Carbapenem-Resistant Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae of Sequence Type 36.
ABSTRACT: Sequence type 36 (ST36) Klebsiella pneumoniae is distributed worldwide. We found an ST36 K. pneumoniae clinical isolate that was carbapenem resistant, carried blaKPC-2, had mucoid regulator gene rmpA, and exhibited high virulence. The finding suggests the emergence of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae of ST36, and surveillance of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae is required.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have recently come into existence worldwide; however, researchers in northeast China are not aware of their clinical features and molecular characteristics. METHODS:Here, the molecular and virulent characteristics of 44 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates collected from January 2015 to December 2017 were studied. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were carried out to define the clonal relatedness among the isolates. PCR and capsular serotyping of the virulence-associated genes, as well as biofilm formation and serum complement-mediated killing assays, were employed to determine the virulent potential. The genomic features and associated mobile genetic elements of JmsCRE57 were detected by whole genome sequencing. RESULTS:The only positive isolate was JmsCRE57, which belonged to the ST375 serotype K2 that expressed uge, mrkD, fimH, kpn, aerobactin and rmpA virulence-associated genes and showed strong biofilm formation and serum sensitivity. Sequencing results showed that the JmsCRE57 genome mainly consisted of a circular chromosome, three antimicrobial resistant plasmids and a virulent plasmid. The antimicrobial resistant plasmid expressing blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-15, aph(3?)-Ib, aph(6)-Id, qnrB1, aac(3)-IIa, aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1B, catB4, sul2, dfrA14 and blaSHV-99. The virulent plasmid belonged to the IncHI1B group, which is mainly composed of mucoid phenotype genes and siderophore-associated genes. The remaining CRKP strains that expressed uge, fimH, mrkD and kpn virulence-associated genes were not successfully typed. CONCLUSION:Our results provide new insights on the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant K2 hypervirulent K. pneumoniae ST375 and CRKP ST76 strains in northeast China, which may help control their future outbreaks.
Project description:Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are usually susceptible to many antimicrobial agents including colistin. Here we report the isolation and characterization of several colistin-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae clinical strains. K. pneumoniae strains recovered from blood samples were collected at a university hospital in China. MICs of colistin were determined using microdilution. Colistin-resistant strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing to reveal their clonal background, antimicrobial resistance determinants and virulence factors. Virulence assays were performed with strains carrying the mucoid phenotype regulator gene rmpA using wax moth larvae. The pmrB gene encoding a P344L substitution was cloned into a colistin-susceptible K. pneumoniae strain to examine whether the substitution confers colistin resistance. Five colistin-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae were recovered from blood samples of patients in China, belonging to four sequence/capsular types (ST23:K1, ST412:K57, ST660:K16, and ST700:K1) and carried the virulence factor rmpA. Three strains had the known colistin-resistant D150G substitution in PhoQ including one ST700:K1 strain also carrying mcr-1. The remaining two isolates had a P344L substitution of PmrB but cloning of pmrB encoding the substitution into a colistin-susceptible isolate did not alter MICs of colistin, suggesting that such a substitution did not confer resistance to colistin. In conclusion, the convergence of colistin resistance and hypervirulence in K. pneumoniae of multiple clonal backgrounds has emerged and may warrant further surveillance.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (MDR-hvKP) has been increasingly reported and is now recognized as a significant threat to public health; however, characterization of MDR-hvKP has not been systematically investigated. In the present study, 124 of 428 (28.92%) K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from January 2010 to December 2016 were identified with aerobactin and defined as hvKP; these included 94 non-MDR-KP, 20 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-KP), and 10 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-KP) isolates. The remaining 304 isolates without presence of virulence factor aerobactin were defined as classic K. pneumoniae (cKP). The antimicrobial resistance rate of cKP was significantly higher than that of the hvKP isolates in the non-MDR-KP group, but showed no significant differences in the ESBL-KP and CR-KP groups. The detection frequencies of capsular serotype K1 (magA), hypermucoviscosity, sequence type 23 (ST23), and the virulence gene rmpA were significantly higher in the hvKP than cKP isolates in all three groups (P < 0.05). Most of the hypervirulent ESBL-KP and CR-KP isolates were K non-typeable (16/30) and harbored at least one gene for virulence (26/30). The hypervirulent ESBL-KP isolates primarily carried bla CTX-M (12/20, 60%) genes, and the hypervirulent CR-KP isolates mainly carried bla NDM- 1 (8/10, 80%) genes. Moreover, three hypervirulent ESBL-KP and two hypervirulent CR-KP isolates showed resistance to tigecycline but were sensitive to colistin. The transcriptional levels of rmpA in cKP were much lower than that in hvKP isolates in all three groups. Furthermore, overexpression of rmpA in the rmpA-low-expression cKP isolates could enhance bacterial virulence in the mouse infection experiment. In conclusion, our data suggest that the capsular serotype K1 (magA), rmpA, hypermucoviscosity, and ST23 were strongly associated with hvKP in non-MDR-KP, ESBL-KP, and CR-KP groups, and low rmpA expression levels contributed to the absence of hypervirulent phenotype.
Project description:The recent convergence of genetic elements encoding phenotypic carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence within a single Klebsiella pneumoniae host strain represents a major public concern. To obtain a better understanding of the genetic characteristic of this emerging 'superbug', the complete genomes of 3 isolates of ST11 carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae were generated using the Oxford nanopore MinION platform. Comparative whole-genome analysis identified 13 SNPs and 3 major regions of indels in the chromosomes of the clonally disseminated isolates. ISKpn18-mediated disruption in the mgrB gene, which was associated with colistin resistance, was identified in two later strains, leading to the emergence of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae that was simultaneously colistin- and carbapenem-resistant. Five plasmids were recovered from each isolate, including a 178 Kb IncHI1B/FIB-type rmpA2-bearing virulence plasmid, a 177.5?Kb IncFII/R self-transferable blaKPC-2-bearing MDR plasmid, a 99.7?Kb Incl1 plasmid and two ColRNAI-type plasmids of sizes of 11.9 and 5.6?Kb, respectively. The presence of homologous regions between the non-conjugative virulence plasmid and conjugative blaKPC-2-bearing MDR plasmid suggests that transmission of the virulence plasmid from ST23 K. pneumoniae to ST11 CRKP may be mediated by the co-integrated transfer of these two plasmids. Emergence of colistin-resistant and carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains further emphasizes the urgency for the establishment of a coordinated global program to eradicate hypervirulent and/or pan-drug-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae from clinical settings and the community.
Project description:The convergence of carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to the emergence of highly drug-resistant superbugs capable of causing invasive disease. We analyzed 556 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from patients in Singapore hospitals during 2010-2015 and discovered 18 isolates from 7 patients also harbored hypervirulence features. All isolates contained a closely related plasmid (pKPC2) harboring blaKPC-2, a K. pneumoniae carbapenemase gene, and had a hypervirulent background of capsular serotypes K1, K2, and K20. In total, 5 of 7 first patient isolates were hypermucoviscous, and 6 were virulent in mice. The pKPC2 was highly transmissible and remarkably stable, maintained in bacteria within a patient with few changes for months in the absence of antimicrobial drug selection pressure. Intrapatient isolates were also able to acquire additional antimicrobial drug resistance genes when inside human bodies. Our results highlight the potential spread of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae in Singapore.
Project description:Background: Multidrug-resistant bacteria, especially those with high virulence, are an emerging problem in clinical settings.Methods: We conducted a multicentre epidemiological and comparative genomic analysis on the evolution, virulence and antimicrobial resistance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in patients with bacterial liver abscesses from 2012 to 2016.Results: A total of 477 bacterial isolates were collected. Enterobacteriaceae were the main pathogen (89.3%) with K. pneumoniae (52.4%) predominating followed by Escherichia coli (26.8%). All CRKps (3.2%) were of sequence type (ST) 11 and serotypes K47 or K64, and simultaneously possessed acquired blaKPC-2/blaKPC-5 and blaCTX-M-65 together with the multidrug transporter EmrE. Seven Hv-CRKps (five ST11-K47, two ST11-K64) were confirmed by bacteriological test, neutrophil killing assay and Galleria mellonella infection model. Genomic analysis indicated that the emergence of one ST11-K64 Hv-CRKp strain was related to the acquisition of rmpA/rmpA2 genes and siderophore gene clusters, while ST11-K47 Hv-CRKp lacked these traditional virulence genes. Further complete genome analysis of one ST11-K47 Hv-CRKp strain, R16, showed that it acquired a rare plasmid (pR16-Hv-CRKp1) carrying blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-65, rmtB and a predicted virulence gene R16_5486 simultaneously.Conclusion: The emergence of the ST11-K47/K64 Hv-CRKps, which are simultaneously multidrug-resistant and hypervirulent, requires urgent control measures to be implemented.
Project description:Background:A carbapenem-resistant hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate was recovered from human sputum. Methods:Whole genome sequencing of this isolate was carried out to reveal its clonal background, antimicrobial resistance determinants and virulence factors. Virulence assays were performed using wax moth larvae. The transfer of bla NDM-5 between bacterial strains was tested using conjugation. 59 genome assemblies of ST29 K. pneumoniae and 230 IncX3 plasmids regardless of the carriage of resistance gene were employed for phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Results:The strain carried a virulence plasmid pVir-SCNJ1 bearing the virulence gene rmpA and exhibited a high virulence in wax moth. This hypervirulent strain belongs to sequence type 29 and carries bla NDM-5, which is located on a conjugative plasmid, designated pNDM5-SCNJ1, belonging to type IncX3. pNDM5-SCNJ1 was fully sequenced and shows high similarity with pNDM_MGR194, except some deletion inside the ISAba125 region. Phylogenetic analysis of IncX3 plasmids revealed that although bla NDM-5 can be evolved from bla NDM-1 via point mutations within some IncX3 plasmids, most of bla NDM-5-carrying IncX3 plasmids probably have acquired bla NDM-5 in multiple events. Conclusions:In this study, we characterized a bla NDM-5-positive hypervirulent K. pneumoniae of sequence type 29 in China. Our results highlight the need for active surveillance on this lineage of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae.
Project description:Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have been increasingly reported worldwide, and there is emergence of carbapenem resistance among them. Here, we report the genome sequences of three carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates isolated from bacteremic patients at a tertiary-care center in South India.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-HMKP) poses a significant public health challenge. We investigated its epidemiology and molecular characteristics in a tertiary care hospital in eastern China. METHODS:CR-HMKP were identified among 106 non-duplicated carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (from June 2013 to September 2017) using the string test. The pulsotype (PT) and sequence type (ST) of CR-HMKP isolates were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Resistance determinants, capsular serotypes, and virulence genes were detected by PCR and sequencing. Representative isolates from each PT were selected, and their virulence phenotypes were established using the serum killing and Galleria mellonella lethality assays. RESULTS:Of the 106 isolates, 13 (12.3%) were CR-HMKP. Seven were positive for blaNDM-1 and shared the same genotype (PT5/ST1764); the others were positive for blaKPC-2, belonged to ST11, and were divided into four different PTs. The serotype of all blaNDM-1-positive isolates was K64, while that of blaKPC-2-positive isolates were K47 (N=4) and K64 (N=2). The NDM-1-producing HMKP isolates were positive for aerobactin, exhibited high serum resistance, and elicited significantly increased larval mortality compared with the other isolates. All patients had received invasive treatment prior to infection by NDM-1-producing HMKP. The infections occurred between July and August 2016 and were hospital-acquired. CONCLUSIONS:NDM-1-producing HMKP ST1764 isolates were identified; this is the first report worldwide on an outbreak of nosocomial infection caused by these isolates. Effective surveillance and strict infection control strategies should be implemented to prevent CR-HMKP dissemination.
Project description:We recovered 2 carbapenem-resistant K2-ST86 hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients in France. The isolates had genetic attributes of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae but differed in ability to cause mouse lethality. Convergence of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae toward resistance could cause a health crisis because such strains could be responsible for severe and untreatable infections.