How to Rapidly Abolish Knee Extension Deficit After Injury or Surgery: A Practice-Changing Video Pearl From the Scientific Anterior Cruciate Ligament Network International (SANTI) Study Group.
ABSTRACT: Knee extension deficit is frequently observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or rupture and other acute knee injuries. Loss of terminal extension often occurs because of hamstring contracture and quadriceps inactivation rather than mechanical intra-articular pathology. Failure to regain full extension in the first few weeks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a recognized risk factor for adverse long-term outcomes, and therefore, it is important to try to address it. In this Technical Note, a simple, rapid, and effective technique to help regain full knee extension and abolish quadriceps activation failure is described.
Project description:The bone-patellar tendon-bone has been widely used and considered a good graft source. The quadriceps tendon was introduced as a substitute graft source for bone-patellar tendon-bone. We compared the clinical outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using central quadriceps tendon-patellar bone and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts. We selected 72 patients who underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone between 1994 and 2001 and matched for age and gender with 72 patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon-patellar bone. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. We assessed anterior laxity, knee function using the Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee scores, and quadriceps strength, the means of which were similar in the two groups. More patients (28 or 39%) in the bone-patellar tendon-bone group reported anterior knee pain than in the quadriceps tendon-patellar bone group (six patients or 8.3%). Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the central quadriceps tendon-patellar bone graft showed clinical outcomes comparable to those of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the patellar tendon graft, with anterior knee pain being less frequent in the former. Our data suggest the quadriceps tendon can be a good alternative graft choice.Level III Therapeutic study.
Project description:Background:Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are among the most common knee injuries. Mechanism of injury is classified as contact or non-contact. The majority of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures occur through a non-contact mechanism of injury. Non-contact anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are associated with biomechanical and neuromuscular risk factors that can predispose athletes to injuries and may impact future function. Non-contact mechanism of injury may be preceded by poor dynamic knee stability and therefore those with a non-contact mechanism of injury may be prone to poor dynamic knee stability post-operatively. Understanding how mechanism of injury affects post-operative functional recovery may have clinical implications on rehabilitation. Purpose:The purpose of this study was to determine if mechanism of injury influenced strength, functional performance, patient-reported outcome measures, and psychological outlook in athletes at four time points in the first two years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Study Design:Secondary analysis of a clinical trial. Methods:Seventy-nine athletes underwent functional testing at enrollment after impairment resolution. Quadriceps strength, hop testing, and patient-reported outcome measures were evaluated post-operatively at enrollment, following return-to-sport training and one year and two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Participants were dichotomized by mechanism of injury (29 contact, 50 noncontact). Independent t-tests were used to compare differences between groups. Results:There were no meaningful differences between contact and non-contact mechanism of injury in any variables at enrollment, post-training, one year, or two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Conclusion:Function did not differ according to mechanism of injury during late stage rehabilitation or one or two years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Level of Evidence:III.
Project description:[Purpose] The aim of this report was to describe the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of rehabilitation by knee extension and flexion training using the knee single-joint hybrid assistive limb in a patient after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Participant and Methods] A 33?year-old male underwent an arthroscopic procedure for anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon autograft. Rehabilitation training using the knee single-joint hybrid assistive limb was initiated at postoperative week 18 and repeated weekly for 3 weeks. The patient performed five sets of the knee single-joint hybrid assistive limb-assisted knee-extension-flexion exercises per session at a frequency of 10 exercises/set. [Results] The peak extension torque at all velocities with the limb symmetry index was higher after the hybrid assistive limb intervention (post-intervention) than before using it (pre-intervention). Peak flexion torques at 60°/s and 300°/s of limb symmetry index were higher post-intervention than pre-intervention. The range of motion in extension and flexion improved from -2° (pre-intervention) to -1° (post-intervention) and from 124° to 133°, respectively. The Lysholm score increased from 58 (pre-intervention) to 94 (post-intervention). [Conclusion] The knee single-joint hybrid assistive limb can be used safely for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction training, without any adverse events. Our results indicate that the knee single-joint hybrid assistive limb training may improve muscle function, effectively overcoming dysfunction.
Project description:Women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have different neuromuscular strategies than noninjured women during functional tasks after ligament reconstruction and rehabilitation.Landing from a jump creates high loads on the knee creating dynamic instability in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, whereas noninjured women have stable knee landing mechanics.Controlled laboratory study.Fifteen noninjured women and 13 women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed 5 trials of a single-legged 40-cm drop jump and 2 trials of a 20-cm up-down hop task. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to compare hip and knee joint kinematics, knee joint moments, ground-reaction forces, and electromyographic findings between the dominant leg in noninjured women and reconstructed leg in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.No statistically significant differences between groups were found for peak hip and knee joint angles for the drop jump task. Statistically significant differences in neuromuscular activity (P = .001) and anterior-posterior knee shear forces (P < .001) were seen in women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared with noninjured women in the drop jump task. However, no statistically significant differences (P > .05) between groups were found for either peak hip and knee joint angles, peak joint kinetics, or electromyographic findings during the up-down hop task.Women with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have neuromuscular strategies that allow them to land from a jump similar to healthy women, but they exhibit joint moments that could predispose them to future injury if they participate in sports that require jumping and landing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite best practice, quadriceps strength deficits often persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Blood flow restriction training (BFRT) is a possible new intervention that applies a pressurized cuff to the proximal thigh that partially occludes blood flow as the patient exercises, which enables patients to train at reduced loads. This training is believed to result in the same benefits as if the patients were training under high loads. OBJECTIVE:The objective is to evaluate the effect of BFRT on quadriceps strength and knee biomechanics and to identify the potential mechanism(s) of action of BFRT at the cellular and morphological levels of the quadriceps. DESIGN:This will be a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING:The study will take place at the University of Kentucky and University of Texas Medical Branch. PARTICIPANTS:Sixty participants between the ages of 15 to 40 years with an ACL tear will be included. INTERVENTION:Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) physical therapy plus active BFRT (BFRT group) or (2) physical therapy plus placebo BFRT (standard of care group). Presurgical BFRT will involve sessions 3 times per week for 4 weeks, and postsurgical BFRT will involve sessions 3 times per week for 4 to 5 months. MEASUREMENTS:The primary outcome measure was quadriceps strength (peak quadriceps torque, rate of torque development). Secondary outcome measures included knee biomechanics (knee extensor moment, knee flexion excursion, knee flexion angle), quadriceps muscle morphology (physiological cross-sectional area, fibrosis), and quadriceps muscle physiology (muscle fiber type, muscle fiber size, muscle pennation angle, satellite cell proliferation, fibrogenic/adipogenic progenitor cells, extracellular matrix composition). LIMITATIONS:Therapists will not be blinded. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study may contribute to an improved targeted treatment for the protracted quadriceps strength loss associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction.
Project description:The cyclops lesion is a localized anterior arthrofibrosis most commonly seen following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The lesion forms at the anterior cruciate ligament insertion creating a painful extension block between femoral intercondylar notch and tibial plateau. We present 2 cases (3 knees) in which cyclops lesions appeared atypically following bicruciate-retaining total knee replacement. Two lesions occurred in a single patient following bilateral knee replacement. One lesion occurred in an active sportswoman. All 3 resolved following arthroscopic debridement. We describe the presentation of this unusual complication and suggest keys to its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
Project description:Bicruciate ligament (BCL) reconstructions are challenging procedures. One of the main operative goals is to stabilize the knee in the correct anterior-posterior position. We present an all-inside arthroscopic BCL reconstruction technique using hamstring tendon grafts. Ipsilateral semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis tendons are used for TriLink (Arthrex, Naples, FL) double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction and contralateral ST tendon is used for GraftLink (Arthrex) single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of instruments for retrograde reaming and devices for adjustable cortical suspensory fixation allows for a safe, reproducible all-inside BCL reconstruction by simplifying these difficult steps. To minimize the risk of anterior-posterior malposition, the ACL graft is first tensioned with the knee in full extension, ensuring a neutral anteroposterior positioning of the tibia under the femur. The PCL anterolateral bundle can then be independently tensioned with the knee at 90° of flexion, and the posteromedial bundle at 30° of flexion, while applying an anterior translation to the tibia to reduce the posterior drawer without any risk of overcorrection. The purpose of this Technical Note was to describe an all-inside BCL reconstruction with a specific focus on the graft tensioning sequence.
Project description:Postoperative scarring is a known complication after arthroscopic anterior ligament reconstruction of the knee. The anterior interval of the knee has been previously identified as a common location for anterior scar formation. The anterior interval is defined as the space between the infrapatellar fat pad and the anterior border of the tibia. Patients with anterior interval scarring often present with lack of terminal knee extension, anterior knee pain, decreased patellar mobility, and quadriceps atrophy. The goal of this paper is to describe the technique for anterior interval release of the knee.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gait asymmetry is frequently observed following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Psychological readiness to return to sport is associated with functional and activity-related outcomes after ACLR. However, the association between gait asymmetry and psychological readiness to return to sport is unknown. OBJECTIVES:To determine the relationship between kinematic and kinetic measures of knee symmetry during gait and psychological readiness to return to sport following ACLR. METHODS:In this controlled laboratory, cross-sectional study, 79 athletes (39 women) underwent gait analysis following impairment resolution after ACLR (ie, full range of motion, minimal or no effusion, quadriceps strength index of 80% or greater). Interlimb differences during gait were calculated for sagittal plane knee angles at initial contact, peak knee flexion, and peak knee extension, as well as for peak knee flexion moment and peak knee adduction moment. Athletes completed the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) to assess psychological readiness to return to sport. Pearson correlations were used to examine the association between ACL-RSI score and each gait symmetry variable. RESULTS:Significant negative correlations were observed between the ACL-RSI and 2 kinematic variables: knee flexion angle at initial contact (r = -0.281, P = .012) and peak knee flexion (r = -0.248, P = .027). In general, lower scores on the ACL-RSI were associated with greater interlimb asymmetry. CONCLUSION:There was a weak association between psychological readiness to return to sport and knee kinematic asymmetry during gait. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(12):968-973. Epub 27 Jul 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8084.
Project description:The exclusive autograft choice for medial collateral ligament (MCL) reconstruction that has been described until today is the semitendinosus tendon. However, this has some potential disadvantages in a knee with combined MCL-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, including weakening of the hamstring's anterior restraining action in an already ACL-injured knee and nonanatomic distal MCL graft insertion when leaving the semitendinosus insertion intact at the pes anserinus during reconstruction. Moreover, because some surgeons prefer to use the hamstring for autologous ACL reconstruction, the contralateral uninjured knee hamstring needs to be harvested as a graft source for the MCL reconstruction if autografts and not allografts are the surgeons' preference. We describe a technique for performing combined reconstruction of the MCL and ACL using ipsilateral quadriceps tendon-bone and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts. This technique of MCL reconstruction spares the hamstring tendons and benefits from the advantage provided by bone-to-bone healing on the femur with distal and proximal MCL tibial fixation that closely reproduces the native MCL tibia insertion.