Computer-Facilitated 5A's for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Trial of Technology to Promote Provider Adherence.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Although evidence-based, the 5A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation are often incompletely delivered by primary care providers. This study examines whether a computer tablet 5A's intervention improves primary care provider adherence to the 5A's. STUDY DESIGN:Cluster RCT. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:All primary care providers in three urban, adult primary care clinics were randomized for participation. Any English- or Spanish-speaking patient with a primary care appointment who had smoked >100 lifetime cigarettes and at least one cigarette in the past week was eligible. INTERVENTION:A cluster RCT comparing computer-facilitated 5A's with usual care assessed effects on provider adherence to each of the 5A's as determined by patient report. Intervention subjects used a computer tablet to complete the 5A's immediately before a primary care appointment. A tailored, patient handout and a structured, clinician guide were generated. Data were collected in 2014-2015 and analyzed in 2016-2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Provider adherence to the 5A's. RESULTS:Providers (N=221) saw 961 patients (n=412 intervention, n=549 control) for a total of n=1,340 encounters with n=1,011 completed post-visit interviews (75.4% completion). Intervention providers had significantly higher odds of completing Assess (AOR=1.32, 95% CI=1.02, 1.73) and Assist (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.08, 1.94). When looking at first study visits only, intervention providers had higher odds for Arrange (AOR=1.72, 95% CI=1.23, 2.40) and all 5A's (AOR=2.04, 95% CI=1.35, 3.07) but study visit did not influence receipt of the other 5A's. CONCLUSIONS:A computer-facilitated 5A's delivery model was effective in improving the fidelity of provider-delivered 5A's to diverse primary care patients. This relatively low-cost, time-saving intervention has great potential for smoking cessation and other health behaviors. Future studies should identify ways to promote and sustain technology implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02046408.
Project description:Tobacco consumption is a risk factor for chronic diseases and worldwide around six million people die from long-term exposure to first- or second-hand smoke annually. One effective approach to tobacco control is smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians. However, research suggests that smoking cessation counseling is not sufficiently implemented in primary care. In order to understand and address the discrepancy between evidence and practice, an overview of counseling practices is needed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the frequency of smoking cessation counseling in primary care. Self-reported counseling behavior by physicians is categorized according to the 5A's strategy (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange). An electronic database search was performed in Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library and overall, 3491 records were identified. After duplicates were removed, the title and abstracts of 2468 articles were screened for eligibility according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. The remaining 97 full-text articles reporting smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians were assessed for eligibility. Eligible studies were those that measured physicians' self-reported smoking cessation counseling activities via questionnaire. Thirty-five articles were included in the final review (1 intervention and 34 cross-sectional studies). On average, behavior corresponding to the 5A's was reported by 65% of physicians for "Ask", 63% for "Advise", 36% for "Assess", 44% for "Assist", and 22% of physicians for "Arrange", although the measurement and reporting of each of these counseling practices varied across studies. Overall, the results indicate that the first strategies (ask, advise) were more frequently reported than the subsequent strategies (assess, assist, arrange). Moreover, there was considerable variation in the items used to assess counseling behaviour and developing a standardized instrument to assess the counseling strategies implemented in primary care would help to identify and address current gaps in practice.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Despite the benefits of early antenatal care visits for early prevention, detection, and treatment of potential complications in pregnancy, a high level of provider adherence to first-visit antenatal care standards is needed. However, little information is available regarding provider adherence to antenatal care in Tanzania. This study was performed to assess provider adherence to first-visit antenatal care standards and to apply stratified analysis to identify associated factors in Tanzania.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from the 2014-2015 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment Survey were used in this study. Provider adherence to first-visit antenatal care standards was measured using 10 domains: client history; aspects of prior pregnancies; danger signs of the current pregnancy; physical examination; routine tests; HIV testing and counseling; maintaining a healthy pregnancy; iron/folate supplements; tetanus toxoid vaccination, and preparation for delivery. A composite score was then created in which the highest quantile (corresponding to ≥60.5%) considered to provider adhering to first-visit antenatal care standards. Initially, a series of unadjusted logistic regression analyses according to the type of facility and managing authority were performed separately at each level (i.e., facility, provider, and client). Thereafter, all variables with P < 0.2 were fitted into the respective stratified multivariable logistic regression analysis using a 5% significance level.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1756 first-visit antenatal care consultations performed by 822 providers in 648 health facilities were analyzed. The overall median [Interquartile range, IQR] adherence to first-visit antenatal care was relatively low at 47.1% [35.7%-60.5%]. After adjusting for selected variables from each level in specific strata, at dispensary; female providers [AOR = 5.5; 95% CI, 1.8-16.4], at health centre; performance of quality assurance [AOR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9], at hospital; availability of routine tests [AOR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.8] and basic medicine [AOR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.4-5.7], at public facilities; availability of medicine [AOR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2] and receiving refresher training [AOR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1], and at private facility; receiving external fund from government [AOR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.4] were significantly associated with better adherence to first-visit antenatal care standards.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study highlighted the important factors, including the provision of refresher training, regular distribution of basic medicines, and diagnostics equipment which may influence provider adherence to first-visit ANC standards.
Project description:In 2006, CDC recommended HIV screening as part of routine medical care for all persons aged 13-64 years. We examined adherence to the recommendations among a sample of HIV care providers in the US to determine if known providers of HIV care are offering routine HIV testing in outpatient settings. Data were from the CDC's Medical Monitoring Project Provider Survey, administered to physicians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants from June-September 2009. We assessed bivariate associations between testing behaviors and provider and practice characteristics and used multivariate regression to determine factors associated with offering HIV screening to all patients aged 13-64 years. Sixty percent of providers reported offering HIV screening to all patients 13 to 64 years of age. Being a nurse practitioner (aOR = 5.6, 95% CI = 2.6-11.9) compared to physician, age<39 (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5) or 39-49 (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.3) compared with ≥50 years, and black race (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-6.0) compared with white race was associated with offering testing to all patients. Providers with low (aOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.3) or medium (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) HIV-infected patient loads were less likely to offer HIV testing to all patients compared with providers with high patient loads. Many providers of HIV care are still conducting risk-based rather than routine testing. We found that provider profession, age, race, and HIV-infected patient load were associated with offering HIV testing. Health care providers should use patient encounters as an opportunity to offer routine HIV testing to patients as outlined in CDC's revised recommendations for HIV testing in health care settings.
Project description:Background Only 50% of eligible atrial fibrillation ( AF ) patients receive anticoagulation ( AC ). Feasibility and effectiveness of electronic medical record (EMR)-based interventions to profile and raise provider AC percentage is poorly understood. The SUPPORT-AF (Supporting Use of AC Through Provider Profiling of Oral AC Therapy for AF) study aims to improve rates of adherence to AC guidelines by developing and delivering supportive tools based on the EMR to providers treating patients with AF. Methods and Results We emailed cardiologists and community-based primary care providers affiliated with our institution reports of their AC percentage relative to peers. We also sent an electronic medical record-based message to these providers the day before an appointment with an atrial fibrillation patient who was eligible but not receiving AC . The electronic medical record message asked the provider to discuss AC with the patient if he or she deemed it appropriate. To assess feasibility, we tracked provider review of our correspondence. We also tracked the change in AC for intervention providers relative to alternate primary care providers not receiving our intervention. We identified 3786, 1054, and 566 patients cared for by 49 cardiology providers, 90 community-based primary care providers, and 88 control providers, respectively. At baseline, the percentage of AC was 71.3%, 63.5%, and 58.3% for these 3 respective groups. Intervention providers reviewed our e-mails and electronic medical record messages 45% and 96% of the time, respectively. For providers responding, patient refusal was the most common reason for patients not being on AC (21%) followed by high bleeding risk (19%). At follow-up 10 weeks later, change in AC was no different for either cardiology or community-based primary care providers relative to controls (0.2% lower and 0.01% higher, respectively). Conclusions Our intervention profiling AC was feasible, but not sufficient to increase AC in our population.
Project description:The focus on acute care, time pressure, and lack of resources hamper the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to determine whether an emergency nurse- initiated intervention based on the 5A's (Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) framework improves quit rates.We conducted a pre-post implementation trial in 789 adult smokers who presented to two EDs in Iowa between August 13, 2008 and August 4, 2010. The intervention focused on improving delivery of the 5A's by ED nurses and physicians using academic detailing, charting/reminder tools, and group feedback. Performance of ED cessation counseling was measured using a 5A's composite score (ranging from 0 to 5). Smoking status was assessed by telephone interview at 3- and 6-month follow-up (with biochemical confirmation in those participants who reported abstinence at 6-month follow-up).Based on data from 650 smokers who completed the post-ED interview, there was a significant improvement in the mean 5A's composite score for emergency nurses during the intervention period at both hospitals combined (1.51 vs. 0.88, difference = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.41, 0.85]). At 6-month follow-up, 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) was 6.8 and 5.1% in intervention and preintervention periods, respectively (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% CI [0.99, 2.9]).It is feasible to improve the delivery of brief smoking cessation counseling by ED staff. The observed improvements in performance of cessation counseling, however, did not translate into statistically significant improvements in cessation rates. Further improvements in the effectiveness of ED cessation interventions are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. METHODS:All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. RESULTS:Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better knowledge of active management of the third stage of labour (82.4% vs.35.8%, AOR (adjusted odds ratio) 10, 95% C.I 5.5 to 18.2); management of maternal sepsis (73.5% vs. 10.9%, AOR 36.1, 95% C.I 13.6 to 95.9); neonatal resuscitation (48.5% vs.11.7%, AOR 10.7, 95% C.I 4.6 to 25.0) and low birth weight newborn care (58.1% vs. 40.9%, AOR 2.4, 95% C.I 1.2 to 4.7). The case sheet audits revealed that providers in the intervention arm showed greater compliance with the protocols during labour monitoring (77.3% vs. 32.1%, AOR 25.8, 95% C.I 9.6 to 69.4); delivery and immediate post-partum care for mothers (78.6% vs. 31.8%, AOR 22.1, 95% C.I 8.0 to 61.4) and for newborns (73.9% vs. 32.8%, AOR 24.1, 95% C.I 8.1 to 72.0). The cost analysis showed that the intervention cost an additional $5.60 overall per delivery. CONCLUSIONS:The mentoring program successfully improved provider preparedness and facility readiness to deal with institutional births and associated complications. It is feasible to improve the quality of institutional births at a large operational scale, without substantial incremental costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02004912.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using an existing computer decision support system to screen adolescent patients for suicidality and provide follow-up guidance to clinicians in a primary care setting. Predictors of patient endorsement of suicidality and provider documentation of follow-up were examined. METHODS:A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the implementation of a CDSS that screened adolescent patients for suicidality and provided follow-up recommendations to providers. The intervention was implemented for patients aged 12-20 years in two primary care clinics in Indianapolis, Indiana. RESULTS:The sample included 2,134 adolescent patients (51% female; 60% black; mean age?=?14.6 years [standard deviation?=?2.1]). Just over 6% of patients screened positive for suicidality. A positive endorsement of suicidality was more common among patients who were female, depressed, and seen by an adolescent-medicine board-certified provider as opposed to general pediatric provider. Providers documented follow-up action for 83% of patients who screened positive for suicidality. Documentation of follow-up action was correlated with clinic site and Hispanic race. The majority of patients who endorsed suicidality (71%) were deemed not actively suicidal after assessment by their provider. CONCLUSIONS:Incorporating adolescent suicide screening and provider follow-up guidance into an existing computer decision support system in primary care is feasible and well utilized by providers. Female gender and depressive symptoms are consistently associated with suicidality among adolescents, although not all suicidal adolescents are depressed. Universal use of a multi-item suicide screener that assesses recency might more effectively identify suicidal adolescents.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Low adherence to chronic kidney disease (CKD) guidelines may be due to unrecognized CKD and lack of guideline awareness on the part of providers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of provider education and access to a CKD registry on guideline adherence.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial at the Louis Stokes Cleveland VAMC. One of two primary care clinics was randomized to intervention. Providers from both clinics received a lecture on CKD guidelines at study initiation. Providers in the intervention clinic were given access to and shown how to use a CKD registry, which identifies patients with CKD and is automatically updated daily. Eligible patients had at least one primary care visit in the last year, had CKD based on eGFR, and had not received renal replacement therapy. The primary outcome was parathyroid hormone (PTH) adherence, defined by at least one PTH measurement during the 12 month study. Secondary outcomes were measurement of phosphorus, hemoglobin, proteinuria, achievement of goal blood pressure, and treatment with a diuretic or renin-angiotensin system blocker.<h4>Results</h4>There were 418 and 363 eligible patients seen during the study in the control and intervention clinics, respectively. Compared to pre-intervention, measurement of PTH increased in both clinics (control clinic: 16% to 23%; intervention clinic: 13% to 28%). Patients in the intervention clinic were more likely to have a PTH measured during the study (adjusted odds ratio=1.53; 95% CI (1.01, 2.30); P=0.04). However, the intervention was not associated with a consistent improvement in secondary outcomes. Only 5 of the 37 providers in the intervention clinic accessed the registry.<h4>Conclusions</h4>An intervention that included education on CKD guidelines and access to a CKD patient registry marginally improved guideline adherence over education alone. Adherence to the primary process measure improved in both clinics, but no improvement was seen in intermediate clinical outcomes. Improving the care of patients with CKD will likely require a multifaceted approach including system redesign. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00921687.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The 5As [Ask, Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist] of Obesity Management Team study was a randomized controlled trial of an intervention that was implemented and evaluated to help primary care providers improve clinical practice for obesity management. This paper presents health care provider perspectives of the impacts of the intervention on individual provider and team practices. METHODS:This study reports a thematic network analysis of qualitative data collected during the 5As Team study, which involved 24 chronic disease teams affiliated with family practices in a Primary Care Network in Alberta. Qualitative data from 28 primary care providers (registered nurses/nurse practitioners [n = 14], dietitians [n = 7] and mental health workers [n = 7]) in the intervention arm were collected through semistructured interviews, field notes, practice facilitator diaries and 2 evaluation workshop questionnaires. RESULTS:Providers internalized 5As Team intervention concepts, deepening self-evaluation and changing clinical reasoning around obesity. Providers perceived that this internalization changed the provider-patient relationship positively. The intervention changed relations between providers, increasing interdisciplinary understanding, collaboration and discovery of areas for improvement. This personal and interpersonal evolution effected change to the entire Primary Care Network. INTERPRETATION:The 5As Team intervention had multiple impacts on providers and teams to improve obesity management in primary care. Improved provider confidence and capability is a precondition of developing effective patient interventions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no.: NCT01967797.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) nonadherence is common among patients with asthma; however, interventions to improve adherence have often been complex and not easily applied to large patient populations.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the effect of supplying patient adherence information to primary care providers.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients and providers were members of a health system serving southeast Michigan. Providers (88 intervention; 105 control) and patients (1335 intervention; 1363 control) were randomized together by practice. Patients were age 5 to 56 years, had a diagnosis of asthma, and had existing prescriptions for ICS medication. Adherence was estimated by using prescription and fill data. Unlike clinicians in the control arm, intervention arm providers could view updated ICS adherence information on their patients via electronic prescription software, and further details on patient ICS use could be viewed by selecting that option. The primary outcome was ICS adherence in last 3 months of the study period.<h4>Results</h4>At the study end for the intention-to-treat analysis, ICS adherence was not different among patients in the intervention arm compared with those in the control arm (21.3% vs 23.3%, respectively; P = .553). However, adherence was significantly higher among patients whose clinician elected to view their detailed adherence information (35.7%) compared with both control arm patients (P = .026) and intervention arm patients whose provider did not view adherence data (P = .002).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, providing adherence information to clinicians did not improve ICS use among patients with asthma. However, patient use may improve when clinicians are sufficiently interested in adherence to view the details of this medication use.