Effect of pre-in vitro maturation with cAMP modulators on the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence in cattle.
ABSTRACT: The administration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) prior to oocyte retrieval improves oocyte developmental competence. During bovine embryo production in vitro, however, oocytes are typically derived from FSH-unprimed animals. In the current study, we examined the effect of pre-in vitro maturation (IVM) with cAMP modulators, also known as the second messengers of FSH, on the developmental competence of oocytes derived from small antral follicles (2-4 mm) of FSH-unprimed animals. Pre-IVM with N6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclicmonophosphate (dbcAMP) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) for 2 h improved the blastocyst formation in oocytes stimulated by FSH or amphiregulin (AREG). Furthermore, pre-IVM enhanced the expression of the FSH- or AREG-stimulated extracellular matrix-related genes HAS2, TNFAIP6, and PTGS2, and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide-related genes AREG and EREG. Additionally, pre-IVM with dbcAMP and IBMX enhanced the expression of EGFR, and also increased and prolonged cumulus cell-oocyte gap junctional communication. The improved oocyte development observed using the pre-IVM protocol was ablated by an EGF receptor phosphorylation inhibitor. These results indicate that pre-IVM with cAMP modulators could contribute to the acquisition of developmental competence by bovine oocytes from small antral follicles through the modulation of EGF receptor signaling and oocyte-cumulus/cumulus-cumulus gap junctional communication.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is a patient-friendly reproductive technology but lower success rates than IVF have limited its uptake. Capacitation-IVM (CAPA-IVM) is an innovative new IVM system currently undergoing clinical evaluation. This study aimed to determine temporal effects of the pre-IVM phase of CAPA-IVM on cumulus function and oocyte developmental competence in mildly-stimulated mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Immature cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) derived from mildly stimulated (23 h PMSG) 28-day-old mice underwent pre-IVM for 0-24 h in medium containing c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), E<sub>2</sub>, FSH and insulin, prior to IVM (CAPA-IVM). The effect of pre-IVM duration on cumulus cell function and embryo development post-CAPA-IVM/IVF was assessed.<h4>Results</h4>Day 6 blastocyst rate increased incrementally with increasing pre-IVM duration: 40.6 ± 2.0%, 45.8 ± 1.2%, 52.2 ± 3.5%, 53.3 ± 5.9%, and 59.9 ± 2.5% for 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h pre-IVM, respectively (P < 0.01). DNA content/COC, a measure of cumulus cell proliferation, was significantly higher with 24 h pre-IVM group compared to 0, 2, or 6 h pre-IVM (P < 0.001). Pre-IVM for 24 h significantly increased cumulus expansion and mRNA expression of matrix genes Has2 and Tnfaip6 and Areg relative to no pre-IVM control (P < 0.01). Cumulus-oocyte gap-junctional communication (GJC) was maintained throughout 24 h pre-IVM (P < 0.0001), and GJC loss was slowed during the subsequent IVM phase, whilst meiotic resumption was accelerated (P < 0.05). Pre-IVM increased COC ATP and ADP content (P < 0.05), but not AMP, ATP/ADP, and energy charge.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The pre-IVM phase of CAPA-IVM improves the quality of IVM oocytes in a temporally dependent manner and significantly influences cumulus cell function including increased cell proliferation, cumulus expansion, and prolonged cumulus-oocyte GJC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The gonadotropin-induced resumption of oocyte meiosis in preovulatory follicles is preceded by expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptides, amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), in mural granulosa and cumulus cells. Both the gonadotropins and the EGF-like peptides possess the capacity to stimulate resumption of oocyte meiosis in vitro via activation of a broad signaling network in cumulus cells. To better understand the rapid genomic actions of gonadotropins (FSH) and EGF-like peptides, we analyzed transcriptomes of cumulus cells at 3 h after their stimulation.<h4>Methods</h4>We hybridized aRNA from cumulus cells to a pig oligonucleotide microarray and compared the transcriptomes of FSH- and AREG/EREG-stimulated cumulus cells with untreated control cells and vice versa. The identified over- and underexpressed genes were subjected to functional genomic analysis according to their molecular and cellular functions. The expression pattern of 50 selected genes with a known or potential function in ovarian development was verified by real-time qRT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Both FSH and AREG/EREG increased the expression of genes associated with regulation of cell proliferation, cell migration, blood coagulation and extracellular matrix remodeling. FSH alone induced the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response and in the response to reactive oxygen species. Moreover, FSH stimulated the expression of genes closely related to some ovulatory events either exclusively or significantly more than AREG/EREG (AREG, ADAMTS1, HAS2, TNFAIP6, PLAUR, PLAT, and HSD17B7). In contrast to AREG/EREG, FSH also increased the expression of genes coding for key transcription factors (CEBPB, FOS, ID1/3, and NR5A2), which may contribute to the differing expression profiles of FSH- and AREG/EREG-treated cumulus cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The impact of FSH on cumulus cell gene transcription was higher than the impact of EGF-like factors in terms of the number of cell functions affected as well as the number of over- and underexpressed genes. Both FSH and EGF-like factors overexpressed genes involved in the post-ovulatory switch in steroidogenesis and tissue remodelling. However, FSH was remarkably more efficient in the up-regulation of several specific genes essential for ovulation of matured oocytes and also genes that been reported to play an important role in maturation of cumulus-enclosed oocytes in vitro.
Project description:The maturation of mammalian oocytes in vitro can be stimulated by gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH) or their intrafollicular mediator, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide-amphiregulin (AREG). We have shown previously that in pig cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), FSH induces expression and the synthesis of AREG that binds to EGF receptor (EGFR) and activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) signaling pathway. However, in this study we found that FSH also caused a rapid activation of MAPK3/1 in the cumulus cells, which cannot be explained by the de novo synthesis of AREG. The rapid MAPK3/1 activation required EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) activity, was sensitive to SRC proto-oncogene non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-family and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, and was resistant to inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and metalloproteinases. AREG also induced the rapid activation of MAPK3/1 in cumulus cells, but this activation was only dependent on the EGFR TK activity. We conclude that in cumulus cells, FSH induces a rapid activation of MAPK3/1 by the ligand-independent transactivation of EGFR, requiring SRC and PKC activities. This rapid activation of MAPK3/1 precedes the second mechanism participating in the generation and maintenance of active MAPK3/1-the ligand-dependent activation of EGFR depending on the synthesis of EGF-like peptides.
Project description:Oocyte in vitro maturation can be improved by mimicking the intra-follicular environment. Oocyte, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, and circulating factors act as meiotic regulators in follicles and maintain oocyte in the meiotic phase until oocyte becomes competent and ready to be ovulated. In a randomized experimental design, an ovine model was used to optimize the standard in vitro maturation media by Granulosa secreted factors. At first, the development capacity of oocyte derived from medium (>4 to 6 mm) and small (2 to ?4 mm) size follicles was determined. Differential gene expression of granulosa secreted factors and their receptors were compared between the cumulus cells of the two groups. Then, the best time and concentration for arresting oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage by natriuretic peptide type C (CNP) were determined by nuclear staining in both groups. Oocyte quality was further confirmed by calcein uptake and gene expression. The developmental competence of cumulus oocyte complexes derived from small size follicles that were cultured in the presence of CNP in combination with amphiregulin (AREG) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for 24 h was determined. Finally, embryo quality was specified by assessing expressions of NANOG, SOX2, CDX2, OCT4, and TET1. The cumulus oocyte complexes derived from small size follicles had a lower capacity to form blastocyst in comparison with cumulus oocyte complexes derived from medium size follicles. Prostaglandin E receptor 2 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 had significantly lower expression in cumulus cells derived from small size follicles in comparison with cumulus cells derived from medium size follicles. Natriuretic peptide type C increased the percentage of cumulus oocyte complexes arresting at the germinal vesicle stage in both oocytes derived from medium and small follicles. Gap junction communication was also improved in the presence of natriuretic peptide type C. In oocytes derived from small size follicles; best blastocyst rates were achieved by sequential exposure of cumulus oocyte complexes in [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in TCM+AREG+PGE2 (18h)] and [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in conventional IVM supplements+AREG+PGE2 (18h)]. Increased SOX2 expression was observed in [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in TCM+AREG+PGE2 (18h)], while decreased OCT4 expression was observed in [TCM+CNP (6 h), then cultured in conventional IVM supplements+AREG+PGE2 (18h)]. It seems that the natriuretic peptide type C modulates meiotic progression, and oocyte development is probably mediated by amphiregulin and prostaglandin E2. These results may provide an alternative IVM method to optimize in vitro embryo production in sheep and subsequently for humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is still one of the unresolved issues if germinal vesicle stage (GV) oocytes can be successfully cryopreserved for fertility preservation and matured in vitro without damage after warming. Several studies have reported that the addition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulators to in vitro maturation (IVM) media improved the developmental potency of mature oocytes though vitrification itself provokes cAMP depletion. We evaluated whether the addition of cAMP modulators after GV oocytes retrieval before vitrification enhances maturation and developmental capability after warming of GV oocytes. METHODS:Retrieved GV oocytes of mice were divided into cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs). Then, GV oocytes were cultured with or without dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP, cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) during the pre-vitrification period for 30?min. RESULTS:One hour after warming, the ratio of oocytes that stayed in the intact GV stage was significantly higher in groups treated with cAMP modulators. After 18?h of IVM, the percentage of maturation was significantly higher in the COC group treated with dbcAMP. The expression of F-actin, which is involved in meiotic spindle migration and chromosomal translocation, is likewise increased in this group. However, there was no difference in chromosome and spindle organization integrity or developmental competence between the MII oocytes of all groups. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing the intracellular cAMP level before vitrification of the GV oocytes maintained the cell cycle arrest, and this process may facilitate oocyte maturation after IVM by preventing cryodamage and synchronizing maturation between nuclear and cytoplasmic components. The role of cumulus cells seems to be essential for this mechanism.
Project description:Background: The gonadotropin-induced resumption of oocyte meiosis in preovulatory follicles is preceded by expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptides, amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), in mural granulosa and cumulus cells. Both the gonadotropins and the EGF-like peptides possess the capacity to stimulate resumption of oocyte meiosis in vitro via activation of a broad signaling network in cumulus cells. To better understand the rapid genomic actions of gonadotropins (FSH) and EGF-like peptides, we analyzed transcriptomes of cumulus cells at 3 h after their stimulation. Methods: We hybridized aRNA from cumulus cells to a pig oligonucleotide microarray and compared the transcriptomes of FSH- and AREG/EREG-stimulated cumulus cells with untreated control cells and vice versa. The identified over- and underexpressed genes were subjected to functional genomic analysis according to their molecular and cellular functions. The expression pattern of 50 selected genes with a known or potential function in ovarian development was verified by real-time qRT-PCR. Results: Both FSH and AREG/EREG increased the expression of genes associated with regulation of cell proliferation, cell migration, blood coagulation and extracellular matrix remodeling. FSH alone induced the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response and in the response to reactive oxygen species. Moreover, FSH stimulated the expression of genes closely related to some ovulatory events either exclusively or significantly more than AREG/EREG (AREG, ADAMTS1, HAS2, TNFAIP6, PLAUR, PLAT, and HSD17B7). In contrast to AREG/EREG, FSH also increased the expression of genes coding for key transcription factors (CEBPB, FOS, ID1/3, and NR5A2), which may contribute to the differing expression profiles of FSH- and AREG/EREG-treated cumulus cells. Conclusions: The impact of FSH on cumulus cell gene transcription was higher than the impact of EGF-like factors in terms of the number of cell functions affected as well as the number of over- and underexpressed genes. Both FSH and EGF-like factors overexpressed genes involved in the post-ovulatory switch in steroidogenesis and tissue remodelling. However, FSH was remarkably more efficient in the up-regulation of several specific genes essential for ovulation of matured oocytes and also genes that been reported to play an important role in maturation of cumulus-enclosed oocytes in vitro. Overall design: Three different samples (FSH treated, AREG/EREG treated and control untreated cumulus cells), each represented by 3 independently prepared biological replicates were hybridized to 9 microarrays (Pigoligoarray, www.pigoligoarray.org) as follows: 1st and 3rd biological replicate: Control AlexaFluor 647 + AREG/EREG AlexaFluor 555; AREG/EREG AlexaFluor 647 + FSH AlexaFluor 555; FSH AlexaFluor 647 + Control AlexaFluor 555. 2nd biological replicate (dye swap): Control AlexaFluor 555 + AREG /EREG AlexaFluor 647; AREG/EREG AlexaFluor 555 + FSH AlexaFluor 647; FSH AlexaFluor 555 + Control AlexaFluor 647.
Project description:There is a vital need to identify factors that enhance human and nonhuman primate in vitro embryo culture and outcome, and to identify the factors that facilitate that objective. Granulosa and cumulus cells were obtained from rhesus monkeys that had either been FSH-primed (in vitro maturation [IVM]) or FSH and hCG-primed (in vivo maturation [VVM]) and compared for the expression of mRNAs encoding follistatin (FST), inhibin, and activin receptors. The FST mRNA displayed marginally decreased expression (P = 0.05) in association with IVM in the granulosa cells. The ACVR1B mRNA was more highly expressed in cumulus cells with IVM compared with VVM. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from FSH-primed monkeys exposed to exogenous FST during the 24-h IVM period exhibited no differences in the percentage of oocytes maturing to the metaphase II stage of meiosis compared to controls. However, embryos from these oocytes had significantly decreased development to the blastocyst stage. The effect of FST on early embryo culture was determined by exposing fertilized VVM oocytes to exogenous FST from 12 to 60 h postinsemination. FST significantly improved time to first cleavage and embryo development to the blastocyst stage compared with controls. The differential effects of exogenous FST on embryo development, when administered before and after oocyte maturation, may depend on the endogenous concentration in cumulus cells and oocytes. These results reveal evolutionary conservation of a positive effect of FST on embryogenesis that may be broadly applicable to enhance in vitro embryogenesis, with potential application to human clinical outcome and livestock and conservation biology.
Project description:In the cow, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts as an auto-/paracrine factor, through its receptors LPAR1-4, on oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation (IVM). The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of LPA during IVM of bovine oocytes on: 1) oocyte maturation; 2) apoptosis of COCs; 3) expression of genes involved in developmental competence and apoptosis in bovine oocytes and subsequent blastocysts; 4) cumulus expansion and expression of genes involved in the ovulatory cascade in cumulus cells; 5) glucose metabolism and expression of genes involved in glucose utilization in cumulus cells; 6) cleavage and blastocyst rates on Day 2 and Day 7 of in vitro culture, respectively.Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in vitro in the presence or absence of LPA (10(-5) M) for 24 h. Following maturation, we determined: oocyte maturation stage, cumulus expansion, COCs apoptosis and glucose and lactate levels in the maturation medium. Moreover, COCs were either used for gene expression analysis or fertilized in vitro. The embryos were cultured until Day 7 to assess cleavage and blastocyst rates. Oocytes, cumulus cells and blastocysts were used for gene expression analysis.Supplementation of the maturation medium with LPA enhanced oocyte maturation rates and stimulated the expression of developmental competence-related factors (OCT4, SOX2, IGF2R) in oocytes and subsequent blastocysts. Moreover, LPA reduced the occurrence of apoptosis in COCs and promoted an antiapoptotic balance in the transcription of genes involved in apoptosis (BAX and BCL2) either in oocytes or blastocysts. LPA increased glucose uptake by COCs via augmentation of GLUT1 expression in cumulus cells as well as stimulating lactate production via the enhancement of PFKP expression in cumulus cells. LPA did not affect cumulus expansion as visually assessed, however, it stimulated upstream genes of cumulus expansion cascade, AREG and EREG.Supplementation of the maturation medium with LPA improves oocyte maturation rates, decreases extent of apoptosis in COCs and sustains the expression of developmental competence related factors during oocyte maturation and subsequently affects gene expression profile at the blastocyst stage. We also demonstrate that LPA directs glucose metabolism toward the glycolytic pathway during IVM.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors [amphiregulin (AREG), betacellulin, and epiregulin] are induced by LH and activate the EGF receptor (ERBB1)/ERK1/2 pathway in granulosa cells and cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles to impact ovulation. However, the expression and roles of other ERBB family members and their ligands have not been explored in detail. Herein, we document that two transcripts of the neuregulin (Nrg1) gene are expressed in granulosa cells, and that the type III Nrg1 is induced during ovulation in an ERK1/2 and C/EBP?-dependent manner. Western blotting shows that intact (75 kDa) and secreted (45 kDa) forms of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) are present in the ovary. NRG1 likely binds to ERBB3/ERBB2 complexes that are expressed in granulosa cells and cumulus cells. In cultured granulosa cells, NRG1 selectively stimulates the phosphorylation of AKT/PKB compared to ERK1/2. However, when granulosa cells were cultured with NRG1 and AREG, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was markedly enhanced as compared with that by AREG alone. Cotreatment with NRG1 and AREG also increased progesterone production. When cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with both NRG1 and AREG, the matured oocytes exhibited significantly higher developmental competence as compared with that of oocytes cultured with AREG alone. Collectively, these results document that the expression of type III NRG1 is induced in granulosa cells during ovulation and that NRG1 enhances AREG-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both granulosa cells and cumulus cells. The NRG1 pathway has two roles: one is to enhance AREG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells, and the other is to regulate oocyte maturation by a cumulus cell-dependent mechanism.
Project description:PURPOSE:We first assessed regulation of FGF2 expression in cumulus cells by FSH and oocyte-secreted factors during in vitro maturation (IVM). Then, we tested the hypothesis that FGF2 regulates meiotic progression, cumulus expansion, and apoptosis in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) undergoing IVM. METHODS:In vitro maturation of bovine COC was utilized as a model to assess regulation of FGF2 expression by FSH and oocyte-secreted factors (via microsurgical removal of the oocyte), as well as effects of graded doses of FGF2 on meiotic progression, degree of cumulus expansion, dissociation of cumulus cells, and cumulus cells apoptosis. Expression of genes regulating functional endpoints altered by FGF2 treatment was assessed in cumulus cells by real-time PCR. Cultures were replicated 4-5 times and effects of treatments were tested by ANOVA. RESULTS:FGF2 mRNA expression was increased by FSH and oocyte-secreted factors during IVM. Addition of FGF2 to the IVM medium advanced meiosis resumption, decreased the ease with which cumulus cells were dissociated, and inhibited cumulus cells apoptosis. Decreased cumulus dissociation was accompanied by decreased expression of TNFAIP6. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study showing that FGF2 expression is regulated by the oocyte in cumulus cells. Moreover, we report novel effects of FGF2 on cumulus cell survival and extracellular matrix (ECM) quality during IVM that may favor acquisition of developmental competence and suggest physiological roles during the final steps of COC differentiation.