Cross-sectional study of cognitive stress appraisal and related factors among workers in metropolitan areas of Japan.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Stress has major socioeconomic implications for all spheres of employment. It is a trigger for depression, and affects absenteeism, turnover, productivity, morale and suicide. Positive or negative cognitive stress appraisal can be a self-care strategy that affects workers' ability to cope with stress. This study examined cognitive stress appraisal among workers and identified related individual and environmental factors. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study using self-administered postal questionnaires. SETTING:Companies located in two metropolitan areas of Japan (Tokyo and Kanagawa prefectures). PARTICIPANTS:2311 employees of 48 companies in metropolitan areas in Japan. In total, 341 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 14.8%), 337 of which were suitable for analysis (effective response rate: 98.8%). PRIMARY MEASURES:Cognitive stress appraisal was assessed using the Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Potential variables related to stress appraisal included demographic, individual and environmental factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors related to cognitive stress appraisal. RESULTS:Participants' mean±SD age was 42.8±11.7 years, and two-thirds were male. The mean±SD PSS score was 25.8±6.2. The multiple regression analysis controlled for age, sex and depression showed that those with poorer economic status (β=0.171, p<0.001), lower electronic health (eHealth) literacy (β=-0.113, p=0.012), higher traditional organisational climate (β=0.131, p=0.004) and lower perceived social support (β=-0.205, p<0.001) experienced significantly higher levels of negatively perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS:The results show individual and environmental factors related to cognitive stress appraisal among workers. An effective strategy to improve mental health among workers may involve an interprofessional approach by public health nurses and health practitioners that includes enhanced self-coping skills using individual workers' eHealth literacy, improvement of organisational climates in workplaces and community-based social support.
Project description:PURPOSE:Few studies have addressed the sleep disturbances of healthcare workers during crisis events of public health. This study aimed to examine the sleep quality of frontline healthcare workers (FLHCW) in Bahrain during the COVID-19 pandemic, and compare it with the sleep quality of non-frontline healthcare workers (NFLHCW). METHODS:Healthcare workers (n?=?280) from multiple facilities belonging to the Ministry of Health, Bahrain, were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. An online questionnaire, including socio-demographics, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), was used to evaluate sleep disturbances and stress levels of healthcare workers. Poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI ? 5 and moderate-severe stress as PSS ? 14. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the scores of FLHCW and NFLHCW. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of poor sleep quality, moderate-severe stress, and the combined problem of poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. RESULTS:A total of 257 participants (129 FLHCW and 128 NFLHCW) provided usable responses. The overall PSQI and PSS scores were 7.0?±?3.3 and 20.2?±?7.1, respectively. The FLHCW scored higher in the PSQI and PSS compared with the NFLHCW; however, the differences in the PSQI and PSS scores were not statistically significant. For the FLHCW, 75% were poor sleepers, 85% had moderate-severe stress, and 61% had both poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. For the NFLHCW, 76% were poor sleepers, 84% had moderate-severe stress, and 62% had both poor sleep quality and moderate-severe stress. Female sex and professional background were the predictors of poor sleep quality and stress. CONCLUSIONS:Poor sleep quality and stress are common during the COVID-19 crisis. Approximately, 60% of both FLHCW and NFLHCW have poor sleep quality combined with moderate-severe stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The acknowledgment of the mental health toll of the COVID-19 epidemic in healthcare workers has increased considerably as the disease evolved into a pandemic status. Indeed, high prevalence rates of depression, sleep disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported in Chinese healthcare workers during the epidemic peak. Symptoms of psychological distress are expected to be long-lasting and have a systemic impact on healthcare systems, warranting the need for evidence-based psychological treatments aiming at relieving immediate stress and preventing the onset of psychological disorders in this population. In the current COVID-19 context, internet-based interventions have the potential to circumvent the pitfalls of face-to-face formats and provide the flexibility required to facilitate accessibility to healthcare workers. Online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in particular has proved to be effective in treating and preventing a number of stress-related disorders in populations other than healthcare workers. The aim of our randomized controlled trial study protocol is to evaluate the efficacy of the 'My Health too' CBT program-a program we have developed for healthcare workers facing the pandemic-on immediate perceived stress and on the emergence of psychiatric disorders at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to an active control group (i.e., bibliotherapy). METHODS:Powered for superiority testing, this six-site open trial involves the random assignment of 120 healthcare workers with stress levels >?16 on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) to either the 7-session online CBT program or bibliotherapy. The primary outcome is the decrease of PSS-10 scores at 8?weeks. Secondary outcomes include depression, insomnia, and PTSD symptoms; self-reported resilience and rumination; and credibility and satisfaction. Assessments are scheduled at pretreatment, mid-treatment (at 4?weeks), end of active treatment (at 8?weeks), and at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. DISCUSSION:This is the first study assessing the efficacy and the acceptability of a brief online CBT program specifically developed for healthcare workers. Given the potential short- and long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers' mental health, but also on healthcare systems, our findings can significantly impact clinical practice and management of the ongoing, and probably long-lasting, health crisis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04362358 , registered on April 24, 2020.
Project description:Emotional intelligence has been shown to affect academic performance and perceived stress. But conflicting reports suggest that the relationship between academic performance and emotional intelligence may not be straightforward. Hence, this study explored the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance.First year medical students were invited to participate in this longitudinal study. At Time 1, before mid-semester examinations, they completed the questionnaires on Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (n = 213). At Time 2, before pre university examinations, students again completed perceived stress scale questionnaire. (n = 138). Academic performance was reported using summative assessment at both T1 and T2. The relationship between academic performance, emotional intelligence and perceived stress was explored using regression analysis.Neither PSS nor SEIS were related to academic performance. However, perceived stress was significantly predicted by SEIS both at T1 (r = 0.333, β = 0.149, p < 0.001) as well as T2 (r = 0.240, β = 0.116, p = 0.028). The results were cross-validated at student level both at T1 and at T2.Medical students with higher trait emotional intelligence perceived lesser stress. Therefore, it might be prudent to train medical students to increase their emotional intelligence to promote their well-being.
Project description:To determine the relationship between psychological stress with cognitive outcomes in a multi-centre longitudinal study of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) we assessed three parameters of psychological stress (Recent Life Changes Questionnaire (RLCQ); the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and salivary cortisol) and their relationship with rates of cognitive decline over an 18 month follow up period and conversion to dementia over a 5.5 year period. In 133 aMCI and 68 cognitively intact participants the PSS score was higher in the aMCI compared with control group but neither the RLCQ scores nor salivary cortisol measures were different between groups. In the aMCI group the RLCQ and the PSS showed no significant association with cognitive function at baseline, cognitive decline or with conversion rates to dementia but high salivary cortisol levels were associated with RLCQ scores and poorer cognitive function at baseline and lower rates of cognitive decline. No relationship was found between salivary cortisol levels and conversion rate to dementia. We conclude that psychological stress as measured by the RLCQ or PSS was not associated with adverse cognitive outcomes in an aMCI population and hypothesise that this may reflect diminished cortisol production to psychological stress as the disease progresses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smartphones may offer a new and easy tool to assess stress, but the validity has never been investigated. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate (1) the validity of smartphone-based self-assessed stress compared with Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and (2) whether smartphone-based self-assessed stress correlates with neuroticism (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Neuroticism, EPQ-N), psychosocial functioning (Functioning Assessment Short Test, FAST), and prior stressful life events (Kendler Questionnaire for Stressful Life Events, SLE). METHODS:A cohort of 40 healthy blood donors with no history of personal or first-generation family history of psychiatric illness and who used an Android smartphone were instructed to self-assess their stress level daily (on a scale from 0 to 2; beta values reflect this scale) for 4 months. At baseline, participants were assessed with the FAST rater-blinded and filled out the EPQ, the PSS, and the SLE. The PSS assessment was repeated after 4 months. RESULTS:In linear mixed-effect regression and linear regression models, there were statistically significant positive correlations between self-assessed stress and the PSS (beta=.0167; 95% CI 0.0070-0.0026; P=.001), the EPQ-N (beta=.0174; 95% CI 0.0023-0.0325; P=.02), and the FAST (beta=.0329; 95% CI 0.0036-0.0622; P=.03). No correlation was found between smartphone-based self-assessed stress and the SLE. CONCLUSIONS:Daily smartphone-based self-assessed stress seems to be a valid measure of perceived stress. Our study contains a modest sample of 40 healthy participants and adds knowledge to a new but growing field of research. Smartphone-based self-assessed stress is a promising tool for measuring stress in real time in future studies of stress and stress-related behavior.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most prevalent subtype of urinary incontinence and is a bothering condition in women. Only a minority of those with SUI consult a general practitioner (GP). EHealth with pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is effective in reducing incontinence symptoms and might increase access to care. The role of the GP regarding such an eHealth intervention is unknown. The aim of the study is to gain insight into the attitudes towards a PFMT internet-based, eHealth, intervention for SUI. METHODS:A qualitative study was conducted. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews among purposively sampled GPs. Audio records were fully transcribed, and analysed thematically. RESULTS:Thirteen GPs were interviewed, nine females and four males. Three themes emerged: appraisal of eHealth as a welcome new tool, mixed feelings about a supportive role, and eHealth is no cure-all. GPs welcomed eHealth for SUI as matching their preferences for PFMT and having advantages for patients. With eHealth as stand-alone therapy GPs were concerned about the lack of feedback, and the loss of motivation to adhere to the intervention. Therefore, GPs considered personal support important. The GP's decision to recommend eHealth was strongly influenced by a woman's motivation and her age. GPs' treatment preferences for elderly are different from those for young women with SUI; both PFMT and eHealth are perceived less suitable for older women. CONCLUSION:EHealth with PFMT fits into the GPs' routine practice of SUI and adds value to it. Although there is evidence that eHealth as a stand-alone intervention is effective, GPs consider personal support important to supplement the perceived shortcomings. Probably GPs are not aware of, or convinced of the existing evidence. Training should address this issue and should also focus on common misunderstandings about regular care for women with SUI, such as the idea that PFMT is not suitable for the elderly. Improving GPs' knowledge that eHealth can be a stand-alone therapy for SUI facilitates the implementation in daily care.
Project description:The role of informal caregiver of cancer patients is considered a situation of chronic stress that could have impact on cognitive functioning. Our aim was to evaluate differences in perceived stress, subjective memory complaints, self-esteem, and resilience between caregivers and non-caregivers, as well as the possible mediational role of burden in caregivers. The sample was composed of 60 participants divided into two groups: (1) Primary informal caregivers of a relative with cancer (CCG) (n = 34); and (2) non-caregiver control subjects (Non-CG) (n = 26). All participants were evaluated through a battery of tests: Socio-demographic questionnaire, subjective memory complaints questionnaire (MFE-30), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, resilience (CD-RISC-10), and perceived stress scale (PSS). The CCG group also completed the Zarit burden interview. Results indicated that CCG displayed higher scores than Non-CG in MFE-30 (p = 0.000) and PSS (p = 0.005). In the CCG group, Pearson correlations indicated that PSS showed a negative relationship with resilience (p = 0.000) and self-esteem (p = 0.002) and positive correlation with caregiver's burden (p = 0.015). In conclusion, CCG displayed higher number of subjective memory complaints and higher perceived stress than Non-CG, whereas no significant differences were obtained on self-esteem and resilience. These results could aid in designing new intervention strategies aimed to diminish stress, burden, or cognitive effects in informal caregivers of cancer patients.
Project description:Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.
Project description:To determine the prevalence of bodily pain measures (pain intensity and interference) in elderly people and their relationship with Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores.Cross-sectional.Community.A representative community sample of 578 individuals aged 70 and older (mean age 78.8, 63% female).The prevalence of pain intensity and pain interference and their relationship with PSS scores, demographic factors, past medical history, and neuropsychological testing scores were examined. Pain intensity and pain interference were measured using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Survey bodily pain questions.Bivariate analysis for pain measures showed that PSS scores, neuropsychological test scores, and medical histories were associated with pain intensity and interference. Logistic regression showed that higher PSS scores were significantly associated with greater odds of having moderate to severe pain intensity and moderate to severe pain interference (with and without the inclusion of pain intensity in the models).Higher PSS scores are associated with greater pain intensity and interference. In this cross-sectional analysis, directionality cannot be determined. Because perceived stress and pain are potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and other poor health outcomes, future research should address temporality and the benefits of treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention among community-dwelling adults living with HIV in Southeastern Nigeria. METHOD:A total of 28 HIV-positive adults meeting the criteria for high perceived stress, anxiety, and depression were randomized into 1 of 2 groups: treatment group (n?=?14); and no-treatment control group (n?=?14). Stress level was measured using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondary outcome measure was Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). The intervention was delivered over the course of 10 weeks, using an evidence-based cognitive-behavioral stress management manual. We employed repeated-measures between and within-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Eta squared in the analyses and interpretation of data collected from the study participants at 3 time points. RESULTS:Our results showed that, after benefitting from the cognitive behavioral stress management intervention, the PSS-10 and HADS scores were lowered significantly in the treatment group participants than those in the no-treatment control group during evaluations of post-treatment and 3 months follow-up outcomes. Significant improvements were also recorded in the treatment group participants' SWLS scores at post-treatment and follow-up compared with participants in the no-treatment group. CONCLUSION:The present results suggest the need for further implementation of group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management interventions for people living with HIV. Cognitive-behavioral stress management clinicians should make efforts toward identifying HIV-positive adults experiencing psychological distress and design cognitive-behavioral stress management interventions in order to better assist them.