The relation of parent alcohol disorder to young adult drinking outcomes mediated by parenting: Effects of developmentally limited versus persistent parent alcohol disorder.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Parent alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a well-established risk factor for the development of offspring AUD and is associated with poor parenting. However, few studies have examined heterogeneity in trajectories of parental AUD and its influence on adolescent offspring drinking, and no studies to date have considered the differential risk to offspring conferred by parental AUDs that are limited to early adulthood. Specifically, AUDs limited to the period of emerging adulthood may confer less risk to a child's environment as recovery following emerging adulthood coincides with the typical ages of entry into the parenting role. The present study tested whether parental AUDs developmentally limited to emerging adulthood (DLAUD) transmit less risk for alcohol problems and alcohol consumption in offspring compared to offspring of parents with AUDs spanning across multiple developmental periods (persistent AUD), as mediated by positive parenting strategies. METHOD:Pathways were examined using longitudinal mediation models (N?=?361) comparing offspring with parental DLAUD, persistent AUD, and no AUD. RESULTS:Parents with DLAUD do not transmit the same risk for alcohol problems to offspring as parents with persistent AUD (B?=?0.173, SE?=?0.067, p?
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and parental separation are associated with increased risk for early use of alcohol in offspring, but whether they increase risks for early use of other substances and for early sexual debut is under-studied. We focused on associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with substance initiation and sexual debut to (1) test the strength of the associations of parental AUDs and parental separation with time to initiation (age in years) of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut and (2) compare the strength of association of parental AUD and parental separation with initiation. DESIGN:Prospective adolescent and young adult cohort of a high-risk family study, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). SETTING:Six sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 3257 offspring (aged 14-33 years) first assessed in 2004 and sought for interview approximately every 2 years thereafter; 1945 (59.7%) offspring had a parent with an AUD. MEASUREMENTS:Diagnostic interview data on offspring substance use and sexual debut were based on first report of these experiences. Parental life-time AUD was based on their own self-report when parents were interviewed (1991-2005) for most parents, or on offspring and other family member reports for parents who were not interviewed. Parental separation was based on offspring reports of not living with both biological parents most of the time between ages 12 and 17 years. FINDINGS:Parental AUDs were associated with increased hazards for all outcomes, with cumulative hazards ranging from 1.19 to 2.71. Parental separation was also an independent and consistent predictor of early substance use and sexual debut, with hazards ranging from 1.19 to 2.34. The strength of association of parental separation with substance initiation was equal to that of having two AUD-affected parents, and its association with sexual debut was stronger than the association of parental AUD in one or both parents. CONCLUSIONS:Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and parental separation are independent and consistent predictors of increased risk for early alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut in offspring from families with a high risk of parental AUDs.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that children of alcohol use disorder (AUD) parents are more likely to develop alcohol problems as well as antisocial and other behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine gender discordance in the effect of early maternal and paternal influences on antisocial behaviors of boys and girls, as well as the environmental factors that moderate the parental effects. Specifically, we examined the effects of childhood and adulthood antisocial behavior of the parents on offspring antisocial behavior as young adults. We also examined whether mothers' and fathers' drinking problems when offspring were young children (6-8 years) affected offspring antisocial behavior as young adults (18-21 years). We evaluated 655 children from 339 families in the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS), a prospective study of AUD and non-AUD families. Path models were constructed in order to test for the parental contributions to offspring outcomes. We found that both mothers' and fathers' antisocial behavior contributed to the children's young adult antisocial behavior. Only mothers' drinking problems while their children were little had a significant effect on their sons' later drinking, but not on their daughters'. These different parental effects suggest that maternal and paternal influences may be mediated by different mechanisms.
Project description:Alcohol use disorder (AUD) runs strongly in families. It is unclear to what extent the cross-generational transmission of AUD results from genetic vs environmental factors.To determine to what extent genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for AUD.Follow-up in 8 public data registers of adoptees, their biological and adoptive relatives, and offspring and parents from stepfamilies and not-lived-with families in Sweden. In this cohort study, subtypes of AUD were assessed by latent class analysis. A total of 18,115 adoptees (born 1950-1993) and 171,989 and 107,696 offspring of not-lived-with parents and stepparents, respectively (born 1960-1993).Alcohol use disorder recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records.Alcohol use disorder in adoptees was significantly predicted by AUD in biological parents (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.29-1.66) and siblings (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.55-2.44) as well as adoptive parents (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.80). Genetic and environmental risk indices created from biological and adoptive relatives acted additively on adoptee AUD liability. Results from biological and adoptive relatives were replicated and extended from examinations of, respectively, not-lived-with parents and stepparents. Multivariate models in these families showed that AUD in offspring was significantly predicted by AUD, drug abuse, psychiatric illness, and crime in not-lived-with parents and by AUD, drug abuse, crime, and premature death in stepparents. Latent class analyses of adoptees and offspring of not-lived-with parents with AUDs revealed 3 AUD classes characterized by (1) female preponderance and high rates of psychiatric illness, (2) mild nonrecurrent symptoms, and (3) early-onset recurrence, drug abuse, and crime. These classes had distinct genetic signatures in the patterns of risk for various disorders in their not-lived-with parents and striking differences in the rates of recorded mood disorders.Parent-offspring transmission of AUD results from both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic risk for AUD reflects both a specific liability to AUD and to other externalizing disorders. Environmental risk reflects features of both parental psychopathology and other aspects of the rearing environment. Alcohol use disorder is a heterogeneous syndrome and meaningful subtypes emerged from latent class analysis, which were validated by patterns of disorders in biological parents and specific psychiatric comorbidities. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent-offspring resemblance.
Project description:Sleep disturbances are both common and well-characterized in adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but have received little study in adolescents with AUDs. Furthermore, a handful of studies suggest that sleep complaints are a risk factor for AUDs. However, no published studies have yet examined the longitudinal course of sleep complaints in adolescents with AUDs; in particular, it remains unclear how persistent AUD-associated sleep complaints are in this age group, and what types of sleep complaints are most relevant to alcohol-use symptoms. We investigated these questions in a 5-year longitudinal study of adolescents with and without AUDs at baseline.Participants were 696 adolescents (age 12 to 19) from a longitudinal study at the Pittsburgh Adolescent Alcohol Research Center. At baseline, 347 participants had a current AUD (AUD+), while 349 had no current or past AUD (AUD-). We examined sleep and alcohol involvement at baseline as well as 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up visits. Sleep variables included self-reported insomnia and hypersomnia, as well as variability in weekday-weekend sleep duration, all at baseline. Covariates included sex, age, current alcohol symptoms, and depression severity.The AUD+ group reported more overall sleep disturbance at baseline, including greater insomnia and hypersomnia complaints, and greater variability in weekday-weekend sleep duration. Group differences in insomnia and hypersomnia complaints persisted to the 5- and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. In the AUD- group, greater insomnia complaints at baseline predicted an increase in alcohol symptoms at the 1-year follow-up, while greater variability in sleep duration at baseline predicted an increase in alcohol symptoms at the 3- and 5-year follow-ups.These results complement previous findings in other samples, indicating that insomnia and other sleep problems are a chronic predicament for adolescents with AUDs. The findings also suggest that sleep disturbances may place adolescents without AUDs at an elevated risk of developing alcohol problems.
Project description:PURPOSE:The substantial literature showing that offspring of parents with alcohol use disorder (AUD) is at increased risk for externalizing psychopathology rarely examines the differential effects of parental and offspring sex. This literature also has other important limitations, such as modest sample sizes and use of unrepresentative samples. Using a large, nationwide Swedish sample, we aim to investigate the roles of parental and offspring sex in externalizing psychopathology among offspring with parental AUD. METHODS:AUD diagnosis and externalizing measures were obtained from national registries. Associations between outcomes and parental AUD were examined using logistic regressions. Parental and offspring sex effects were examined with interaction terms. RESULTS:Risks for externalizing disorders were increased in sons and daughters with parental AUD, with significant differences between sons and daughters for criminal behavior; maternal AUD had a greater impact than paternal AUD (regardless of offspring sex), but having two parents with AUD increased risk for all outcomes substantially more than having one parent; and maternal AUD increased risk of drug abuse for daughters more than sons, while paternal AUD increased risk of AUD and criminal behavior for sons more than daughters. CONCLUSIONS:Offspring of parents with AUD are at increased risk for externalizing psychopathology. Maternal and paternal AUD differentially affected sons' vs. daughters' risks for AUD, drug abuse, and criminal behavior. The transmission of psychopathology within the externalizing spectrum appears to have sex-specific elements.
Project description:Research estimates that 30% of children under the age of 16 years in the UK live with at least one parent with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Parental AUDs are associated with adverse childhood experiences and poorer outcomes for children. The PAReNTS (Promoting Alcohol Reduction in Non-Treatment Seeking parents) trial aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial of brief alcohol interventions to reduce parental alcohol misuse.The cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted within early help family support and children's social care services in three local authorities in the North East of England: Newcastle, Durham and North Tyneside. All eligible parents the caseloads of participating practitioners will be screened for an AUD using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) screening tool by the social care practitioners within routine appointments. All parents who score 5 or more on the AUDIT-C will be invited to participate in the trial. Consenting participants will complete a baseline questionnaire before receiving one of three randomised interventions: (i) healthy lifestyle leaflet (control intervention); (ii) a brief alcohol advice intervention delivered by the social care practitioner plus healthy lifestyle leaflet; (iii) a brief alcohol advice intervention delivered by the social care practitioner, healthy lifestyle leaflet plus a 40-min behaviour change intervention with an optional review session delivered by the local alcohol service. Follow-up data will be collected 6 and 12 months post recruitment. A linked qualitative study will explore participating parent and practitioner views on the acceptability of trial processes and interventions.The PAReNTS trial will provide a robust estimate of recruitment, retention and consent rates in order to inform the design of a future definitive study examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions to reduce parental AUDs within vulnerable families.ISRCTN registry ISRCTN60291091; protocol version 2; 17.10.2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parental alcohol problems are associated with adverse adolescent outcomes such as risky drinking and conduct problems. Important questions remain about the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems and differences and/or similarities in pathways of risk across ethnicity and gender. In this study, we used a family systems approach to consider spillover and crossover effects of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems (number of alcohol dependence symptoms [ADS]) and parenting behaviors in relation to adolescents' risky drinking and conduct problems. METHODS:The sample included 1,282 adolescents (aged 12 to 17) and their parents from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Parents completed the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA), and adolescents completed an adolescent version of SSAGA. Data were analyzed using multivariate structural equation modeling. RESULTS:Fathers' ADS count was associated with higher adolescent risky drinking and conduct problems indirectly via disruption to fathers' and mothers' positive parenting behaviors, whereas mothers' ADS count was not associated with adolescents' risky drinking and conduct problems directly or indirectly via positive parenting behaviors. No differences in these associations were found across ethnic background and offspring gender. CONCLUSIONS:Findings highlight the importance of considering the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' ADS in influencing family processes and adolescent outcomes.
Project description:With complete genealogical and cohabitation information, new genetic-epidemiological designs can be developed to clarify causes of parent-offspring transmission. We propose the Multiple Parenting Relationships (MPR) Design and apply it to drug abuse (DA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Using national Swedish registries, we identified four kinds of informative parents with multiple children with whom they had different genetic and/or rearing relationships. These types had children for whom they provided: (a) genes (G) plus rearing (R), G only and R only; (b) G?+?R and G only; (c) G only and R only; and (d) G?+?R and R only. We identified DA and AUD cases from national registries in over 475,000 informative parent-offspring pairs. Controlling for parental resemblance for DA or AUD, all estimates were statistically homogeneous across family types. The weighted average tetrachoric correlation (SE) for DA for G?+?R, R only and G only relationships were, respectively, +0.21 (0.01), +0.10 (0.02), and +0.16 (0.02). Parallel results for AUD were +0.16 (0.01), +0.04 (0.02), and +0.14 (0.01). Analyses within families with affected parents showed significantly higher disorder risks in offspring with a G?+?R versus an R only relationship. The MPR design is complementary to other methods, especially adoption and triparental designs, in clarifying the sources of cross-generational transmission. Consistent with results from these other designs applied to the Swedish population, we find that for DA and AUD, parent-offspring resemblance was strongest for G?+?R relationships, intermediate for G only relationships and weakest but significant for R only relationships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. METHODS:Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. RESULTS:Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS:These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships.
Project description:AIMS:We tested whether parental alcohol use disorder (AUD) predicted adult offspring's likelihood of marriage and marriage to an AUD-affected spouse; whether effects differed as a function of the sex or number of affected parents; and whether they were robust to confounders. DESIGN:Sex-stratified Cox and logistic regression models. SETTING:Sweden. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1?171?070 individuals (51.40% male) born 1965-75. MEASUREMENTS:Obtained from legal, medical and pharmacy registries. Predictor was parent AUD. Outcomes were marriage and spouse AUD. Adjustments included offspring birth year and AUD; and parental education, marriage, divorce, criminal behavior and drug abuse. FINDINGS:Male and female offspring of AUD-affected parents were more likely to marry at younger ages (< 25), illustrative unadjusted hazard ratio (HR)age 20 = 1.22 (1.17, 1.28) and 1.34 (1.20, 1.39) and were less likely to marry at older ages (> 25), HRage 30 = 0.79 (0.78, 0.81) and 0.82 (0.81, 0.84). Parental AUD was associated with higher odds of having an affected spouse for males and females, odds ratio (OR) = 1.47 (1.38, 1.57) and 1.63 (1.56, 1.70). Effects were more pronounced for those with two versus one AUD-affected parent and adjustments attenuated effects negligibly. Daughters of affected mothers (versus fathers) were more likely to have AUD-affected husbands, OR = 1.68 (1.54, 1.84) versus 1.56 (1.48, 1.64), while there was no difference in sons. CONCLUSIONS:In Sweden, parental alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with a higher probability of marriage at younger ages, a lower probability of marriage at older ages and a higher likelihood of marriage to an affected spouse compared with no parental AUD. Most of these effects become stronger when the number of AUD-affected parents increases from one to two, and most effects hold after controlling for parents' socio-economic status, marital history, other externalizing disorders and offspring's own AUD status. Daughters of affected mothers are more likely to have an affected spouse.