A heterozygous variant in the SLC22A12 gene in a Sri Lanka family associated with mild renal hypouricemia.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Renal hypouricemia is a rare heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by impaired tubular uric acid transport, reabsorption insufficiency and /or acceleration of secretion. The affected individuals are predisposed to nephrolithiasis and recurrent episodes of exercise-induced acute kidney injury. Type 1 is caused by dysfunctional variants in the SLC22A12 gene (URAT1), while type 2 is caused by defects in the SLC2A9 gene (GLUT9). To date, more than 150 patients with the loss-of-function mutations for the SLC22A12 gene have been found (compound heterozygotes and/or homozygotes), most of whom are Japanese and Koreans. CASE PRESENTATION:Herein, we report a nine year old Sri Lankan boy with renal hypouricemia (serum uric acid 97 ?mol/L, fractional excretion of uric acid 33%).The sequencing analysis of SLC22A12 revealed a potentially deleterious missense variant c.1400C?>?T (p.T467 M, rs200104135) in heterozygous state. This variant has been previously identified in homozygous and/or compound heterozygous state with other causative SLC22A12 variant c.1245_1253del (p.L415_G417del) in Roma population. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first identification of a family with mild renal hypouricemia1 associated to the p.T467 M variant. Detailed investigations of urate blood and urine concentrations in patients with unexplained hypouricemia are needed and renal hypouricemia should also be considered in patients other than those from Japan and/or Korea. Our finding confirms an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of Romany prevalent SLC22A12 variant that need to be considered in Asian patients (population data Genome Aggregation Database: allele frequency in South Asia 0.007055, in East Asia 0.001330).
Project description:Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder that is characterized by decreased serum uric acid concentration and increased fractional excretion of uric acid. Previous reports have revealed many functional mutations in two urate transporter genes, SLC22A12 and/or SLC2A9, to be the causative genetic factors of this disorder. However, there are still unresolved patients, suggesting the existence of other causal genes or new mutations. Here, we report an RHUC patient with novel compound heterozygous mutations in the SLC22A12 gene.A 27-year-old female presenting with recurrent hypouricemia during routine checkups was referred to our hospital. After obtaining the patient's consent, both the patient and her healthy parents were analyzed using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger sequencing to discover and validate causal mutations, respectively. The prioritization protocol of WES screened out two mutations of c.269G?>?A/p.R90H and c.1289_1290insGG/p.M430fsX466, which are both located in the SLC22A12 gene, in the patient. Sanger sequencing further confirmed that the patient's heterozygous c.269G?>?A/p.R90H mutation, which has been reported previously, derived from her mother, and the heterozygous c.1289_1290insGG/p.M430fsX466 mutation, which was found for the first time, derived from her father. p.R90H, which is highly conserved among different species, may decrease the stability of this domain and was considered to be almost damaging in silicon analysis. p.M430fsX466 lacks the last three transmembrane domains, including the tripeptide motif (S/T)X? (X?=?any amino acid and ??=?hydrophobic residue), at the C-terminal, which interact with scaffolding protein PDZK1 and thus will possibly lead to weak functioning of urate transport through the disruption of the "transporter complex" that is formed by URAT1 and PDZK1.We report a Chinese patient with RHUC, which was caused by compound heterozygous mutations of the SLC22A12 gene, using WES and Sanger sequencing for the first time. Mutation-induced structural instability or malfunction of the urate transporter complex may be the main mechanisms for this hereditary disorder.
Project description:Differentiating between inherited renal hypouricemia and transient hypouricemic status is challenging. Here, we aimed to describe the genetic background of hypouricemia patients using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and assess the feasibility for genetic diagnosis using two founder variants in primary screening. We selected all cases (N?=?31) with extreme hypouricemia (<1.3?mg/dl) from a Korean urban cohort of 179,381 subjects without underlying conditions. WES and corresponding downstream analyses were performed for the discovery of rare causal variants for hypouricemia. Two known recessive variants within SLC22A12 (p.Trp258*, pArg90His) were identified in 24 out of 31 subjects (77.4%). In an independent cohort, we identified 50 individuals with hypouricemia and genotyped the p.Trp258* and p.Arg90His variants; 47 of the 50 (94%) hypouricemia cases were explained by only two mutations. Four novel coding variants in SLC22A12, p.Asn136Lys, p.Thr225Lys, p.Arg284Gln, and p.Glu429Lys, were additionally identified. In silico studies predict these as pathogenic variants. This is the first study to show the value of genetic diagnostic screening for hypouricemia in the clinical setting. Screening of just two ethnic-specific variants (p.Trp258* and p.Arg90His) identified 87.7% (71/81) of Korean patients with monogenic hypouricemia. Early genetic identification of constitutive hypouricemia may prevent acute kidney injury by avoidance of dehydration and excessive exercise.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To identify potential causative mutations in SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 that lead to hypouricemia or hyperuricemia (HUA). METHODS:Targeted resequencing of whole exon regions of SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 was performed in three cohorts of 31 hypouricemia, 288 HUA and 280 normal controls. RESULTS:A total of 84 high-quality variants were identified in these three cohorts. Eighteen variants were nonsynonymous or in splicing region, and then included in the following association analysis. For common variants, no significant effects on hypouricemia or HUA were identified. For rare variants, six single nucleotide variations (SNVs) p.T21I and p.G13D in SLC2A9, p.W50fs, p.Q382L, p.V547L and p.E458K in SLC22A12, occurred in totally six hypouricemia subjects and were absent in HUA and normal controls. Allelic and genotypic frequency distributions of the six SNVs differed significantly between the hypouricemia and normal controls even after multiple testing correction, and p.G13D in SLC2A9 and p.V547L in SLC22A12 were newly reported. All these mutations had no significant effects on HUA susceptibility, while the gene-based analyses substantiated the significant results on hypouricemia. CONCLUSION:Our study first presents a comprehensive mutation spectrum of hypouricemia in a large Chinese cohort.
Project description:Renal hypouricemia is an inherited disorder characterized by impaired renal urate (uric acid) reabsorption and subsequent low serum urate levels, with severe complications such as exercise-induced acute renal failure and nephrolithiasis. We previously identified SLC22A12, also known as URAT1, as a causative gene of renal hypouricemia. However, hypouricemic patients without URAT1 mutations, as well as genome-wide association studies between urate and SLC2A9 (also called GLUT9), imply that GLUT9 could be another causative gene of renal hypouricemia. With a large human database, we identified two loss-of-function heterozygous mutations in GLUT9, which occur in the highly conserved "sugar transport proteins signatures 1/2." Both mutations result in loss of positive charges, one of which is reported to be an important membrane topology determinant. The oocyte expression study revealed that both GLUT9 isoforms showed high urate transport activities, whereas the mutated GLUT9 isoforms markedly reduced them. Our findings, together with previous reports on GLUT9 localization, suggest that these GLUT9 mutations cause renal hypouricemia by their decreased urate reabsorption on both sides of the renal proximal tubules. These findings also enable us to propose a physiological model of the renal urate reabsorption in which GLUT9 regulates serum urate levels in humans and can be a promising therapeutic target for gout and related cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Background:Hereditary renal hypouricemia (HRH) is a genetically heterogenetic disease. Patients with HRH are almost asymptomatic; but some may experience exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EAKI) and nephrolithiasis which may bring concerns regarding the risk-benefit ratio as marginal kidney donors. This study examined the pathogenic mutations of hypouricemia in two recipients after receiving kidney transplantation, providing preliminary evidence for the mechanism of hypouricemia. Methods:Two participants underwent detailed biochemical examinations. DNA and RNA were extracted from transplant specimens for sequencing. The whole-genome sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were performed to confirm the pathogenic genes. Functional effects of mutant proteins were verified by bioinformatics analysis. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to study the transcriptome of hypouricemia. Results:Both of the recipients had the low serum uric acid (UA) (45-65 µmol/l), high fraction excretion of UA (44% and 75%) and an increase in the UA clearance (35.9 and 73.3 mL/min) with a functioning graft. The sequencing analyses revealed 7 kinds of potential mutational genes in this case, two novel mutations p.R89H and p.L181V in SLC22A12 gene which were revealed by bioinformatics could be pathogenic in nature. Conclusions:Two novel mutations of SLC22A12 were identified. Preliminary functional analysis revealed a potential deleterious effect of these mutations in the grafts derived from the donor and sequencing analysis expand the molecular mechanisms of renal hypouricemia.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Using European descent Czech populations, we performed a study of SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 genes previously identified as being associated with serum uric acid concentrations and gout. This is the first study of the impact of non-synonymous allelic variants on the function of GLUT9 except for patients suffering from renal hypouricemia type 2.<h4>Methods</h4>The cohort consisted of 250 individuals (150 controls, 54 nonspecific hyperuricemics and 46 primary gout and/or hyperuricemia subjects). We analyzed 13 exons of SLC2A9 (GLUT9 variant 1 and GLUT9 variant 2) and 10 exons of SLC22A12 by PCR amplification and sequenced directly. Allelic variants were prepared and their urate uptake and subcellular localization were studied by Xenopus oocytes expression system. The functional studies were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon and Kruskall-Wallis tests; the association study used the Fisher exact test and linear regression approach.<h4>Results</h4>We identified a total of 52 sequence variants (12 unpublished). Eight non-synonymous allelic variants were found only in SLC2A9: rs6820230, rs2276961, rs144196049, rs112404957, rs73225891, rs16890979, rs3733591 and rs2280205. None of these variants showed any significant difference in the expression of GLUT9 and in urate transport. In the association study, eight variants showed a possible association with hyperuricemia. However, seven of these were in introns and the one exon located variant, rs7932775, did not show a statistically significant association with serum uric acid concentration.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results did not confirm any effect of SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 variants on serum uric acid concentration. Our complex approach using association analysis together with functional and immunohistochemical characterization of non-synonymous allelic variants did not show any influence on expression, subcellular localization and urate uptake of GLUT9.
Project description:Hereditary hypouricemia may result from mutations in the renal tubular uric acid transporter URAT1. Whether mutation of other uric acid transporters produces a similar phenotype is unknown. We studied two families who had severe hereditary hypouricemia and did not have a URAT1 defect. We performed a genome-wide homozygosity screen and linkage analysis and identified the candidate gene SLC2A9, which encodes the glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9). Both families had homozygous SLC2A9 mutations: A missense mutation (L75R) in six affected members of one family and a 36-kb deletion, resulting in a truncated protein, in the other. In vitro, the L75R mutation dramatically impaired transport of uric acid. The mean concentration of serum uric acid of seven homozygous individuals was 0.17 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, and all had a fractional excretion of uric acid >150%. Three individuals had nephrolithiasis, and three had a history of exercise-induced acute renal failure. In conclusion, homozygous loss-of-function mutations of GLUT9 cause a total defect of uric acid absorption, leading to severe renal hypouricemia complicated by nephrolithiasis and exercise-induced acute renal failure. In addition to clarifying renal handling of uric acid, our findings may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure, nephrolithiasis, hyperuricemia, and gout.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Familial renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by hypouricemia, high renal fractional excretion of uric acid (FE-UA) and can be complicated by acute kidney failure and nephrolithiasis. Loss-of-function mutations in the SLC22A12 gene cause renal hypouricemia type 1 (RHUC1), whereas renal hypouricemia type 2 (RHUC2) is caused by mutations in the SLC2A9 gene. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 24-year-old Pakistani man who was admitted twice to our hospital for severe exercise-induced acute renal failure (EIARF), abdominal pain and fever; he had very low serum UA levels (0.2 mg/dl the first time and 0.09 mg/dl the second time) and high FE-UA (200% and 732% respectively), suggestive of RHUC. Mutational analyses of both urate transporters revealed a new compound heterozygosity for two distinct missense mutations in the SLC2A9 gene: p.Arg380Trp, already identified in heterozygosity, and p.Gly216Arg, previously found in homozygosity or compound heterozygosity in some RHUC2 patients. Compared with previously reported patients harbouring these mutations, our proband showed the highest FE-UA levels, suggesting that the combination of p.Arg380Trp and p.Gly216Arg mutations most severely affects the renal handling of UA. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and molecular findings from this patient and a review of the literature provide new insights into the genotype-phenotype correlation of this disorder, supporting the evidence of an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern for RHUC2. Further investigations into the functional properties of GLUT9, URAT1 and other urate transporters are required to assess their potential research and clinical implications.
Project description:Urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12), a urate transporter gene, is a causative gene for renal hypouricemia type 1. Among several reported nonsynonymous URAT1 variants, R90H (rs121907896) and W258X (rs121907892) are frequent causative mutations for renal hypouricemia. However, no case-control study has evaluated the relationship between gout and these two variants. Additionally, the effect size of these two variants on serum uric acid (SUA) levels remains to be clarified. Here, 1,993 primary gout patients and 4,902 health examination participants (3,305 males and 1,597 females) were genotyped with R90H and W258X. These URAT1 variants were not observed in any gout cases, while 174 subjects had the URAT1 variant in 2,499 health examination participants, respectively (P = 8.3 × 10(-46)). Moreover, in 4,902 health examination participants, the URAT1 nonfunctional variants significantly reduce the risk of hyperuricemia (P = 6.7 × 10(-19); risk ratio = 0.036 in males). Males, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants of URAT1, show a marked decrease of 2.19 or 5.42 mg/dl SUA, respectively. Similarly, females, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants, also evidence a decrease of 1.08 or 3.89 mg/dl SUA, respectively. We show that URAT1 nonfunctional variants are protective genetic factors for gout/hyperuricemia, and also demonstrated the sex-dependent effect size of these URAT1 variants on SUA (P for interaction = 1.5 × 10(-12)).
Project description:Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by impaired tubular uric acid (UA) transport with severe complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). Type 1 is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the SLC22A12 gene (URAT1), type 2 in the SLC2A9 gene (GLUT9). This article describes three Czech families with RHUC type 1. The serum UA in the probands was 0.9, 1.1 and 0.5 mg/dl and expressed as an increase in the fractional excretion of UA (48, 43 and 39%). The sequencing analysis of SLC22A12 revealed three novel variants: p.G366R, p.T467M and a deletion p.L415_G417del. A detailed metabolic investigation in proband C for progressive visual failure supported suspicion of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 conditioned by the mutation in the MFSD8 gene. Functional studies showed significantly decreased urate uptake and a mis-localized URAT1 signal in p.G366R, p.L415_G417del and p.T467M. Furthermore, colocalization studies showed accumulation of URAT1 protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. The findings suggest that loss-of-function mutations cause RHUC via loss of UA absorption partly by protein misfolding. However, they do not necessarily lead to AKI and a possible genotype-phenotype correlation was not proposed. Furthermore, results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of SLC22A12 variants; the p.L415_G417del mutation predominates in the Roma ethnic group in the Czech Republic.