Recovery of Five Complete Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Genome Sequences from the 2015 Influenza Outbreak in India by Metagenomic Sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Five complete (H1N1)pdm09 viral sequences were recovered from hospitalized individuals during the 2015 influenza outbreak by metagenomic sequencing. Four of the genomes are from oropharyngeal swabs, and one is from an isolate. All five sequences belong to an emerging 6B clade. Studying them further is critical for outbreak preparedness.
Project description:In 2015, the swine derived A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic strain outbreak became widespread throughout the different states of India. The reported cases and deaths in 2015 surpassed the previous years with more than 39000 laboratory confirmed cases and a death toll of more than 2500 people. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. In this study, we describe the full genome analysis of influenza 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from West Bengal between January through December 2015. The phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin sequence revealed clustering with globally circulating strains of genogroup 6B. This was further confirmed by the constructed concatenated tree using all eight complete gene segments of Kolkata A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates with the other strains from different timeline and lineages. A study from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2015 reported novel mutations T200A and D225N in haemagglutinin gene of a 2014 Indian strain (A/India/6427/2014). However, in all the pandemic strains of 2014-2015 reported from India, so far including A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from Kolkata, D225N mutation was not observed, though the T200A mutation was found to be conserved. Neuraminidase gene of the analyzed strains did not show any oseltamivir resistant mutation H275Y suggesting continuation of Tamiflu® as drug of choice. The amino acid sequences of the all gene segments from 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates identified several new mutations compared to the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, which may have contributed towards enhanced virulence, compared to 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strains.
Project description:Influenza A viruses are highly adaptable and are the main pathogen behind winter time morbidity. The present study reports the molecular and phylogenetic characterization of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 isolates from Haryana, India during 2015 influenza outbreak. A total of 144 nasopharyngeal samples were collected from Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India form September 2014 to February 2016. The samples were screened for influenza A subtypes; A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 by using real-time RT-PCR. Virus isolation and hemagglutinin gene sequencing studies were performed for selected positive samples. Out of 24 (16.6%) Influenza A positive samples, 13 (54.2%) and 11 (45.8%) were subtyped into A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2, respectively by real-time RT-PCR. Genetic analysis of A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates revealed the presence of key mutations (P100S, S202T and S220T) in HA gene as compare to reference strain A/California/07/2009 and these isolates were grouped in clade 6B.1 and 6B.2. All A(H3N2) isolates were clustered in clade 3C.2a and revealed specific amino acid substitutions of N161S and P214S in their HA genes in comparison to the reference strain A/Texas/50/2012. The HA gene sequences of all isolates showed 97-98% of nucleotide sequence similarity with their respective reference strains. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 isolates were drifted significantly from their respective vaccines strains of 2015-2016 and were more closely related to recommended vaccine strains for flu season 2017-2018. The study supports the need of routine influenza surveillance and continuous monitoring of the genetic changes in the major antigenic sites of these viruses.
Project description:In 2009, Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century with high mortality rates of about 284 500 deaths. This virus, however, continues to circulate as a seasonal influenza virus and to cause illness and deaths worldwide. In this study, we describe the genetic diversity of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses collected between 2014 and 2016 in Cameroon. Three gene segments (HA, NA and M) of Cameroon strains were studied. The phylogenetic tree of the coding nucleotide sequences was generated by MEGA version 6.0 using a Maximum Likelihood method. The NA and M protein coding sequences were analyzed for the reported genetic markers of resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, while predicted vaccine efficacy was estimated using the Pepitope method. Overall 39 strains were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 showed that Cameroon strains belonged to two major clades. The 2014 Cameroon sequences belonged to clade 6C while all sequences collected between 2015 and 2016 belonged to clade 6B. Majority of the samples had some mutations in the NA gene notably: I117M, N248D, and N369K while the amantadine-resistant M mutant, S31N, was found to be absent only in the two sequences collected in 2014. Overall, A/California/07/2009 vaccine strain showed a predicted vaccine efficacy of 24.55% to 35.77% against Cameroon A(H1N1)pdm09 strains circulating between 2014 and 2016. Our findings confirms the fast evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 since its first introduction and highlights on the importance of influenza vaccine in reducing the burden caused by influenza in the community.
Project description:A novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus emerged in 2009 globally, and it continues to circulate in humans. The National Influenza Surveillance Network in Taiwan identified five A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant seasons, representing the 2009/2010, 2010/2011, 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2015/2016 outbreaks from 2009 to 2016. Independently, a retrospective cohort study (which enrolled 639 infected patients during the five seasons) was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital to explore the risk factors associated with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-related complications. A phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) sequences showed that the circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 virus belonged to clades 1, 2, and 8 in 2009/2010; clades 3, 4, 5, and 7 in 2010/2011; clades 7 and 6C in 2012/2013; clades 6B in 2013/2014; and 6B/6B.1/6B.2 in 2015/2016. Compared to individuals infected in non-6B/6B.1/6B.2 seasons (2009/2010, 2010/2011, and 2012/2013), those infected in 6B/6B.1/6B.2 seasons (2013/2014 and 2015/2016) were at higher risk for influenza-related complications (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-2.8), pneumonia (aOR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04-3.04), mechanical ventilation (aOR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.6), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (aOR: 5.5, 95% CI: 1.9-15.9). For the increased severity of infection during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 clade 6B/6B.1/6B.2 seasons, aspects related to the antigenic change of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, immune response of the host, and environmental factors required further investigation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Influenza is an acute viral respiratory tract infection caused by influenza virus and transmitted from person to person. Though usually seasonal in temperate climates, influenza occurs throughout the year in the tropics with outbreaks occurring at irregular intervals. On February 6, 2018, a number of students from a Senior High School (SHS) in Accra reported to a district hospital with cough, fever and other respiratory symptoms. An influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreak was suspected. We investigated to determine the magnitude and source of the outbreak and implement control and preventive measures.<h4>Methods</h4>We interviewed health workers, staff and students of the school as well as case-patients and reviewed health records to collect data on demographic characteristics, signs and symptoms, date of illness onset and outcome. We defined ILI case as "any person in the SHS with fever (measured axillary temperature of ≥ 37.5 °C or history of fever) and cough with or without sore throat or runny nose from January 21 to February 26, 2018". We conducted active case search to identify more cases and took oropharyngeal samples for laboratory testing. We performed descriptive and inferential analysis by calculating attack rate ratios (ARR) and their exact 95% confidence intervals (CI).<h4>Results</h4>Of the 3160 students, 104 case-patients were recorded from January 25, 2018 to February 13, 2018 (overall attack rate of 3.3%). Mean age of case-patients was 16.1 (±2.3) years with males constituting 71.2% (74/104). Sex specific attack rates were 5.6% (74/1331) and 1.6% (30/1829) for males and females respectively. Compared to females, males were 3.4 times as likely to be ill [ARR =3.4, 95%CI = (2.23-5.15)]. Nine oropharyngeal samples from 17 suspected case-patients tested positive for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Outbreak of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 occurred in a SHS in Accra from January to February, 2018. Even though source of the outbreak could not be determined, prompt case management and health education on hand and personal hygiene as non-pharmacological factors probably contributed to the outbreak control. The outbreak ended with a scheduled mid-term break. This underscores the need for more evidence on the effect of school closure in influenza outbreak control.
Project description:Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09 presenting ct values ? 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016). In addition, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1)pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.
Project description:The objective of this study was to identify factors related to the expansion of infection and prevention of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. A retrospective non-randomized cohort study (from June 2009 to May 2010) on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was conducted in a sample of residents from Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The cumulative incidence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and the pandemic vaccine effectiveness (VE) were estimated. The response rate was 53.5% (178,669/333,892). Overall, the odds ratio of non-vaccinated group to vaccinated group for cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 2.18 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.13-2.23) and the VE was 43.9% (CI: 42.8-44.9). The expansion of infection, indicating the power of transmission from infected person to susceptible person, was high in the 7-15 years age groups in each area. In conclusion, results from this survey suggested that schoolchildren-based vaccination rate participates in determining the level of herd immunity to influenza and children might be the drivers of influenza transmission. For future pandemic preparedness, vaccination of schoolchildren may help to prevent disease transmission during influenza outbreak.
Project description:The continuous variation of the seasonal influenza viruses, particularly A(H1N1)pdm09, persistently threatens human life and health around the world. In local areas of southwest china, the large time-scale genomic research on A(H1N1)pdm09 is still insufficient. Here, we sequenced 45 whole-genome sequences of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in Lincang, China, from 2014 to 2018, by next-generation sequencing technology to characterize molecular mechanisms of their origin and evolution. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the A(H1N1)pdm09 strains circulating in Lincang belong to clade 6B and the subclade 6B.1A predominates in 2018. Further, the strains in 2018 possess elevated evolutionary rate as compared to strains in other years. Several newly emerged mutations for HA (hemagglutinin) in 2018 are revealed (i.e., S183P and R221K). Intriguingly, the substitution R221K falls into the RBS (receptor binding site) of HA protein, which could affect antigenic properties of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, and another substitution S183P near to RBS with a high covering frequency (11/14 strains) in 2018 is exactly located at the epitope B. Notably, the NA (neuraminidase) protein harbors a new mutation I23T, potentially involved in N-glycosylation. Based on the background with a higher evolutionary rate in 2018 strains, we deeply evaluate the potential vaccine efficacy against Lincang strains and discover a substantive decline of the vaccine efficacy in 2018. Our analyses reaffirm that the real-time molecular surveillance and timely updated vaccine strains for prevention and control of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 are crucial in the future.
Project description:Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus emerged in North America in 2009 and has been established as a seasonal strain in humans. After an antigenic stasis of about six years, new antigenically distinct variants of the virus emerged globally in 2016 necessitating a change in the vaccine formulation for the first time in 2017. Herein, we analyzed thirty-eight HA sequences of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 strains isolated in Kenya during 2015-2018 seasons, to evaluate their antigenic and molecular properties based on the HA1 sub-unit. Our analyses revealed that the A (H1N1) pdm09 strains that circulated in Kenya during this period belonged to genetic clade 6B, subclade 6B.1 and 6B.2. The Kenyan 2015 and 2016 isolates differed from the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 at nine and fourteen antigenic sites in the HA1 respectively. Further, those isolated in 2017 and 2018 correspondingly varied from A/Michigan/45/2015 vaccine strain at three and fifteen antigenic sites. The predicted vaccine efficacy of A/California/07/2009 against Kenyan 2015/2016 was estimated to be 32.4% while A/Michigan/45/2015 showed estimated vaccine efficacies of 39.6% - 41.8% and 32.4% - 42.1% against Kenyan 2017 and 2018 strains, respectively. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) assay using ferret post-infection reference antiserum showed that the titers for the Kenyan 2015/2016 isolates were 2-8-fold lower compared to the vaccine strain. Overall, our results suggest the A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses that circulated in Kenya during 2015/2016 influenza seasons were antigenic variants of the recommended vaccine strains, denoting sub-optimal vaccine efficacy. Additionally, data generated point to a swiftly evolving influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus in recent post pandemic era, underscoring the need for sustained surveillance coupled with molecular and antigenic analyses, to inform appropriate and timely influenza vaccine update.
Project description:Under selective pressure from the host immune system, antigenic epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) have continually evolved to escape antibody recognition, termed antigenic drift. We analyzed the genomes of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2014 and assessed how well the yearly vaccine strains recommended for the southern hemisphere matched them. We amplified and sequenced the HA gene of 120 A(H3N2) and 81 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus samples obtained from respiratory specimens and calculated the perfect-match vaccine efficacy using the pepitope model, which quantitated the antigenic drift in the dominant epitope of HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the A(H3N2) HA1 genes classified most strains into genetic clades 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C. The A(H3N2) strains from the 2013 and 2014 seasons showed very low to moderate vaccine efficacy and demonstrated antigenic drift from epitopes C and A to epitope B. Meanwhile, most A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from the 2012-2014 seasons belonged to genetic clades 6A, 6B, and 6C and displayed the dominant epitope mutations at epitopes B and E. Finally, the vaccine efficacy for A(H1N1)pdm09 (79.6-93.4%) was generally higher than that of A(H3N2). These findings further confirmed the accelerating antigenic drift of the circulating influenza A(H3N2) in recent years.