SGK1 induces vascular smooth muscle cell calcification through NF-?B signaling.
ABSTRACT: Medial vascular calcification, associated with enhanced mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), is fostered by osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we describe that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) was upregulated in VSMCs under calcifying conditions. In primary human aortic VSMCs, overexpression of constitutively active SGK1S422D, but not inactive SGK1K127N, upregulated osteo-/chondrogenic marker expression and activity, effects pointing to increased osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation. SGK1S422D induced nuclear translocation and increased transcriptional activity of NF-?B. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of IKK abrogated the osteoinductive effects of SGK1S422D. Genetic deficiency, silencing, and pharmacological inhibition of SGK1 dissipated phosphate-induced calcification and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs. Aortic calcification, stiffness, and osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation in mice following cholecalciferol overload were strongly reduced by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition of Sgk1 by EMD638683. Similarly, Sgk1 deficiency blunted vascular calcification in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice after subtotal nephrectomy. Treatment of human aortic smooth muscle cells with serum from uremic patients induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation, effects ameliorated by EMD638683. These observations identified SGK1 as a key regulator of vascular calcification. SGK1 promoted vascular calcification, at least partly, via NF-?B activation. Inhibition of SGK1 may, thus, reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.
Project description:Vascular calcification resulting from hyperphosphatemia is a major determinant of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular calcification is driven by aldosterone-sensitive osteogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We show that even in absence of exogenous aldosterone, silencing and pharmacological inhibition (spironolactone, eplerenone) of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) ameliorated phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transformation of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). High phosphate concentrations up-regulated aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression in HAoSMCs. Silencing and deficiency of CYP11B2 in VSMCs ameliorated phosphate-induced osteogenic reprogramming and calcification. Phosphate treatment was followed by nuclear export of APEX1, a CYP11B2 transcriptional repressor. APEX1 silencing up-regulated CYP11B2 expression and stimulated osteo-/chondrogenic transformation. APEX1 overexpression blunted the phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transformation and calcification of HAoSMCs. Cyp11b2 expression was higher in aortic tissue of hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic (kl/kl) mice than in wild-type mice. In adrenalectomized kl/kl mice, spironolactone treatment still significantly ameliorated aortic osteoinductive reprogramming. Our findings suggest that VSMCs express aldosterone synthase, which is up-regulated by phosphate-induced disruption of APEX1-dependent gene suppression. Vascular CYP11B2 may contribute to stimulation of VSMCs osteo-/chondrogenic transformation during hyperphosphatemia.
Project description:Background The high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with CKD may result in large part from medial vascular calcification, a process promoted by hyperphosphatemia and involving osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Reduced serum zinc levels have frequently been observed in patients with CKD, but the functional relevance of this remains unclear.Methods We performed experiments in primary human aortic VSMCs; klotho-hypomorphic (kl/kl), subtotal nephrectomy, and cholecalciferol-overload mouse calcification models; and serum samples from patients with CKD.Results In cultured VSMCs, treatment with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) blunted phosphate-induced calcification, osteo-/chondrogenic signaling, and NF-κB activation. ZnSO4 increased the abundance of zinc-finger protein TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20), a suppressor of the NF-κB pathway, by zinc-sensing receptor ZnR/GPR39-dependent upregulation of TNFAIP3 gene expression. Silencing of TNFAIP3 in VSMCs blunted the anticalcific effects of ZnSO4 under high phosphate conditions. kl/kl mice showed reduced plasma zinc levels, and ZnSO4 supplementation strongly blunted vascular calcification and aortic osteoinduction and upregulated aortic Tnfaip3 expression. ZnSO4 ameliorated vascular calcification in mice with chronic renal failure and mice with cholecalciferol overload. In patients with CKD, serum zinc concentrations inversely correlated with serum calcification propensity. Finally, ZnSO4 ameliorated the osteoinductive effects of uremic serum in VSMCs.Conclusions Zinc supplementation ameliorates phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs and vascular calcification through an active cellular mechanism resulting from GPR39-dependent induction of TNFAIP3 and subsequent suppression of the NF-κB pathway. Zinc supplementation may be a simple treatment to reduce the burden of vascular calcification in CKD.
Project description:Medial vascular calcification occurs during the aging process and is strongly accelerated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality in CKD patients. CRP is an important promoter of vascular inflammation. Inflammatory processes are critically involved in initiation and progression of vascular calcification. Thus, the present study explored a possible impact of CRP on vascular calcification. We found that CRP promoted osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and aggravated phosphate-induced osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). These effects were paralleled by increased cellular oxidative stress and corresponding pro-calcific downstream-signaling. Antioxidants or p38 MAPK inhibition suppressed CRP-induced osteo-/chondrogenic signaling and mineralization. Furthermore, silencing of Fc fragment of IgG receptor IIa (FCGR2A) blunted the pro-calcific effects of CRP. Vascular CRP expression was increased in the klotho-hypomorphic mouse model of aging as well as in HAoSMCs during calcifying conditions. In conclusion, CRP augments osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells through mechanisms involving FCGR2A-dependent induction of oxidative stress. Thus, systemic inflammation may actively contribute to the progression of vascular calcification.
Project description:Vascular calcification (VC) is the process of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the blood vessel wall, with a central role for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and thought, in part, to be induced by phosphate imbalance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate VC are not fully known. Here we propose a novel role for the mineralisation regulator Ucma/GRP (Upper zone of growth plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated protein/Gla Rich Protein) in phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. We show that Ucma/GRP is present in calcified atherosclerotic plaques and highly expressed in calcifying VSMCs in vitro. VSMCs from Ucma/GRP-/- mice showed increased mineralisation and expression of osteo/chondrogenic markers (BMP-2, Runx2, ?-catenin, p-SMAD1/5/8, ALP, OCN), and decreased expression of mineralisation inhibitor MGP, suggesting that Ucma/GRP is an inhibitor of mineralisation. Using BMP signalling inhibitor noggin and SMAD1/5/8 signalling inhibitor dorsomorphin we showed that Ucma/GRP is involved in inhibiting the BMP-2-SMAD1/5/8 osteo/chondrogenic signalling pathway in VSMCs treated with elevated phosphate concentrations. Additionally, we showed for the first time evidence of a direct interaction between Ucma/GRP and BMP-2. These results demonstrate an important role of Ucma/GRP in regulating osteo/chondrogenic differentiation and phosphate-induced mineralisation of VSMCs.
Project description:Objective: To investigate the treatment and mechanism of lanthanum hydroxide on hyperphosphate-induced vascular calcification in chronic renal failure. Methods: Develop a rat model of CKD hyperphosphatemia. Rats were randomly allocated to the model, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum carbonate, Calcium carbonate groups. Determination of serum biochemical indicators and the determination of pathological analysis of kidney tissue, Von Kossa staining and CT scan on the aortic vessels. The proteomic analysis of aortic tissue in Vivo. A calcified VSMCs model was established. The calcium content and ALP activity were measured. RT-PCR measures the mRNA expression level of SM22α, Runx2, BMP-2 and TRAF6. Western Blot measures the protein expression level of SM22α, Runx2, BMP-2, TRAF6 and NF-κB. Results: Through the detection of serum biochemical indicators and pathological analysis of kidney tissue, it can be summaryed that lanthanum hydroxide has the effect of delaying the progression of renal failure and protecting renal function. We found that the administration of lanthanum hydroxide delayed the development of vascular calcification induced by hyperphosphatemia in CKD. It can be concluded that lanthanum hydroxide may affect vascular calcification through the NF-κB pathway. , To deal with Lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) inhibited phosphate induced calcification, osteo-/chondrogenic transdifferentiation, and NF-κB signaling in cultured VSMCs. Lanthanum hydroxide significantly reduces the expression of Runx2, BMP-2, TRAF6 and NF-κB. Conclusion: Lanthanum hydroxide has a protective effect on the kidneys, and can delay the development of vascular calcification by reducing serum phosphorus concentration.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is reported to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signal transduction. MGP deficiency is associated with medial calcification of the arterial wall, in a process that involves both osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and mesenchymal transition of endothelial cells (EndMT). In this study, we investigated the contribution of BMP signal transduction to the medial calcification that develops in MGP-deficient mice.<h4>Approach and results</h4>MGP-deficient mice (MGP(-/-)) were treated with one of two BMP signaling inhibitors, LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc, beginning one day after birth. Aortic calcification was assessed in 28-day-old mice by measuring the uptake of a fluorescent bisphosphonate probe and by staining tissue sections with Alizarin red. Aortic calcification was 80% less in MGP(-/-) mice treated with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc compared with vehicle-treated control animals (P<0.001 for both). LDN-193189-treated MGP(-/-) mice survived longer than vehicle-treated MGP(-/-) mice. Levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5 and Id1 mRNA (markers of BMP signaling) did not differ in the aortas from MGP(-/-) and wild-type mice. Markers of EndMT and osteogenesis were increased in MGP(-/-) aortas, an effect that was prevented by LDN-193189. Calcification of isolated VSMCs was also inhibited by LDN-193189.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Inhibition of BMP signaling leads to reduced vascular calcification and improved survival in MGP(-/-) mice. The EndMT and osteogenic transdifferentiation associated with MGP deficiency is dependent upon BMP signaling. These results suggest that BMP signal transduction has critical roles in the development of vascular calcification in MGP-deficient mice.
Project description:Vascular calcification, a pathologic response to defective calcium and phosphate homeostasis, is strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In this study, we have observed that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is upregulated and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex phosphorylation is increased in calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in calcified vessels of patients with atherosclerosis, suggesting that PDK4 plays an important role in vascular calcification. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PDK4 ameliorated the calcification in phosphate-treated VSMCs and aortic rings and in vitamin D3-treated mice. PDK4 augmented the osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs by phosphorylating SMAD1/5/8 via direct interaction, which enhances BMP2 signaling. Furthermore, increased expression of PDK4 in phosphate-treated VSMCs induced mitochondrial dysfunction followed by apoptosis. Taken together, our results show that upregulation of PDK4 promotes vascular calcification by increasing osteogenic markers with no adverse effect on bone formation, demonstrating that PDK4 is a therapeutic target for vascular calcification.
Project description:Accumulating experimental evidence implicates ?-catenin signaling and enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in the progression of vascular calcification, and our previous studies have shown that TG2 can activate ?-catenin signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here we investigated the role of the TG2/?-catenin signaling axis in vascular calcification induced by warfarin.Warfarin-induced calcification in rat A10 VSMCs is associated with the activation of ?-catenin signaling and is independent of oxidative stress. The canonical ?-catenin inhibitor Dkk1, but not the Wnt antagonist Wif-1, prevents warfarin-induced activation of ?-catenin, calcification, and osteogenic transdifferentiation in VSMCs. TG2 expression and activity are increased in warfarin-treated cells, in contrast to canonical Wnt ligands. Vascular cells with genetically or pharmacologically reduced TG2 activity fail to activate ?-catenin in response to warfarin. Moreover, warfarin-induced calcification is significantly reduced on the background of attenuated TG2 both in vitro and in vivo.TG2 is a critical mediator of warfarin-induced vascular calcification that acts through the activation of ?-catenin signaling in VSMCs. Inhibition of canonical ?-catenin pathway or TG2 activity prevents warfarin-regulated calcification, identifying the TG2/?-catenin axis as a novel therapeutic target in vascular calcification.
Project description:A pathologic osteochondrogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) promotes arterial calcifications, a process associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The molecular pathways promoting this pathology are not completely understood. We studied VSMCs, mouse aortic rings, and human aortic valves and showed here that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is upregulated early in the calcification process. Gain- and loss-of-function assays demonstrate that HDAC4 is a positive regulator driving this pathology. HDAC4 can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but in VSMCs, the cytoplasmic rather than the nuclear activity of HDAC4 promotes calcification, and a nuclear-localized mutant of HDAC4 fails to promote calcification. The cytoplasmic location and function of HDAC4 is controlled by the activity of salt-inducible kinase (SIK). Pharmacologic inhibition of SIK sends HDAC4 to the nucleus and inhibits the calcification process in VSMCs, aortic rings, and in vivo In the cytoplasm, HDAC4 binds and its activity depends on the adaptor protein ENIGMA (Pdlim7) to promote vascular calcification. These results establish a cytoplasmic role for HDAC4 and identify HDAC4, SIK, and ENIGMA as mediators of vascular calcification.
Project description:Phenotypic plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to cardiovascular disease. Chondrocyte-like transformation of VSMCs associates with vascular calcification and underlies the formation of aortic cartilaginous metaplasia induced in mice by genetic loss of matrix Gla protein (MGP). Previous microarray analysis identified a dramatic downregulation of Wnt16 in calcified MGP-null aortae, suggesting an antagonistic role for Wnt16 in the chondrogenic transformation of VSMCs.Wnt16 is significantly downregulated in MGP-null aortae, before the histological appearance of cartilaginous metaplasia, and in primary MGP-null VSMCs. In contrast, intrinsic TGF? is activated in MGP-null VSMCs and is necessary for spontaneous chondrogenesis of these cells in high-density micromass cultures. TGF?3-induced chondrogenic transformation in wild-type VSMCs associates with Smad2/3-dependent Wnt16 downregulation, but Wnt16 does not suppress TGF?3-induced Smad activation. In addition, TGF?3 inhibits Notch signaling in wild-type VSMCs, and this pathway is downregulated in MGP-null aortae. Exogenous Wnt16 stimulates Notch activity and attenuates TGF?3-induced downregulation of Notch in wild-type VSMCs, prevents chondrogenesis in MGP-null and TGF?3-treated wild-type VSMCs, and stabilizes expression of contractile markers of differentiated VSMCs.We describe a novel TGF?-Wnt16-Notch signaling conduit in the chondrocyte-like transformation of VSMCs and identify endogenous TGF? activity in MGP-null VSMCs as a critical mediator of chondrogenesis. Our proposed model suggests that the activated TGF? pathway inhibits expression of Wnt16, which is a positive regulator of Notch signaling and a stabilizer of VSMC phenotype. These data advance the comprehensive mechanistic understanding of VSMC transformation and may identify a novel potential therapeutic target in vascular calcification.