Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Pilot Prospective Longitudinal Clinical Study.
ABSTRACT: Objectives:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is highly heterogeneous in terms of phenotype and treatment response in patients. These characteristics make the prognosis difficult to establish and hinder the use of new personalized treatments in clinical practice. In this context, there is currently a need to define new biomarkers enabling a better definition of DLBCL subtypes, prognosis evaluation, and an overview of the resistance to chemotherapeutics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of microRNAs found in plasma from patients with DLBCL as biomarkers of tumor evolution in these patients. Method:For this purpose, a plasma biobank was created with samples from patients with DLBCL. The evolution of the level of selected microRNAs during treatment has been studied. A total of 19 patients with DLBCL were included in this pilot mono-centered study and a total of 68 samples were analyzed. Results:The first step of this study was the selection of the microRNAs to be quantified in all the samples of the biobank and that could potentially be used as biomarkers. To this end, quantification of 377 microRNAs was performed on the plasma samples of 2 selected patients with DLBCL and 1 healthy donor with no history of cancer. Among the 377 microRNAs evaluated, 7 were selected and analyzed in the entire biobank. Conclusions:This study highlighted 5 circulating microRNAs whose plasma levels would be worth further investigating for the characterization of DLBCL evolution in patients. MiR-21 and miR-197 had a significant higher plasmatic level in patients with tumors unresponsive to treatment. With a higher plasma level in patients with complete remission, miR-19b, miR-20a, and miR-451 could enable to differentiate, at the remission review, patients with residual tumor, from patients with complete remission.
Project description:The use of circulating microRNAs as biomarkers has opened new opportunities for diagnosis of cancer because microRNAs exhibit tumor-specific expression profiles. The aim of this study was the identification of circulating microRNAs in human plasma as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. For discovery, TaqMan Low Density Array Human MicroRNA Cards were used to analyze 377 microRNAs in plasma samples from 21 mesothelioma patients and 21 asbestos-exposed controls. For verification, individual TaqMan microRNA assays were used for quantitative real-time PCR in plasma samples from 22 mesothelioma patients and 44 asbestos-exposed controls. The circulating miR-132-3p showed different expression levels between mesothelioma patients and asbestos-exposed controls. For discrimination, sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 61% were calculated. Circulating miR-132-3p in plasma was not affected by hemolysis and no impact of age or smoking status on miR-132-3p levels could be observed. For the combination of miR-132-3p with the previously described miR-126, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 86% were calculated. The results of this study indicate that miR-132-3p might be a new promising diagnostic biomarker for malignant mesothelioma. It is indicated that the combination of miR-132-3p with other individual biomarkers improves the biomarker performance.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be used as biomarkers in patients at risk for or affected by AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Screening of 377 miRNAs was performed using low-density arrays in pooled plasma samples of 10 HIV/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-infected asymptomatic and 10 AIDS-KS patients before and after successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). MiR-375 was identified as a potential marker of active KS, being the most down-regulated in AIDS-KS patients after cART and the most up-regulated in naïve AIDS-KS patients compared to naïve asymptomatic subjects. Validation on individual plasma samples confirmed that miR-375 levels were higher in AIDS-KS compared to asymptomatic patients, decreased after cART-induced remission in most AIDS-KS patients and increased in patients with active KS. In asymptomatic patients miR-375 was up-regulated after cART in both screening and validation. Statistical analyses revealed an association between miR-375 changes and CD4 cell counts, which could explain the discordant cases and the opposite trend between asymptomatic and AIDS-KS patients. These data suggest that circulating miR-375 might be a good indicator of active AIDS-KS. Moreover, changes in miR-375 levels may have a prognostic value in HIV/HHV8-infected patients undergoing treatment. Further large-scale validation is needed.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA)s are dysregulated in Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), where they reflect the malignant B-cells and the immune infiltrate within the tumor microenvironment. There remains a paucity of data in DLBCL regarding cell-free (c-f) miRNA as disease response biomarkers. Immunosuppressive monocyte/macrophages, which are enriched in DLBCL, are disease response markers in DLBCL, with miRNA key regulators of their immunosuppressive function. Our aim was to determine whether plasma miRNA that reflect the activity of the malignant B-cell and/or immunosuppressive monocytes/macrophages, have value as minimally-invasive disease response biomarkers in DLBCL. Quantification of 99 DLBCL tissues, to select miRNA implicated in immunosuppressive monocytes/macrophage biology, found miR-494 differentially elevated. In a discovery cohort (22 patients), pre-therapy c-f miR-494 and miR-21 but not miR-155 were raised relative to healthy plasma. Both miR-494 and miR-21 levels 3-6 months reduced post immuno-chemotherapy. The validation cohort (56 patients) was from a prospective clinical trial. Interestingly, in sequential samples both miRNAs decreased in patients becoming Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography (PET/CT)-ve, but not in those remaining interim-PET/CT+. Patient monocytes were phenotypically and functionally immunosuppressive with ex-vivo monocyte depletion enhancing T-cell proliferation in patient but not healthy samples. Pre-therapy monocytes showed an immunosuppressive transcriptome and raised levels of miR-494. MiR-494 was present in all c-f nanoparticle fractions but was most readily detectable in unfractionated plasma. Circulating c-f miR-494 and miR-21 are disease response biomarkers with differential response stratified by interim-PET/CT in patients with DLBCL. Further studies are required to explore their manipulation as potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare, highly aggressive, extranodal form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, predominantly diagnosed as primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS DLBCL). Fast and precise diagnosis of PCNSL is critical yet challenging. microRNAs, important regulators in physiology and pathology are potential biomarkers. In 131 patients with CNS DLBCL and with non-malignant brain lesions (n-ML), miR-21, miR-19b and miR-92a, miR-155, miR-196b, miR-let-7b, miR-125b, and miR-9 were examined by RT-qPCR in brain biopsy samples (formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, FFPET; CNS DLBCL, n = 52; n-ML, n = 42) and cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF; CNS DLBCL, n = 30; n-ML, n = 23) taken for routine diagnosis. FFPET samples were split into study and validation sets. Significantly higher CSF levels of miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-92a were identified in PCNSL but not in n-ML, and differentiated PCNSL from n-ML with 63.33% sensitivity and 80.77% specificity. In FFPETs, miR-155 and miR-196b were significantly overexpressed and miR-let-7b, miR-125b, and miR-9 were downregulated in PCNSL as compared to n-ML. Combined miR-155 and miR-let-7b expression levels in FFPETs discriminated PCNSL and n-ML with a 97% accuracy. In conclusion, tissue miR-155, miR-196b, miR-9, miR-125b, and miR-let-7b expression profiles differentiate PCNSL from n-ML. PCNSL CSFs and the relevant biopsy samples are characterized by specific, different microRNA profiles. A logistic regression model is proposed to discriminate between PCNSL and non-malignant brain lesions. None of the examined microRNAs influenced overall survival of PCNSL patients. Further ongoing developments involve next generation sequencing-based profiling of biopsy and CSF samples.
Project description:PURPOSE:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) heterogeneity has prompted investigations for new biomarkers that can accurately predict survival. A previously reported 6-gene model combined with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) could predict patients' outcome. However, even these predictors are not capable of unambiguously identifying outcome, suggesting that additional biomarkers might improve their predictive power. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We studied expression of 11 microRNAs (miRNA) that had previously been reported to have variable expression in DLBCL tumors. We measured the expression of each miRNA by quantitative real-time PCR analyses in 176 samples from uniformly treated DLBCL patients and correlated the results to survival. RESULTS:In a univariate analysis, the expression of miR-18a correlated with overall survival (OS), whereas the expression of miR-181a and miR-222 correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). A multivariate Cox regression analysis including the IPI, the 6-gene model-derived mortality predictor score and expression of the miR-18a, miR-181a, and miR-222, revealed that all variables were independent predictors of survival except the expression of miR-222 for OS and the expression of miR-18a for PFS. CONCLUSION:The expression of specific miRNAs may be useful for DLBCL survival prediction and their role in the pathogenesis of this disease should be examined further.
Project description:MicroRNAs are stable and easy to detect in plasma. The plasma levels of microRNAs are often changed in disease conditions, including cancer. This makes circulating microRNAs a novel class of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Analyses of online microRNA data base revealed that expression level of three microRNAs, microRNA-24 (miR-24), microRNA-320a (miR-320a), and microRNA-423-5p (miR-423-5p) were down-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether the plasma level of these three microRNAs can serve as biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and prognosis is not determined.Plasma samples from 223 patients with colorectal related diseases (111 cancer carcinoma, 59 adenoma, 24 colorectal polyps and 29 inflammatory bowel disease) and 130 healthy controls were collected and subjected to reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses for the three microRNAs. In addition, plasma samples from 43 patients were collected before and after surgical treatment for the same RT-qPCR analyses.The concentrations of plasma miR-24, miR-320a and miR-423-5p were all decreased in patients with CRC and benign lesions (polyps and adenoma) compared with healthy controls, but increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The sensitivity of miR-24, miR-320a and miR-423-5p for early stage of CRC were 77.78 %, 90.74 %, and 88.89 %, respectively. Moreover, the plasma concentration of the three microRNAs was increased in patients after the surgery who had clinical improvement.The plasma levels of miR-24, miR-320a, and miR-423-5p have promising potential to serve as novel biomarkers for CRC detection, especially for early stage of CRC, which are superior to the currently used clinical biomarkers for CRC detection, such as CEA and CA19-9. Further efforts to develop the three microRNAs as biomarkers for early CRC diagnosis and prediction of surgical treatment outcomes are warrant.
Project description:Since the response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is heterogeneous, valid biomarkers are needed to monitor tumor response. Circulating microRNAs are promising candidates, however analyses of circulating microRNAs in rectal cancer are still rare. 111 patients with rectal cancer and 46 age-matched normal controls were enrolled. The expression levels of 30 microRNAs were analyzed in 17 pre-treatment patients' plasma samples. Differentially regulated microRNAs were validated in 94 independent patients. For 52 of the 94 patients a paired comparison between pre-treatment and post-treatment samples was performed. miR-17, miR-18b, miR-20a, miR-31, and miR-193a_3p, were significantly downregulated in pre-treatment plasma samples of patients with rectal cancer (p < 0.05). miR-29c, miR-30c, and miR-195 showed a trend of differential regulation. After validation, miR-31 and miR-30c were significantly deregulated by a decrease of expression. In 52 patients expression analyses of the 8 microRNAs in matched pre-treatment and post-treatment samples showed a significant decrease for all microRNAs (p < 0.05) after treatment. Expression levels of miR-31 and miR-30c could serve as valid biomarkers if validated in a prospective study. Plasma microRNA expression levels do not necessarily represent miRNA expression levels in tumor tissue. Also, expression levels of microRNAs change during multimodal therapy.
Project description:The aim of this experiment was to analyse the level of microRNAs circulating in plasma from two DLBCL patients during their treatment and one healthy donor with no history of cancer. The two DLBCL patients were selected based on their highly different response to first line chemotherapy (R-CHOP). One of them obtained a complete remission after first line, while the other presented a refractory disease.
Project description:Aplastic anemia is an acquired bone marrow failure characterized by marrow hypoplasia, a paucity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and pancytopenia of the peripheral blood, due to immune attack on the bone marrow. In aplastic anemia, a major challenge is to develop immune biomarkers to monitor the disease. We measured circulating microRNAs in plasma samples of aplastic anemia patients in order to identify disease-specific microRNAs. A total of 179 microRNAs were analyzed in 35 plasma samples from 13 aplastic anemia patients, 11 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and 11 healthy controls using the Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel. Subsequently, 19 microRNAs from the discovery set were investigated in the 108 plasma samples from 41 aplastic anemia patients, 24 myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and 43 healthy controls for validation, confirming that 3 microRNAs could be validated as dysregulated (>1.5-fold change) in aplastic anemia, compared to healthy controls. MiR-150-5p (induction of T-cell differentiation) and miR-146b-5p (involvement in the feedback regulation of innate immune response) were elevated in aplastic anemia plasma, whereas miR-1 was decreased in aplastic anemia. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we developed a logistic model with these 3 microRNAs that enabled us to predict the probability of a diagnosis of aplastic anemia with an area under the curve of 0.86. Dysregulated expression levels of the microRNAs became normal after immunosuppressive therapy at 6 months. Specifically, miR-150-5p expression was significantly reduced after successful immunosuppressive therapy, but did not change in non-responders. We propose 3 novel plasma biomarkers in aplastic anemia, in which miR-150-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-1 can serve for diagnosis and miR-150-5p for disease monitoring. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers:00260689, 00217594, 00961064.
Project description:Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major cause of adverse outcome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high incidence (20-50%). A novel, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict for prevalence and severity would enable improved prophylaxis and reduce morbidity. Circulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-423, miR-199, miR-93*, and miR-377 have previously been associated with aGvHD in post-HSCT patient plasma, but validation is lacking and their expression within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has not been explored. This study replicated elevated serum expression of miR-423 (p?<?0.001), miR-199 (p?=?0.04), miR-93* (p?<?0.001), and miR-377 (p?=?0.03) in aGvHD, using a prognostic cohort of day 14 (D14) post-HSCT patient samples (n?=?81). Expression also associated with disease severity. Further analysis at aGvHD diagnosis in an independent cohort (n?=?65) confirmed high miR-423 (p?=?0.02), miR-199 (p?=?0.007), and miR-93* (p?=?0.004) expression at disease onset. Investigation of expression patterns during early HSCT sequential timepoints (pre-HSCT to D28) identified elevated miRNAs at D7 post-HSCT in all transplant patients. In a novel investigation of miRNA expression in serum EVs (n?=?15), miR-423 (p?=?0.09), miR-199 (p?=?0.008), and miR-93* (p?=?0.001) levels were lower at D14 in patients who later developed aGvHD, and this was replicated for miR-423 (p?=?0.02) and miR-199 (p?=?0.04) (n?=?47). Comparing serum to circulating EVs, at D14 patients remaining aGvHD-free had higher expression of miR-423 (p?=?0.03), miR-199 (p?=?0.009), and miR-93* (p?=?0.002) in the EV fraction. Results verify the capacity for circulating miR-423, miR-199, and miR-93* as diagnostic and prognostic aGvHD biomarkers. The novel finding of their differential expression in EVs suggests a potential role in aGvHD etiology.