL1 in podocytes remain unclear, with recent studies suggesting possible roles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes. Here, we demonstrate that APOL1 also localizes to intracellular lipid droplets (LDs). While a large fraction of risk variant APOL1 (G1 and G2) localizes to the ER, a significant proportion of wild-type APOL1 (G0) localizes to LDs. APOL1 transiently interacts with numerous organelles, including the ER, mitochondria, and endosomes. Treatment of cells that promote LD formation with oleic acid shifted the localization of G1 and G2 from the ER to LDs, with accompanying reduction of autophagic flux and cytotoxicity. Coexpression of G0 APOL1 with risk variant APOL1 enabled recruitment of G1 and G2 from the ER to LDs, accompanied by reduced cell death. The ability of G0 APOL1 to recruit risk variant APOL1 to LDs may help explain the recessive pattern of kidney disease inheritance. These studies establish APOL1 as a bona fide LD-associated protein, and reveal that recruitment of risk variant APOL1 to LDs reduces cell toxicity, autophagic flux, and cell death. Thus, interventions that divert APOL1 risk variants to LDs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate their cytotoxic effects.
Project description:Coding variants in the APOL1 gene are associated with kidney diseases in African ancestral populations; yet, the underlying biologic mechanisms remain uncertain. Variant-dependent autophagic and cytotoxic cell death have been proposed as pathogenic pathways mediating kidney injury. To examine this possibility, we conditionally expressed APOL1-G0 (reference), -G1, and -G2 (variants) using a tetracycline-regulated system in HEK293 cells. Autophagy was monitored biochemically and cell death was measured using multiple assays. We measured intracellular Na+ and K+ content with atomic absorption spectroscopy and APOL1-dependent currents with whole-cell patch clamping. Neither reference nor variant APOL1s induced autophagy. At high expression levels, APOL1-G0, -G1, and -G2 inserted into the plasma membrane and formed pH-sensitive cation channels, causing collapse of cellular Na+ and K+ gradients, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and cell death, without variant-dependent differences. APOL1-G0 and -G2 exhibited similar channel properties in whole-cell patch clamp experiments. At low expression levels, neither reference nor variant APOL1s localized on the plasma membrane, Na+ and K+ gradients were maintained, and cells remained viable. Our results indicate that APOL1-mediated pore formation is critical for the trypanolytic activity of APOL1 and drives APOL1-mediated cytotoxicity in overexpression systems. The absence of cytotoxicity at physiologic expression levels suggests variant-dependent intracellular K+ loss and cytotoxicity does not drive kidney disease progression.