Modification of the TNM Staging System for Stage II/III Gastric Cancer Based on a Prognostic Single Patient Classifier Algorithm.
ABSTRACT: The modification of the cancer classification system aimed to improve the classical anatomy-based tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging by considering tumor biology, which is associated with patient prognosis, because such information provides additional precision and flexibility.We previously developed an mRNA expression-based single patient classifier (SPC) algorithm that could predict the prognosis of patients with stage II/III gastric cancer. We also validated its utilization in clinical settings. The prognostic single patient classifier (pSPC) differentiates based on 3 prognostic groups (low-, intermediate-, and high-risk), and these groups were considered as independent prognostic factors along with TNM stages. We evaluated whether the modified TNM staging system based on the pSPC has a better prognostic performance than the TNM 8th edition staging system. The data of 652 patients who underwent gastrectomy with curative intent for gastric cancer between 2000 and 2004 were evaluated. Furthermore, 2 other cohorts (n=307 and 625) from a previous study were assessed. Thus, 1,584 patients were included in the analysis. To modify the TNM staging system, one-grade down-staging was applied to low-risk patients according to the pSPC in the TNM 8th edition staging system; for intermediate- and high-risk groups, the modified TNM and TNM 8th edition staging systems were identical.Among the 1,584 patients, 187 (11.8%), 664 (41.9%), and 733 (46.3%) were classified into the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively, according to the pSPC. pSPC prognoses and survival curves of the overall population were well stratified, and the TNM stage-adjusted hazard ratios of the intermediate- and high-risk groups were 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-2.72; P<0.001) and 2.54 (95% CI, 1.84-3.50; P<0.001), respectively. Using Harrell's C-index, the prognostic performance of the modified TNM system was evaluated, and the results showed that its prognostic performance was better than that of the TNM 8th edition staging system in terms of overall survival (0.635 vs. 0.620, P<0.001).The pSPC-modified TNM staging is an alternative staging system for stage II/III gastric cancer.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the validity of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system for gastric cancer. Methods:The clinicopathologic data of 7371 patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancer and had 16 or more involved lymph nodes (LNs) were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and retrospectively reviewed. Results:Stage migration occurred primarily during stage III between the 7th and 8th edition TNM staging systems. Stages IIIB and IIIC in the 7th edition staging system were divided in the 8th edition and had obvious differences in survival rates (both P < 0.001). The 8th edition TNM stages IIIC and IV showed similar survival rates (P = 0.101). The prognosis of patients with T4aN3bM0 was not different from that of patients with TxNxM1 (P = 0.433), while the prognosis of patients with T4bN3bM0 was significantly poorer than that of patients with TxNxM1 (P = 0.008). A revised TNM system with both T4aN3bM0 and T4bN3bM0 incorporated into stage IV was proposed. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the revised TNM system, but not the 7th and 8th editions, was an independent factor for disease-specific survival (DSS) in the third step of the analysis. Further analyses revealed that the revised TNM system had superior discriminatory ability to the 8th edition staging system, which was also an improvement over the 7th edition staging system. Conclusion:The 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system is superior to the 7th edition for predicting the DSS rates of gastric cancer patients. However, for better prognostic stratification, it might be more suitable for T4aN3bM0/T4bN3bM0 to be incorporated into stage IV in the 8th edition TNM staging system.
Project description:Background: Considerable modifications have been introduced in the new edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system. Based on the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, this study aimed to compare the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system for patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and follicular variant papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FVPTMC). Methods: A Data from 2004 to 2014 of 39,032 patients registered in the SEER database were included. The 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC staging system were compared in terms of TNM staging, age cutoff, and clinical staging. Patient survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification system was integrated with the AJCC/UICC staging system for further investigation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Harrell's C-index, Akaike information criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used to assess the models' performances. Results: Revised TNM categories, age cutoff, and clinical staging in the 8th edition resulted in reclassification of the overall stage. Applying the 8th edition, 1,278 stage III and 425 stage IV patients were reclassified as stage I; 950 stage III and 459 stage IV patients were reclassified as stage II; 77 stage IV patients were reclassified as stage III; and only 88 patients remained in stage IV. All patients in stage I, according to the 7th edition, remained in this stage when using the 8th edition. Patients classified into higher stages (III and IV) in the 8th edition showed a worse prognosis than those classified into same stages in the 7th edition. The 8th edition proved to be a better model with higher prognostic efficacy survival (higher AUC and C-index, lower AIC and BIC) than the 7th edition. When integrated with the ATA risk stratification system, the 8th edition still showed better discriminative power for patients in the higher risk group. Conclusion: Based on the SEER database, the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC staging system has better prognostic efficacy than the 7th edition for patients with PTMC and FVPTMC.
Project description:The 8th edition of the TNM was released in 2016 and included major revisions, especially for stage III. We aimed to compare the prognostic value of the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC TNM classification for stage III gastric cancer. Clinical data from 1557 patients operated on for stage III gastric cancer according to the 7th edition between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed and compared using the 7th and 8th TNM classifications. A proposed staging system was established, and the three systems were compared in terms of prognostic performance. The stage shifted for 669 (42.96%) patients. It shifted from IIIA to IIIB (one patient, 0.06%), IIIB to IIIA (230 patients, 14.8%), IIIB to IIIC (94 patients, 6.0%), and IIIC to IIIB (344 patients, 22.1%). However, the new AJCC subgroupings did not prove distinctive for survival levels between T3N3aM0 (stage IIIB) and T3N3bM0 (stage IIIC) or between T4aN3aM0 (stage IIIB) and T4aN3bM0 (stage IIIC) when <30 lymph nodes (LNs) were resected. The performance of the 8th edition (c-index, 0.614; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.596-0.633) revealed no relevant improvement compared to the 7th edition (c-index, 0.624; 95% CI, 0.605-0.643). The proposed staging system generated the best prognostic stratification. The 8th TNM edition may not provide better accuracy in predicting the prognosis of stage III gastric cancer. The proposed staging system, comprised of a combination of the number of LNs harvested and the 7th and 8th AJCC classifications, may improve predictive capacities for stage III gastric cancer.
Project description:This study compared the prognostic significance of staging between the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study population comprised patients with liver cancer registered in the Taiwan Cancer Database from 2007 to 2013 and was followed up until December 31, 2016. The study included patients with HCC, with known staging in both TNM and BCLC systems, and with follow-up >1 month. Primary endpoint was overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were constructed to investigate the significance of staging by two systems. Goodness-of-fit of model was evaluated via Akaike's information criterion (AIC), the lower the better. Among 73,136 patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, a total of 37,062 patients with HCC (25.6% underwent surgery) were eligible. The mean age and overall survival of this cohort were 63.9?years and 27.2%, respectively. Overall survivals for stages I, II, III, and IV (the TNM system) were 54.5%, 34.9%, 10.3%, and 6.4%, respectively. Overall survivals for stages A, B, C, and D (the BCLC classification) were 54.5%, 29.2%, 9.8%, and 4.0%, respectively. The median follow-up time was 59.4 months. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model revealed that both systems predicted overall survival, cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and local recurrence-free rate well. Values of ?AIC of the BCLC classification and the TNM system were lower for the surgery group and nonsurgery group, respectively. The TNM system (8th edition) predicted long-term outcome better than the BCLC classification in patients with HCC. But in patients treated initially with surgery, the BCLC classification outperformed the 8th edition of the TNM system. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This work demonstrates that the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) system (8th edition) and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification both predict long-term outcome significantly in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma but that the TNM system (8th edition) predicts long-term outcome better than the BCLC classification. For patients treated initially with surgery, BCLC classification outperforms in 8th edition TNM system in predicting long-term outcome.
Project description:Recently, the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification and the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system were released. This study was conducted to assess the clinical value of the lymph node ratio (LNR) as a predictor of recurrence when integrated with these newly released stratification systems, and to compare the predictive accuracy of the modified systems with that of the newly released systems. The optimal LNR threshold value for predicting papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence was 0.17857 using the Contal and O'Quigley method. The 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system with the LNR and the 2015 ATA risk stratification system with the LNR were significant predictors of recurrence. Furthermore, calculation of the proportion of variance explained (PVE), the Akaike information criterion (AIC), Harrell's c index, and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) revealed that the 8th edition of the TNM staging system with the LNR, and the 2015 ATA risk stratification system with the LNR, showed the best predictive performance. Integration of the LNR with the TNM staging and the ATA risk stratification systems should improve prediction of recurrence in patients with PTC.
Project description:Background:Preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer determines the choice of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system was revised to its 8th version in 2016, there has been no report correlating the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging with preoperative MRI examinations and pathological findings. The purpose of our study is to determine the staging accuracy and evaluate the resectability by using MRI about pancreatic cancer compared with intraoperative or pathological findings according to the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system. Methods:One hundred thirty-two patients with a pathological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer who underwent preoperative MRI were identified. The clinical data, MRI findings and pathological findings were analyzed. Preoperative MRI staging and resectability evaluation were compared with pathological findings. The accuracy of MRI for preoperative T and N staging was evaluated, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in evaluating the resectability were assessed. All the staging and resectability assessments were according to the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system. Results:Analysis showed that the accuracy of MRI for evaluation of the T and N stages was 82.6% (109/132) and 74.2% (98/132), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in assessing the resectability were 94.2% and 71.4%, respectively. Integrating the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM stage, no significant differences were identified between the preoperative MRI and pathological results for the staging of pancreatic cancer (P=0.805). Conclusions:MRI is highly accurate for T staging and moderately accurate for N staging. MRI provides important preoperative evaluation of the stage and resectability of pancreatic cancer based on the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system.
Project description:Background:The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system was released with major revisions. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate differences between the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system and to compare the predictability of prognosis between the two staging systems with patients who underwent thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at a single institution. Methods:A total of 3238 patients underwent thyroid operation from January 2002 to December 2006 at Yonsei University Hospital (Seoul, Korea), of which 2294 with complete clinical data and sustained follow up were enrolled. Clinicopathologic features and TNM staging by applying the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC were analyzed retrospectively by the complete review of medical charts and pathology reports of patients. Mean follow-up duration was 132.9?±?27.9?months. Results:A significant number of T3 patients were downstaged to T1 (838, 36.5%) and T2 (122, 5.3%). After applying the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, the number of stage?I patients increased significantly from 1434 (62.5%) to 2058 (89.7%), whereas numbers of stage III and IV patients decreased significantly from 644 (28.1%) to 33 (1.4%) and from 199 (8.7%) to 17 (0.7%), respectively. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and values of the Harrell's c-index and integrated area under the curve (iAUC), the 8th edition has significantly better predictive performance for disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than the 7th edition. Conclusions:A significant population was downstaged after applying the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, and the 8th edition provided significantly better accuracy in predicting DFS and DSS in patients with DTC.
Project description:PURPOSE:The new 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/International Union for Cancer Control (UICC) lung cancer staging system was developed and internally validated using the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) database, but external validation is needed. The goal of this study is to validate the discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of this new staging system in a larger, independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort with greater emphasis on North American patients. METHODS:A total of 858,909 NSCLC cases with one malignant primary tumor collected from 2004 to 2013 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were analyzed. The primary coding guidelines of the Collaborative Staging Manual and Coding Instructions for the new 8th edition AJCC/UICC lung cancer staging system was used to define the new T, M and TNM stages for all patients in the database. Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression models and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics were used to compare the discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of the 7th and the revised 8th T, M categories and overall stages. RESULTS:We demonstrated that the 8th staging system provides better discriminatory ability than the 7th staging system and predicts prognosis for NSCLC patients using the NCDB. There were significant survival differences between adjacent groups defined by both clinical staging and pathologic staging systems. These staging parameters were significantly associated with survival after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS:The updated T, M, and overall TNM stage of the 8th staging system show improvement compared to the 7th edition in discriminatory ability between adjacent subgroups and are independent predictors for prognosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) classification showed superiority over 8th edition N staging in predicting survival of small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) patients. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Tumor, LODDS, and Metastasis (TLM) staging of SBA. METHODS:Totally 1789 SBA patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 1988-2010, 437 patients from SEER database between 2011-2013 and 166 patients from multicenters were categorized into development, validation and test cohort, respectively. The TLM staging was developed in the development cohort using Ensemble Algorithm for Clustering Cancer Data (EACCD) method. C-index was used to assess the performance of the TLM staging in predicting cancer-specific survival (CSS) and was compared with the traditional 8th edition TNM staging. FINDINGS:Four-category TLM staging designed for the development cohort showed higher discriminatory power than TNM staging in predicting CSS in the development cohort (0.682 vs. 0.650, P < 0.001), validation cohort (0.682 vs. 0.654, P = 0.022), and test cohort (0.659 vs. 0.611, P = 0.023), respectively. TLM staging continued to show its higher predictive efficacy than the 8th TNM in TNM stage II/III patients or in patients with lymph node yield less than 8. INTERPRETATION:TLM staging showed a better prognostic performance than the 8th TNM staging especially TNM stage II/III or patients with lymph node yield less than 8 and therefore, could serve to complement the TNM staging in patients with SBA. FUNDING:A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) staging classifications are two broadly used systems for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. This study aims to identify the most accurate and useful tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system for poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (pNECs). METHODS:An analysis was performed to evaluate the application of the ENETS, 7th edition (7th) AJCC and 8th edition (8th) AJCC staging classifications using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry (N?=?568 patients), and a modified system based on the analysis of the 7th AJCC classification was proposed. RESULTS:In multivariable analyses, only the 7th AJCC staging system allocated patients into four different risk groups, although there was no significant difference. We modified the staging classification by maintaining the T and M definitions of the 7th AJCC staging and adopting new staging definitions. An increased hazard ratio (HR) of death was also observed from class I to class IV for the modified 7th (m7th) staging system (compared with stage I disease; HR for stage II =1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.73-2.06, P?=?0.44; HR for stage III =2.20, 95% CI =1.06-4.56, P?=?0.03; HR for stage IV =4.95, 95% CI =3.20-7.65, P?<?0.001). The concordance index (C-index) was higher for local disease with the m7th AJCC staging system than with the 7th AJCC staging system. CONCLUSIONS:The m7th AJCC staging system for pNECs proposed in this study provides improvements and may be assessed for potential adoption in the next edition.