A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Vilazodone in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder.
ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious illness in children and adolescents. Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor approved for MDD in adults. This study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vilazodone in adolescent patients, ages 12-17 years, with MDD (NCT01878292).This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, fixed-dose study was conducted at 56 study centers in the United States and was 10 weeks in duration (a 1-week screening period, an 8-week double-blind treatment period, and a 1-week double-blind down-taper period). Outpatients with an MDD diagnosis based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria were included in the study. Clinical inclusion criteria required a Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total score of ? 40 and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score of ? 4. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 174), vilazodone 15 mg/day (n = 175), or vilazodone 30 mg/day (n = 180). The primary and secondary efficacy parameters were change from baseline to week 8 in CDRS-R total score and CGI-S score, respectively. Safety parameters included adverse events (AEs); clinical laboratory, vital sign, and electrocardiogram parameters; and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale.Approximately 86% of patients completed double-blind treatment. There was no statistically significant difference between vilazodone 15 mg/day or 30 mg/day and placebo in change from baseline in CDRS-R score. Change in CGI-S score was not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea, upper abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, nasopharyngitis, headache, and dizziness. Reports of suicidal ideation (placebo, 33.3%; vilazodone 15 mg/day, 36.0%; vilazodone 30 mg/day, 31.1%) and suicidal behavior (placebo, 1.8%; vilazodone 15 mg/day, 1.1%; vilazodone 30 mg/day, 1.1%) were similar between treatment groups. There were no deaths in the study.The efficacy of vilazodone for the treatment of MDD in adolescent patients could not be confirmed in this study. Vilazodone was generally safe and well tolerated, with treatment-emergent AEs similar to those in adult patients.NCT01878292.
Project description:Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of vilazodone in children and adolescent outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Children and adolescents aged 7-17 years of age with MDD were randomized 2:2:1 to 8 weeks of double-blind placebo, vilazodone 15 or 30?mg/day or fluoxetine 20?mg/day, respectively. The primary and secondary efficacy outcomes, respectively, were change from baseline to week 8 in Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) score total score and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) score analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurement approach. Patients who completed the 8-week randomized controlled trial (RCT), as well as new (de novo) patients, could participate in a 26-week, vilazodone-only, open-label extension (OLE) study. Results: The RCT enrolled 473 patients (60% female) with an average age of 13 years. Change in CDRS-R and CGI-S scores from baseline to week 8 did not differ between patients who received vilazodone and those randomized to placebo. The least-squares mean change from baseline in CDRS-R scores was similar for vilazodone and placebo (-20.7 vs. -20.3, p?=?0.77; least-squares mean difference [LSMD]?=?-0.40). For fluoxetine, the LSMD versus placebo was -2.3 (p?=?0.14). The OLE enrolled 330 patients (60% female) with an average age of 13-14 years. Overall, no new safety concerns were identified compared to what is known in adults. Conclusions: Similar improvements in depressive symptoms were observed in all arms. This study does not support the efficacy of vilazodone 15 or 30?mg/day for pediatric patients with MDD. No new or unexpected safety concerns were detected during the RCT or OLE studies.
Project description:Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A partial agonist approved for major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment in adults. This was a 10-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, fixed-dose trial (NCT01473381). Adult patients with MDD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision criteria) were randomized 1?:?1?:?1?:?1 to vilazodone 20 or 40?mg/day, citalopram 40?mg/day, or placebo. Primary efficacy: Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); secondary efficacy: Clinical Global Impressions-Severity and sustained response (MADRS total score?12 for at least the last two consecutive double-blind visits). The intent-to-treat population comprised 1133 patients, (placebo=281; vilazodone 20?mg/day=288; vilazodone 40?mg/day=284; citalopram=280). MADRS and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score change from baseline to week 10 was significantly greater for vilazodone 20?mg/day, vilazodone 40?mg/day, and citalopram versus placebo. Sustained response rates were numerically higher, but not significantly different, in all active treatment groups versus placebo. The most common adverse events (?5% of vilazodone patients, twice the rate of placebo) were diarrhea, nausea, vomiting (vilazodone 40?mg/day only), and insomnia. Improved sexual function (Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire scores) was seen in all groups; between-group differences were not significant. Vilazodone 20 and 40?mg/day demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of MDD.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extended efficacy, safety, and tolerability of escitalopram relative to placebo in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD).Adolescents (12-17 years) who completed an 8-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled, lead-in study of escitalopram 10-20 mg versus placebo could enroll in a 16-24-week, multisite extension trial; patients maintained the same lead-in randomization (escitalopram or placebo) and dosage (escitalopram 10 or 20 mg/day, or placebo) during the extension. The primary efficacy was Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) change from the lead-in study baseline to treatment week 24 (8-week lead-in study plus 16-week extension); the secondary efficacy was Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score at week 24. All efficacy analyses used the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach; sensitivity analyses used observed cases (OC) and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety was evaluated via adverse event (AE) reports and the clinician-rated Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS).Following lead-in, 165 patients enrolled in the double-blind extension (82 placebo; 83 escitalopram); 40 (48.8%) placebo and 37 (44.6%) escitalopram patients completed treatment. CDRS-R total score improvement was significantly greater for escitalopram than for placebo (p=0.005, LOCF; p=0.014; MMRM). Response rates (CDRS-R ? 40% reduction from baseline [adjusted and unadjusted] and CGI-I ? 2) were significantly higher for escitalopram than for placebo (LOCF); remission rates (CDRS-R ? 28) were 50.6% for escitalopram and 35.7% for placebo (p=0.002). OC analyses were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent escitalopram AEs (? 5% and more frequent than placebo) were headache, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. Most AEs were mild/moderate and not related to the study drug. AEs suggestive of self-harm occurred in 5.7% and 7.1% of placebo and escitalopram patients. Occurrence of suicidal behavior and/or suicidal ideation assessed by C-SSRS was 10.9% (14/128) for placebo and 14.5% (19/131) for escitalopram.Extended use of escitalopram was generally safe and resulted in modest improvement in efficacy in adolescents with MDD.
Project description:This randomized withdrawal study assessed relapse prevention with vilazodone in adults with major depressive disorder. After 20 weeks of open-label treatment with vilazodone 40?mg/day, responders were randomized (1?:?1?:?1) to 28 weeks of double-blind, fixed-dose treatment with vilazodone 20?mg/day, vilazodone 40?mg/day, or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was time to first relapse, defined as Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score of at least 18 and meeting major depressive episode criteria, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score of at least 18 at two consecutive visits, or discontinuation for an insufficient therapeutic response. Of 1204 patients who received open-label treatment, 564 completed treatment and were randomized (placebo=192, vilazodone 20?mg/day=185, vilazodone 40?mg/day=187). No significant difference was detected in time to relapse during the double-blind period (P>0.05). The crude percentage of patients that relapsed was similar between treatment groups (placebo=12.6%; vilazodone 20?mg/day=11.4%; vilazodone 40?mg/day=13.4%). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were diarrhea (29.6%), nausea (24.0%), and headache (14.0%) during open-label treatment and headache (8.9%), nasopharyngitis (8.4%), and diarrhea (7.5%) during double-blind treatment in the combined vilazodone groups (20 and 40?mg/day). In conclusion, time to relapse with vilazodone was not statistically different from placebo. Vilazodone was generally well tolerated in adults with major depressive disorder.
Project description:Vilazodone, a selective and potent 5-HT1A partial agonist and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, has been approved for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. The primary objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of switching to 3 different doses of vilazodone from an equivalent dose range of generic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in adult subjects with MDD.This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 3-arm trial to compare vilazodone 10 mg/d, 20 mg/d, and 40 mg/d as starting doses. Data were collected from December 2012 to December 2013. There was no washout phase, prior medications were stopped at the baseline visit, and vilazodone was started the next day in adults with MDD (DSM-IV criteria). The 10-mg/d and 20-mg/d dose was increased to 40 mg/d by week 3 and week 1, respectively, and the 40-mg/d initiation dose continued unchanged. The primary efficacy measure was change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score between the 3 dose groups. The secondary efficacy measures were changes in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), CGI-Improvement (CGI-I), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) scores. Safety measures were obtained by spontaneously reported adverse events, vital signs recording, and laboratory tests. Multivariate tests were used for statistical analysis.Seventy subjects were randomized, and 60 subjects completed the study (n = 20 in each group). Overall, there was a significant reduction in MADRS score from baseline (26.08 ± 1.1) to week 8 (9.86 ± 1.2) in the entire sample (P < .001). Similarly, there was a significant improvement in CGI-S (P < .001), CGI-I (P < .001) and HDRS (P < .001) scores from baseline to the end of the trial. There were no significant differences between the 3 vilazodone dose-initiation groups in changes in MADRS scores (P = .95) or changes in CGI-S (P = .83), CGI-I (P = .51), or HARS scores (P = .61). Dry mouth (n = 55), nausea (n = 10), and diarrhea (n = 5) were the most common side effects, with diarrhea reported in 5 subjects in the 40-mg/d initiation group. No serious adverse events were reported.The present study indicates the potential benefit of switching to vilazodone in patients with MDD who are inadequate responders to SSRIs or SNRIs. There were no meaningful differences in efficacy or tolerability between the 3 different dose-initiation strategies with vilazodone; however, diarrhea appeared to be more frequently reported with the 40-mg/d dose. Given the modest sample size, larger studies are required to confirm our findings.ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02015546 and NCT01473381.
Project description:Sexual dysfunction commonly occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD). Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist antidepressant approved for the treatment of MDD in adults, was evaluated to determine its effects on sexual function. The primary study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day with placebo; citalopram 40 mg/day was an active control (NCT01473381; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Post-hoc analyses evaluated change from baseline to week 10 on the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ); no inferential statistics were performed. CSFQ scores increased for women [1.2 (citalopram) to 3.0 (vilazodone 40 mg)] and men [1.2 (vilazodone 40 mg) to 3.5 (placebo)] in all treatment groups. Greater changes in CSFQ scores were seen in responders [women: 2.33 (citalopram) to 5.06 (vilazodone 40 mg); men: 2.26 (vilazodone 40 mg) to 4.35 (placebo)] versus nonresponders. CSFQ change from baseline was small for patients with normal baseline sexual function; in patients with baseline sexual dysfunction, CSFQ scores improved across groups [women: 2.35 (citalopram) to 4.52 (vilazodone 40 mg); men 2.83 (vilazodone 40 mg) to 6.43 (placebo)]. Across treatment groups, baseline sexual function improved in women and men, MDD responders, and patients with baseline sexual dysfunction.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone using different definitions of remission. Post-hoc analyses were carried out using data from an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vilazodone 40?mg/day in adults with major depressive disorder (NCT01473394). The primary efficacy endpoint was a mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score; additional measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) scores. In addition to treatment response (MADRS?50% improvement), post-hoc analyses were carried out for remission of depressive symptoms [MADRS score?10; MADRS?5 (complete remission)], anxiety symptoms (HAMA?7), and combined depression and anxiety symptoms (MADRS/HAMA?10/?7), as well as for overall symptom severity (CGI-S=1). Odds ratios (ORs) and numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were also calculated. Significant outcomes were obtained with vilazodone versus placebo for MADRS response (50.6 vs. 33.3%, OR=2.04, P<0.001, NNT=6), remission (34.0 vs. 21.8%, OR=1.82, P=0.003, NNT=9), and complete remission (18.2 vs. 8.3%, OR=2.42, P=0.002, NNT=11). More patients receiving vilazodone rather than placebo also met remission criteria for HAMA (48.8 vs. 35.2%, OR=1.82, P=0.002, NNT=8), MADRS/HAMA (32.1 vs. 20.4%, OR=1.83, P=0.004, NNT=9), and CGI-S (24.1 vs. 11.5%, OR=2.41, P<0.001, NNT=8). Treatment with vilazodone 40?mg/day may help adult patients with major depressive disorder achieve remission of depression and/or anxiety symptoms.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine versus placebo in the treatment of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS:Outpatient children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD and had screening and baseline Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total scores >40 were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with placebo, low exposure desvenlafaxine (20, 30, or 35?mg/day based on baseline weight), or higher exposure desvenlafaxine (25, 35, or 50?mg/day based on baseline weight). The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in CDRS-R total score at week 8, analyzed using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures. Secondary efficacy assessments included Clinical Global Impressions-Severity and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scales. Safety assessments included adverse events and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. RESULTS:The safety population included 363 patients (children, n?=?109; adolescents, n?=?254). No statistical separation from placebo was observed for either desvenlafaxine group for CDRS-R total score or for any secondary efficacy endpoint. At week 8, adjusted mean (standard error) changes from baseline in CDRS-R total score for the desvenlafaxine low exposure, desvenlafaxine high exposure, and placebo groups were -23.7 (1.1), -24.4 (1.1), and -22.9 (1.1), respectively. The incidence of adverse events was similar among groups. CONCLUSION:Low and high exposure desvenlafaxine groups did not demonstrate efficacy for the treatment of MDD in children and adolescents in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Desvenlafaxine (20-50?mg/day) was generally safe and well tolerated with no new safety signals identified in pediatric patients with MDD in this study.
Project description:The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vilazodone on sexual functioning in healthy, sexually active adults and assess the impact of medication nonadherence in this type of trial. Participants were randomized to vilazodone (20 or 40?mg/day), paroxetine (20?mg/day), or placebo for 5 weeks of double-blind treatment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to day 35 in Change in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ) total score in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Post-hoc analyses were carried out in modified intent-to-treat (mITT) populations that excluded participants in the active-treatment groups with undetectable plasma drug concentrations at all visits (mITT-I) or at least one visit (mITT-II). In the ITT population (N=199), there were no statistically significant differences between any treatment groups for CSFQ total score change: placebo, -1.0; vilazodone 20?mg/day, -1.4; vilazodone 40?mg/day, -1.9; and paroxetine, -3.5. In mITT-I (N=197) and mITT-II (N=159), CSFQ total score change was not significantly different between vilazodone (either dose) versus placebo; the CSFQ total score decreased significantly (P<0.05) with paroxetine versus both placebo and vilazodone 20?mg/day, but not versus vilazodone 40?mg/day. Vilazodone exerted no significant effect on sexual functioning in healthy adults. Medication nonadherence can alter study results and may be an important consideration in trials with volunteer participants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS:A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. RESULTS:The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (-1.80 [-3.26, -0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (?71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ?5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified.