Activation of Self-Incompatibility Signaling in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana Is Independent of AP2-Based Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.
ABSTRACT: Internalization of plasma membrane (PM)-localized ligand-activated receptor kinases and their trafficking to sorting endosomes have traditionally been viewed as functioning primarily in the down-regulation of receptor signaling, but are now considered to be also essential for signaling by some receptors. A major mechanism for internalization of PM proteins is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). CME is mediated by the Adaptor Protein Complex 2 (AP2), which is involved in interaction of the AP2 ?-adaptin subunit with a tyrosine-based Yxx? motif located in the cytoplasmic domain of the cargo protein. In this study, we investigated the role of AP2-mediated CME for signaling by the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), a protein localized in the PM of stigma epidermal cells, which, together with its pollen coat-localized S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) ligand, functions in the self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants that were made self-incompatible by transformation with an A. lyrata-derived SRK/SCR gene pair, we tested the effect on SI of site-directed mutations in each of the two Yxx? motifs in SRK and of a CRISPR/Cas9-induced null mutation in the AP2 ?-adaptin gene AP2M Both in vitro SRK kinase activity and the in planta SI response were abolished by substitution of tyrosine in one of the two Yxx? motifs, but were unaffected by elimination of either the second Yxx? motif or AP2M function. Thus, AP2-mediated CME is considered to be unnecessary for SRK signaling in the SI response.
Project description:Intraspecific mate selectivity often is enforced by self-incompatibility (SI), a barrier to self-pollination that inhibits productive pollen-pistil interactions. In the Brassicaceae, SI specificity is determined by two highly-polymorphic proteins: the stigmatic S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Arabidopsis thaliana is self fertile, but several of its accessions can be made to express SI, albeit to various degrees, by transformation with functional SRK-SCR gene pairs isolated from its close self-incompatible relative, Arabidopsis lyrata. Here, we use a newly identified induced mutation that suppresses the SI phenotype in stigmas of SRK-SCR transformants of the Col-0 accession to investigate the regulation of SI and the SRK transgene. This mutation disrupts NRPD1a, a gene that encodes a plant-specific nuclear RNA polymerase required for genomic methylation and production of some types of silencing RNAs. We show that NRPD1a, along with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RDR2, is required for SI in some A. thaliana accessions. We also show that Col-0 nrpd1a mutants exhibit decreased accumulation of SRK transcripts in stigmas, which is not, however, responsible for loss of SI in these plants. Together, our analysis of the nrpd1a mutation and of SRK promoter activity in various accessions reveals that the SRK transgene is subject to several levels of regulation, which vary substantially by tissue type and by accession. This study thus helps explain the well-documented differences in expression of SI exhibited by SRK-SCR transformants of different A. thaliana accessions.
Project description:Cellulose biosynthesis is performed exclusively by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CESAs). Therefore, the trafficking of CESAs to and from the plasma membrane is an important mechanism for regulating cellulose biosynthesis. CESAs were recently identified as cargo proteins of the classic adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway. The AP2 complex of the CME pathway is conserved in yeast, animals, and plants, and has been well-characterized in many systems. In contrast, the recently discovered TPLATE complex (TPC), which is proposed to function as a CME adaptor complex, is only conserved in plants and a few other eukaryotes. In this study, we discovered that the TWD40-2 protein, a putative member of the TPC, is also important for the endocytosis of CESAs. Genetic analysis between TWD40-2 and AP2M of the AP2 complex revealed that the roles of TWD40-2 in CME are both distinct from and cooperative with the AP2 complex. Loss of efficient CME in twd40-2-3 resulted in the unregulated overaccumulation of CESAs at the plasma membrane. In seedlings of twd40-2-3 and other CME-deficient mutants, a direct correlation was revealed between endocytic deficiency and cellulose content deficiency, highlighting the importance of controlled CESA endocytosis in regulating cellulose biosynthesis.
Project description:The S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), which is expressed in stigma epidermal cells, is responsible for the recognition and inhibition of 'self' pollen in the self-incompatibility (SI) response of the Brassicaceae. The allele-specific interaction of SRK with its cognate pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) protein, is thought to trigger a signalling cascade within the stigma epidermal cell that leads to the arrest of 'self' pollen at the stigma surface. In addition to the full-length signalling SRK receptor, stigma epidermal cells express two other SRK protein species that lack the kinase domain and whose role in the SI response is not understood: a soluble version of the SRK ectodomain designated eSRK and a membrane-tethered form designated tSRK. The goal of this study was to describe the sub-cellular distribution of the various SRK protein species in stigma epidermal cells as a prelude to visualizing receptor dynamics in response to SCR binding.The Arabidopsis lyrata SRKb variant was tagged with the Citrine variant of yellow fluorescent protein (cYFP) and expressed in A. thaliana plants of the C24 accession, which had been shown to exhibit a robust SI response upon transformation with the SRKb-SCRb gene pair. The transgenes used in this study were designed for differential production and visualization of the three SRK protein species in stigma epidermal cells. Transgenic stigmas were analysed by pollination assays and confocal microscopy.Pollination assays demonstrated that the cYFP-tagged SRK proteins are functional and that the eSRK is not required for SI. Confocal microscopic analysis of cYFP-tagged SRK proteins in live stigma epidermal cells revealed the differential sub-cellular localization of the three SRK protein species but showed no evidence for redistribution of these proteins subsequent to incompatible pollination.
Project description:The self-incompatibility (SI) system of the Brassicaceae is based on allele-specific interactions among haplotypes of the S locus. In all tested self-incompatible Brassicaceae, the S haplotype encompasses two linked genes, one encoding the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), a transmembrane kinase displayed at the surface of stigma epidermal cells, and the other encoding its ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR) protein, which is localized in the pollen coat. Transfer of the two genes to self-fertile Arabidopsis thaliana allowed the establishment of robust SI in several accessions, indicating that the signaling cascade triggered by this receptor-ligand interaction and the resulting inhibition of "self" pollen by the stigma have been maintained in extant A. thaliana. Based on studies in Brassica species, the membrane-tethered kinase MLPK, the ARM repeat-containing U-box protein ARC1, and the exocyst subunit Exo70A1 have been proposed to function as components of an SI signaling cascade. Here we tested the role of these molecules in the SI response of A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. We show that the A. thaliana ARC1 ortholog is a highly decayed pseudogene. We also show that, unlike reports in Brassica, inactivation of the MLPK ortholog AtAPK1b and overexpression of Exo70A1 neither abolish nor weaken SI in A. thaliana SRK-SCR plants. These results do not support a role for these molecules in the SI response of A. thaliana.
Project description:The interplay of balancing selection within a species and rapid gene evolution between species can confound our ability to determine the functional equivalence of interspecific and intergeneric pairs of alleles underlying reproduction. In crucifer plants, mating specificity in the barrier to self-fertilization called self-incompatibility (SI) is controlled by allele-specific interactions between two highly polymorphic and co-evolving proteins, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its S-locus cysteine rich (SCR) ligand. These proteins have diversified both within and between species such that it is often difficult to determine from sequence information alone if they encode the same or different SI specificity. The self-fertile Arabidopsis thaliana was derived from an obligate outbreeding ancestor by loss of self-incompatibility, often in conjunction with inactivation of SRK or SCR. Nevertheless, some accessions of A. thaliana can express self-incompatibility upon transformation with an SRK-SCR gene pair isolated from its self-incompatible close relative A. lyrata. Here we show that several additional and highly diverged SRK/SCR genes from A. lyrata and another crucifer plant, Capsella grandiflora, confer self-incompatibility in A. thaliana, either as intact genes isolated from genomic libraries or after manipulation to generate chimeric fusions. We describe how the use of this newly developed chimeric protein strategy has allowed us to test the functional equivalence of SRK/SCR gene pairs from different taxa and to assay the functionality of endogenous A. thaliana SRK and SCR sequences.
Project description:The critical initiation phase of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) determines where and when endocytosis occurs. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complexes, which initiate clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly, are activated by conformational changes in response to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and cargo binding at multiple sites. However, the functional hierarchy of interactions and how these conformational changes relate to distinct steps in CCP formation in living cells remains unknown. We used quantitative live-cell analyses to measure discrete early stages of CME and show how sequential, allosterically regulated conformational changes activate AP2 to drive both nucleation and subsequent stabilization of nascent CCPs. Our data establish that cargoes containing Yxx? motif, but not dileucine motif, play a critical role in the earliest stages of AP2 activation and CCP nucleation. Interestingly, these cargo and PIP2 interactions are not conserved in yeast. Thus, we speculate that AP2 has evolved as a key regulatory node to coordinate CCP formation and cargo sorting and ensure high spatial and temporal regulation of CME.
Project description:Self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread mechanism in flowering plants which prevents self-fertilization and inbreeding. In Brassica, recognition of the highly polymorphic S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR; or S-locus protein 11) by the similarly polymorphic S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) dictates the SI specificity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of SRK9 (eSRK9) in complex with SCR9 from Brassica rapa. SCR9 binding induces eSRK9 homodimerization, forming a 2:2 eSRK:SCR heterotetramer with a shape like the letter "A". Specific recognition of SCR9 is mediated through three hyper-variable (hv) regions of eSRK9. Each SCR9 simultaneously interacts with hvI and one-half of hvII from one eSRK9 monomer and the other half of hvII from the second eSRK9 monomer, playing a major role in mediating SRK9 homodimerization without involving interaction between the two SCR9 molecules. Single mutations of residues critical for the eSRK9-SCR9 interaction disrupt their binding in vitro. Our study rationalizes a body of data on specific recognition of SCR by SRK and provides a structural template for understanding the co-evolution between SRK and SCR.
Project description:Multimeric adaptors are broadly involved in vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking. AP2 adaptor, in particular, plays a central role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) by recruiting cargo and clathrin to endocytic sites. It is generally thought that trafficking adaptors such as AP2 adaptor assemble spontaneously. In this work, however, we discovered that AP2 adaptor assembly is an ordered process controlled by alpha and gamma adaptin binding protein (AAGAB), an uncharacterized factor identified in our genome-wide genetic screen of CME. AAGAB guides the sequential association of AP2 subunits and stabilizes assembly intermediates. Without the assistance of AAGAB, AP2 subunits fail to form the adaptor complex, leading to their degradation. The function of AAGAB is abrogated by a mutation that causes punctate palmoplantar keratoderma type 1 (PPKP1), a human skin disease. Since other multimeric trafficking adaptors operate in an analogous manner to AP2 adaptor, their assembly likely involves a similar regulatory mechanism.
Project description:In higher plants, the self-incompatibility mechanism is important for inhibition of self-fertilization and facilitation of out-crossing. In Brassicaceae, the self-incompatibility response is mediated by allele-specific interaction of the stigma-localized S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) with the pollen coat-localized ligand (SCR/SP11). All self-incompatible Brassicaceae plants analyzed have been found to have the SRK and SCR/SP11 genes in the S-locus region. Although Arabidopsis thaliana is self-compatible, transformation with functional SRK-SCR genes from self-incompatible Arabidopsis species confers the self-incompatibility phenotype to A. thaliana. The allele-specific interaction between SRK and SCR activates the downstream signaling cascade of self-incompatibility. Yeast two-hybrid analysis with a kinase domain of SRK as bait and genetic analysis suggested several candidate components of self-incompatibility signaling in Brassica. Recently, A. thaliana genes orthologous to the identified genes for Brassica self-incompatibility signaling were evaluated by using a self-incompatible transgenic A. thaliana plant and these orthologous genes were found not to be involved in self-incompatibility signaling in the transgenic A. thaliana. In this review, we describe common and different aspects of S-locus genomic regions and self-incompatibility signaling between Brassica and Arabidopsis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Brassica napus (AACC) is self-compatible, although its ancestor species Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC) are self-incompatible. Most B.napus accessions have dominant self-compatibility (SC) resulting from an insertion of 3.6 kb in the promoter region of BnSCR-1 on the A genome, while recessive SC in B.napus has rarely been observed. Expression and cloning of SRK and SCR genes and genetic analysis were carried out to dissect bases of recessive SC in B.napus. RESULTS: Eleven accessions were screened to identify stable recessive SC and had the S genotype BnS-7 on the A genome and BnS-6 on the C genome similarly to BrS-29 and BoS-15, respectively. In eight SC accessions, BnSCR-7 and BnSCR-6 were nearly undetectable and harbored no structural mutations in the promoters, while SRK genes were expressed at normal levels and contained intact CDS, with the exception of BnSRK-7 in line C32. SRK and SCR genes were expressed normally but their CDSs had no mutations in three SC accessions. In self-incompatible S-1300 and 11 F1 hybrids, SRK genes and BnSCR-1300 transcripts were present at high levels, while expression of the BnSCR-7 and BnSCR-6 were absent. Plants of S genotype S1300S1300 were completely SI, while SI phenotypes of SBnS-7SBnS-7 and S1300SBnS-7 plants were segregated in BC1 and F2 populations. CONCLUSIONS: The recessive SC in eight accessions is caused by the loss of function of BnSCR-7 and BnSCR-6 in pollen. Translational repression contributes to the recessive SC in three accessions, whose SRK and SCR genes were expressed normally and had identical CDSs to BrS-29 or BoS-15. SI in 11 F1 hybrids relies on the expression of BnSCR-1300 rather than SRK genes. Other factor(s) independent of the S locus are involved in recessive SC. Therefore, diverse causes underlie recessive SC in B. napus, yielding insight into these complex mechanisms.