Skeletal vascular perfusion is altered in chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an alarming risk of cardiovascular disease and fracture-associated mortality. CKD has been shown to have negative effects on vascular reactivity and organ perfusion. Although alterations in bone blood flow are linked to dysregulation of bone remodeling and mass in multiple conditions, changes to skeletal perfusion in the setting of CKD have not been explored. The goal of this study was to establish the effect of CKD on skeletal perfusion in a rat model of CKD. In two experiments with endpoints at 30 and 35?weeks of age, respectively, normal (NL) and Cy/+ (CKD) animals (n?=?6/group) underwent in vivo intra-cardiac fluorescent microsphere injection to assess bone tissue perfusion. These two separate time points aimed to describe skeletal perfusion at 30 and 35?weeks based on previous studies demonstrating significant progression of hyperparthyroid bone disease during this timeframe. CKD animals had blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels significantly higher than NL at both 30 and 35?weeks. At 30?weeks, perfusion was significantly higher in the femoral cortex (+259%, p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in a dramatic increase in skeletal fracture risk. Bisphosphates (BP) are an effective treatment for reducing fracture risk but they are not recommended in advanced CKD. We have recently shown higher acute skeletal accumulation of fluorescently-tagged zoledronate (ZOL) in the setting of CKD but how this accumulation is retained/lost over time is unclear. Furthermore, it is unknown if alternative dosing approaches can modulate accumulation in the setting of CKD. METHODS:To address these two questions normal (NL) and Cy/+ (CKD) rats were divided into control groups (no dosing), a single dose of a fluorescent-tagged ZOL (FAM-ZOL), a single dose of non-labelled zoledronate (ZOL) or ten weekly doses of FAM-ZOL each at 1/10th the dose of the single dose group. Half of the CKD animals in each group were provided water with 3% calcium in drinking water (CKD?+?Ca) to suppress PTH and remodeling. At 30 or 35?weeks of age, serum, tibia, ulna, radius, vertebra, femora, and mandible were collected and subjected to assessment methods including biochemistry, dynamic histomorphometry and multi-spectral fluorescence levels (using IVIS SpectrumCT). RESULTS:FAM-ZOL did not significantly reduce bone remodeling in either NL or CKD animals while Ca supplementation in CKD produced remodeling levels comparable to NL. At five- and ten-weeks post-dosing, both CKD and CKD?+?Ca groups had higher levels of FAM-ZOL in most, but not all, skeletal sites compared to NL with no difference between the two CKD groups suggesting that the rate of remodeling did not affect skeletal retention of FAM-ZOL. Fractionating the FAM-ZOL into ten weekly doses led to 20-32% less (p?<?0.05) accumulation/retention of compound in the vertebra, radius, and ulna compared to administration as a single dose. CONCLUSIONS:The rate of bone turnover does not have significant effects on levels of FAM-ZOL accumulation/retention in animals with CKD. A lower dose/more frequent administration paradigm results in lower levels of accumulation/retention over time. These data provide information that could better inform the use of bisphosphonates in the setting of CKD in order to combat the dramatic increase in fracture risk.
Project description:The combination of skeletal muscle wasting and compromised function plays a role in the health decline commonly observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, but the pathophysiology of muscle mass/strength changes remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize muscle properties in the Cy/+ rat model of spontaneously progressive CKD.Leg muscle function and serum biochemistry of male Cy/+ (CKD) rats and their nonaffected littermates (NLs) were assessed in vivo at 25, 30 and 35 weeks of age. Architecture and histology of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles were assessed ex vivo at the conclusion of the experiment. We tested the hypothesis that animals with CKD have progressive loss of muscle function, and that this functional deficit is associated with loss of muscle mass and quality.Thirty-five-week-old CKD rats produced significantly lower maximum torque in ankle dorsiflexion and shorter time to maximum torque, and longer half relaxation time in dorsiflexion and plantarflexion compared with NL rats. Peak dorsiflexion torque (but not plantarflexion torque) in CKD remained steady from 25 to 35 weeks, while in NL rats, peak torque increased. Mass, physiologic cross-sectional area (CSA) and fiber-type (myosin heavy chain isoform) proportions of EDL and SOL were not different between CKD and NL. However, the EDL of CKD rats showed reduced CSAs in all fiber types, while only MyHC-1 fibers were decreased in area in the SOL.The results of this study demonstrate that muscle function progressively declines in the Cy/+ rat model of CKD. Because whole muscle mass and architecture do not vary between CKD and NL, but CKD muscles show reduction in individual fiber CSA, our data suggest that the functional decline is related to increased muscle fiber atrophy.
Project description:Disturbances in bone blood flow have been shown to have deleterious effects on bone properties yet there remain many unanswered questions about skeletal perfusion in health and disease, partially due to the complexity of measurement methodologies. The goal of this study was use fluorescent microspheres in rats to assess regional bone perfusion by adapting mouse-specific fluorescent microsphere protocol. Ten fifteen-week old Sprague Dawley rats were injected with fluorescent microspheres either via cardiac injection (n = 5) or via tail vein injection (n = 5). Femora and tibiae were harvested and processed to determine tissue fluorescence density (TFD) which is proportional to the number of spheres trapped in the tissue capillaries. Right and left total femoral TFD (2.77 ± 0.38 and 2.70 ± 0.24, respectively) and right and left tibial TFD (1.11 ± 0.26 and 1.08 ± 0.34, respectively) displayed bilateral symmetry in flow when assessed in cardiac injected animals. Partitioning of the bone perfusion into three segments along the length of the bone showed the distal femur and proximal tibia received the greatest amount of perfusion within their respective bones. Tail vein injection resulted in unacceptably low TFD levels in the tibia from 4 of the 5 animals. In conclusion this report demonstrates the viability of cardiac injection of fluorescent microspheres to assess bone tissue perfusion in rats.
Project description:The tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor imatinib provides a highly effective therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) via inhibition of the oncogenic TK BCR-ABL1. However, off-target TKs like platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R) and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (c-fms), involved in bone remodeling, are also inhibited. Thus, pediatric patients with CML on imatinib exhibit altered bone metabolism, leading to linear growth failure. As TKI treatment might be necessary for a lifetime, long-term effects exerted on bone in children are of major concern. Therefore, we studied the skeletal long-term effects of continuous and intermittent imatinib exposure in a juvenile rat model. Four-weeks-old male Wistar rats were chronically exposed to imatinib via drinking water over a period of 10 weeks. Animals were exposed to a standard and high imatinib dosage continuously and to the high imatinib dose intermittently. Bone mass and strength were assessed using pQCT, micro-computed tomography (?CT), and biomechanical testing at the prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal age. Bone length and vertebral height as well as biochemical markers of bone turnover were analyzed. Femoral and tibial bone length were dose-dependently reduced by up to 24% (p<0.0001), femoral and tibial trabecular bone mass density (BMD) were reduced by up to 25% (p<0.01), and femoral breaking strength was lowered by up to 20% (p<0.05). Intermittent exposure mitigated these skeletal effects. Long-term exposure resulted in reduced vertebral height by 15% and lower trabecular BMD by 5%. Skeletal changes were associated with suppressed serum osteocalcin (p<0.01) and non-significantly elevated serum CTX-I and PINP levels. In conclusion, imatinib mainly impaired longitudinal growth of long bones rather than the vertebrae of growing rats. Interestingly, intermittent imatinib exposure has less skeletal side effects, which may be beneficial in pediatric patients taking imatinib.
Project description:Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr-/- high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes. Twenty mice with CKD, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and elevated activin A were treated with RAP-011, wherease 19 mice were given vehicle twice weekly from week 22 until the mice were killed at 28 weeks of age. The animals were then evaluated by skeletal histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, mechanical strength testing, and ex vivo bone cell culture. Results in the CKD groups were compared with those of the 16 sham-operated ldlr-/- high fat-fed mice. Sham-operated mice had low-turnover osteodystrophy and skeletal frailty. CKD stimulated bone remodeling with significant increases in osteoclast and osteoblast numbers and bone resorption. Compared with mice with CKD and sham-operated mice, RAP-011 treatment eliminated the CKD-induced increase in these histomorphometric parameters and increased trabecular bone fraction. RAP-011 significantly increased cortical bone area and thickness. Activin A-enhanced osteoclastogenesis was mediated through p-Smad2 association with c-fos and activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Thus, an ActRIIA ligand trap reversed CKD-stimulated bone remodeling, likely through inhibition of activin-A induced osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:This work examines the skeletal accumulation of fluorescently tagged zoledronate in an animal model of chronic kidney disease. The results show higher accumulation in 24-h post-dose animals with lower kidney function due to greater amounts of binding at individual surfaces. INTRODUCTION:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffer from increased rates of skeletal-related mortality from changes driven by biochemical abnormalities. Bisphosphonates are commonly used in reducing fracture risk in a variety of diseases, yet their use is not recommended in advanced stages of CKD. This study aimed to characterize the accumulation of a single dose of fluorescently tagged zoledronate (FAM-ZOL) in the setting of reduced kidney function. METHODS:At 25 weeks of age, FAM-ZOL was administered to normal and CKD rats. Twenty-four hours later, multiple bones were collected and assessed using bulk fluorescence imaging, two-photon imaging, and dynamic histomorphometry. RESULTS:CKD animals had significantly higher levels of FAM-ZOL accumulation in the proximal tibia, radius, and ulna, but not in lumbar vertebral body or mandible, based on multiple measurement modalities. Although a majority of trabecular bone surfaces were covered with FAM-ZOL in both normal and CKD animals, the latter had significantly higher levels of fluorescence per unit bone surface in the proximal tibia. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide new data regarding how reduced kidney function affects drug accumulation in rat bone.
Project description:The purpose was to characterize acute kidney injury (AKI) in C57BL/6 (B6)- and 129/Sv (Sv)-mice by noninvasive measurement of renal perfusion and tissue edema using functional MRI.Different severities of AKI were induced in B6- and Sv-mice by renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI) or 45 min (severe AKI) was done. MRI (7-Tesla) was performed 1, 7 and 28 days after surgery using a flow alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence. Maps of perfusion and T1-relaxation time were calculated. Relative MRI-parameters of the IRI kidney compared to the contralateral not-clipped kidney were compared between AKI severities and between mouse strains using unpaired t-tests. In addition, fibrosis was assessed by Masson Trichrome and collagen IV staining.After moderate AKI relative perfusion impairment was significantly higher in B6- than in Sv-mice at d7 (55±7% vs. 82±8%, p<0.05) and d28 (76±7% vs. 102±3%, p<0.01). T1-values increased in the early phase after AKI in both mouse strains. T1-increase was more severe after prolonged ischemia times of 45 min compared to 35 min in both mouse strains, measured in the renal cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla. Kidney volume loss (compared to the contralateral kidney) occurred already after 7 days but proceeded markedly towards 4 weeks in severe AKI. Early renal perfusion impairment was predictive for later kidney volume loss. The progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the severe AKI model was similar in both mouse strains as revealed by histology.Quantification of renal perfusion and tissue edema by functional MRI allows characterization of strain differences upon AKI. Renal perfusion impairment was stronger in B6- compared to Sv-animals following moderate AKI. Prolonged ischemia times were associated with more severe perfusion impairment and edema formation in the early phase and progression to CKD within 4 weeks of observation.
Project description:Skeletal loading enhances cortical and trabecular bone properties. How long these benefits last after loading cessation remains an unresolved, clinically relevant question. This study investigated long-term maintenance of loading-induced cortical and trabecular bone benefits in female C57BL/6 mice and the influence of a surgically induced menopause on the maintenance. Sixteen-week-old animals had their right tibia extrinsically loaded 3 days/week for 4 weeks using the mouse tibial axial compression loading model. Left tibias were not loaded and served as internal controls. Animals were subsequently detrained (restricted to cage activities) for 0, 4, 8, 26, or 52 weeks, with ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-OVX surgery being performed at 0 weeks detraining. Loading increased midshaft tibia cortical bone mass, size, and strength, and proximal tibia bone volume fraction. The cortical bone mass, area, and thickness benefits of loading were lost by 26 weeks of detraining because of heightened medullary expansion. However, loading-induced benefits on bone total area and strength were maintained at each detraining time point. Similarly, the benefits of loading on bone volume fraction persisted at all detraining time points. The long-term benefits of loading on both cortical and trabecular bone were not influenced by a surgically induced menopause because there were no interactions between loading and surgery. However, OVX had independent effects on cortical bone properties at early (4 and 8 weeks) detraining time points and trabecular bone properties at all detraining time points. These cumulative data indicate loading has long-term benefits on cortical bone size and strength (but not mass) and trabecular bone morphology, which are not influenced by a surgically induced menopause. This suggests skeletal loading associated with physical activity may provide long-term benefits by preparing the skeleton to offset both the cortical and trabecular bone changes associated with aging and menopause.
Project description:Individuals with chronic kidney disease have elevated levels of oxidative stress and are at a significantly higher risk of skeletal fracture. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in bone and compromise mechanical properties, are known to be driven in part by oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to study effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on reducing oxidative stress and improving various bone parameters, most specifically mechanical properties, in an animal model of progressive CKD. Male Cy/+ (CKD) rats and unaffected littermates were untreated (controls) or treated with NAC (80 mg/kg, IP) from 30 to 35 weeks of age. Endpoint measures included serum biochemistries, assessments of systemic oxidative stress, bone morphology, and mechanical properties, and AGE levels in the bone. CKD rats had the expected phenotype that included low kidney function, elevated parathyroid hormone, higher cortical porosity, and compromised mechanical properties. NAC treatment had mixed effects on oxidative stress markers, significantly reducing TBARS (a measure of lipid peroxidation) while not affecting 8-OHdG (a marker of DNA oxidation) levels. AGE levels in the bone were elevated in CKD animals and were reduced with NAC although this did not translate to a benefit in bone mechanical properties. In conclusion, NAC failed to significantly improve bone architecture/geometry/mechanical properties in our rat model of progressive CKD.
Project description:Renal osteodystrophy affects the majority of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is characterized by progressive bone loss. This study evaluated the effects of sclerostin knockout on bone in a murine model of severe, surgically induced CKD in both sclerostin knockout and wild-type mice. Mice of both genotypes with normal kidney function served as controls. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography, and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry. Results were tested for statistical significance by 2-way ANOVA to investigate whether bone of the knockout mice reacted differently to CKD compared with bone of wild-type mice. In the tibiae, there was no difference after creation of CKD between wild-type and knockout animals for cortical thickness or cross-sectional moment of inertia. Increases in cortical porosity induced by CKD differed significantly between genotypes in the tibial metaphysis but not in the diaphysis. In the trabecular compartment, no difference in reaction to CKD between genotypes was found for bone volume, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and trabecular separation. In the lumbar vertebrae, significant differences in response to CKD between wild-type and knockout mice were seen for both bone volume and trabecular thickness. Osteoblast parameters did not differ significantly, whereas osteoclast numbers significantly increased in the wild-type but significantly decreased in knockout mice with CKD. No differences in response to CKD between genotypes were found for bone formation rate or mineral apposition rate. Thus, complete absence of sclerostin has only minor effects on CKD-induced bone loss in mice.