Substitution of Mannan-Binding Lectin (MBL)-Deficient Serum With Recombinant MBL Results in the Formation of New MBL/MBL-Associated Serine Protease Complexes.
ABSTRACT: The lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation depends on the activation of the MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) circulating in complex with mannan-binding lectin (MBL). MBL deficiency is the most common complement deficiency and has been associated with several pathological conditions. As we had previously shown, plasma-derived MBL (pdMBL) contains pre-activated MASPs that upon in vivo pdMBL substitution results in restoration of MBL concentrations but no LP functionality due to immediate inactivation of pdMBL-MASP complexes upon infusion. In this study, we analyzed MBL-sufficient and -deficient serum by size-exclusion chromatography for complexes of LP activation. In both sera, we identified non-bound free forms of MASP-2 and to lesser extent MASP-1/3. After addition of recombinant MBL (rMBL) to MBL-deficient serum, these free MASPs were much less abundantly present, which is highly suggestive for the formation of high-molecular complexes that could still become activated upon subsequent ligand binding as shown by a restoration of C4-deposition of MBL-deficient serum. Ficolin (FCN)-associated MASPs have been described to redistribute to ligand-bound MBL, hereby forming new MBL/MASP complexes. However, reconstitution of MBL-deficient serum with rMBL did not change the relative size of the FCN molecules suggestive for a limited redistribution in fluid phase of already formed complexes. Our findings demonstrate that rMBL can associate with free non-bound MASPs in fluid phase while preserving full restoration of LP functionality. In contrast to pdMBL products containing pre-activated MASPs which become inactivated almost immediately, these current data provide a rationale for substitution studies using rMBL instead.
Project description:The complement system, composed of the three activation pathways, has both protective and pathogenic roles in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (or lupus), a prototypic autoimmune disease. The classical pathway contributes to the clearance of immune complexes (ICs) and apoptotic cells, whereas the alternative pathway (AP) exacerbates renal inflammation. The role of the lectin pathway (LP) in lupus has remained largely unknown. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases (MASPs), which are associated with humoral pattern recognition molecules (MBL or ficolins), are the enzymatic constituents of the LP and AP. MASP-1 encoded by the Masp1 gene significantly contributes to the activation of the LP. After the binding of MBL/ficolins to pathogens or self-altered cells, MASP-1 autoactivates first, then activates MASP-2, and both participate in the formation of the LP C3 convertase C4b2a, whereas, MASP-3, the splice variant of the Masp1 gene, is required for the activation of the zymogen of factor D (FD), and finally participates in the formation of the AP C3 convertase C3bBb. To investigate the roles of MASP-1 and MASP-3 in lupus, we generated Masp1 gene knockout lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice (Masp1/3-/- MRL/lpr mice), lacking both MASP-1 and MASP-3, and analyzed their renal disease. As expected, sera from Masp1/3-/- MRL/lpr mice had no or markedly reduced activation of the LP and AP with zymogen forms of complement FD. Compared to their wild-type littermates, the Masp1/3-/- MRL/lpr mice had maintained serum C3 levels, little-to-no albuminuria, as well as significantly reduced glomerular C3 deposition levels and glomerular pathological score. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the levels of serum anti-dsDNA antibody, circulating ICs, glomerular IgG and MBL/ficolins deposition, renal interstitial pathological score, urea nitrogen, and mortality between the wild-type and Masp1/3-/- MRL/lpr mice. Our data indicate that MASP-1/3 plays essential roles in the development of lupus-like glomerulonephritis in MRL/lpr mice, most likely via activation of the LP and/or AP.
Project description:The lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation is believed to contribute to brain inflammation. The study aims to identify the key components of the LP contributing to TBI outcome as possible novel pharmacological targets. We compared the long-term neurological deficits and neuropathology of wild-type mice (WT) to that of mice carrying gene deletions of key LP components after experimental TBI. WT or MASP-2 (Masp2-/-), ficolin-A (Fcna-/-), CL-11 (Colec11-/-), MASP-1/3 (Masp1-/-), MBL-C (Mbl2-/-), MBL-A (Mbl1-/-) or MBL-/- (Mbl1-/-/Mbl2-/-) deficient male C57BL/6J mice were used. Mice underwent sham surgery or TBI by controlled cortical impact. The sensorimotor response was evaluated by neuroscore and beam walk tests weekly for 4 weeks. To obtain a comparative analysis of the functional outcome each transgenic line was rated according to a health score calculated on sensorimotor performance. For selected genotypes, brains were harvested 6 weeks after injury for histopathological analysis. MASP-2-/-, MBL-/- and FCN-A-/- mice had better outcome scores compared to WT. Of these, MASP-2-/- mice had the best recovery after TBI, showing reduced sensorimotor deficits (by 33% at 3 weeks and by 36% at 4 weeks). They also showed higher neuronal density in the lesioned cortex with a 31.5% increase compared to WT. Measurement of LP functional activity in plasma from MASP-2-/- mice revealed the absence of LP functional activity using a C4b deposition assay. The LP critically contributes to the post-traumatic inflammatory pathology following TBI with the highest degree of protection achieved through the absence of the LP key enzyme MASP-2, underlining a therapeutic utility of MASP-2 targeting in TBI.
Project description:Previous studies using mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and complement C4-deficient mice have suggested that the lectin pathway (LP) is not required for the development of inflammatory arthritis in the collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA) model. MBL, ficolins and collectin-11 are key LP pattern recognition molecules that associate with three serine proteases-MASP-1, MASP-2, and MASP-3-and with two MBL-associated proteins designated sMAP and MBL-associated protein of 44kDA (MAp44). Recent studies have shown that MAp44, an alternatively spliced product of the MASP-1/3 gene, is a competitive inhibitor of the binding of the recognition molecules to all three MASPs. In these studies, we examined the effect of treatment of mice with adenovirus (Ad) programmed to express human MAp44 (AdhMAp44) on the development of CAIA. AdhMAp44 and Ad programming GFP (AdGFP) expression were injected i.p. in C57BL/6 wild type mice prior to the induction of CAIA. AdhMAp44 significantly reduced the clinical disease activity (CDA) score by 81% compared with mice injected with AdGFP. Similarly, histopathologic injury scores for inflammation, pannus, cartilage and bone damage, as well as C3 deposition in the cartilage and synovium, were significantly reduced by AdhMAp44 pretreatment. Mice treated with AdmMAp44, programming expression of mouse MAp44, also showed significantly decreased CDA score and histopathologic injury scores. In addition, administration of AdhMAp44 significantly diminished the severity of Ross River virus-induced arthritis, an LP-dependent model. Our study provides conclusive evidence that an intact complement LP is essential to initiate CAIA, and that MAp44 may be an appropriate treatment for inflammatory arthritis.
Project description:Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) is a serum pattern recognition molecule, able to activate complement in association with MASP proteases. Serum levels of MBL and MASP-2, activities of MBL-MASP complexes, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 and MASP2 genes and/or their specific mRNA expression in ovarian sections were investigated in 128 patients suffering from primary ovarian cancer (OC) and compared with 197 controls (C), encompassing both patients with benign ovarian tumours (n = 123) and others with no ovarian pathology (n = 74). MBL deficiency-associated genotypes were more common among OC patients than among controls. The O/O group of genotypes was associated with ovarian cancer (OR 3.5, p = 0.02). In A/A homozygotes, MBL concentrations and activities were elevated in the OC group and correlated with C-reactive protein. Moreover, high MBL serum levels were associated with more advanced disease stage. No differences in distribution of the MASP2 +359 A>G (D120G) SNP or MASP-2 serum levels were found between cancer patients and their controls. However, the highest frequency of the A/G (MASP2) and LXA/O or O/O (MBL2) genotypes was found among OC patients with tumours of G1-2 grade (well/moderately differentiated). Furthermore, MBL deficiency-associated genotypes predicted prolonged survival. None of the parameters investigated correlated with CA125 antigen or patients' age. The local expression of MBL2 and MASP2 genes was higher in women with ovarian cancer compared with controls. It is concluded that the expression of MBL and MASP-2 is altered in ovarian cancer, possibly indicating involvement of the lectin pathway of complement activation in the disease.
Project description:Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine proteases, MASP-1 and MASP-2, have been thought to autoactivate when MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes bind to pathogens triggering the complement lectin pathway. Autoactivation of MASPs occurs in two steps: 1) zymogen autoactivation, when one proenzyme cleaves another proenzyme molecule of the same protease, and 2) autocatalytic activation, when the activated protease cleaves its own zymogen. Using recombinant catalytic fragments, we demonstrated that a stable proenzyme MASP-1 variant (R448Q) cleaved the inactive, catalytic site Ser-to-Ala variant (S646A). The autoactivation steps of MASP-1 were separately quantified using these mutants and the wild type enzyme. Analogous mutants were made for MASP-2, and rate constants of the autoactivation steps as well as the possible cross-activation steps between MASP-1 and MASP-2 were determined. Based on the rate constants, a kinetic model of lectin pathway activation was outlined. The zymogen autoactivation rate of MASP-1 is ?3000-fold higher, and the autocatalytic activation of MASP-1 is about 140-fold faster than those of MASP-2. Moreover, both activated and proenzyme MASP-1 can effectively cleave proenzyme MASP-2. MASP-3, which does not autoactivate, is also cleaved by MASP-1 quite efficiently. The structure of the catalytic region of proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q was solved at 2.5 ?. Proenzyme MASP-1 R448Q readily cleaves synthetic substrates, and it is inhibited by a specific canonical inhibitor developed against active MASP-1, indicating that zymogen MASP-1 fluctuates between an inactive and an active-like conformation. The determined structure provides a feasible explanation for this phenomenon. In summary, autoactivation of MASP-1 is crucial for the activation of MBL/ficolin·MASP complexes, and in the proenzymic phase zymogen MASP-1 controls the process.
Project description:The human lectin complement pathway activation molecules comprise mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-1, -2, and -3 in complex with associated serine proteases MASP-1, -2, and -3 and the non-enzymatic small MBL associated protein or sMAP. Recently, a novel plasma protein named MBL/ficolin-associated protein-1 (MAP-1) was identified in humans. This protein is the result of a differential splicing of the MASP1 gene and includes the major part of the heavy chain but lacks the serine protease domain. We investigated the direct interactions of MAP-1 and MASP-3 with ficolin-3 and MBL using surface plasmon resonance and found affinities around 5 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. We studied structural aspects of MAP-1 and could show by multi-angle laser light scattering that MAP-1 forms a calcium-dependent homodimer in solution. We were able to determine the crystal structure of MAP-1, which also contains a head-to-tail dimer ?146 ? long. This structure of MAP-1 also enables modeling and assembly of the MASP-1 molecule in its entirety. Finally we found that MAP-1 competes with all three MASPs for ligand binding and is able to mediate a strong dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the lectin pathway activation, as measured by levels of C3 and C9.
Project description:The lectin pathway of the complement system has a pivotal role in the defense against infectious organisms. After binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin 11 to carbohydrates or acetylated residues on pathogen surfaces, dimers of MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2 (MASP-1 and MASP-2) activate a proteolytic cascade, which culminates in the formation of the membrane attack complex and pathogen lysis. Alternative splicing of the pre-mRNA encoding MASP-1 results in two other products, MASP-3 and MAp44, which regulate activation of the cascade. A similar mechanism allows the gene encoding MASP-2 to produce the truncated MAp19 protein. Polymorphisms in MASP1 and MASP2 genes are associated with protein serum levels and functional activity. Since the first report of a MASP deficiency in 2003, deficiencies in lectin pathway proteins have been associated with recurrent infections and several polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility or protection to infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the findings on the role of MASP polymorphisms and serum levels in bacterial, viral and protozoan infectious diseases.
Project description:Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP-2) are important proteins in the lectin pathway of the immune system. Polymorphism of MBL and MASP-2 genes may affect the serum concentration of MBL and MASP-2. This study explores the association between MBL and MASP-2 gene polymorphism and their interactions and the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB).A total of 503 patients with TB and 419 healthy controls were recruited to participate in this case-control study. PCR-SSP technology was applied to genotype rs7096206 of MBL genes and rs2273346 and rs6695096 of MASP-2 genes. Demographic data and some exposure information were also obtained from study participants. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify association between the various factors and TB whilst Marginal Structural Linear Odds Models were used to estimate the interactions.Both genotype GC at rs7096206 of MBL genes and genotype TC at rs2273346 and rs6695096 of MASP-2 genes were more prevalent in the TB patient group than the healthy control group (P<0.05, OR 1.393, 1.302 and 1.426 respectively). The relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) between rs7096206 of MBL genes and rs2273346 and rs6695096 of MASP-2 genes was 0.897 (95% CI: 0.282, 1.513) and 1.142 (95% CI: 0.755, 1.530) respectively (P<0.05).Polymorphisms of MBL (rs7096206) and MASP-2 (rs2273346 and rs6695096) were associated with the susceptibility of TB, and there were gene-gene interactions among them.
Project description:Complement plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Although the alternative pathway (AP) is known to play a key pathogenic role in models of rheumatoid arthritis, the importance of the lectin pathway (LP) pattern recognition molecules such as ficolin (FCN) A, FCN B, and collectin (CL)-11, as well as the activating enzyme mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), are less well understood. We show in this article that FCN A-/- and CL-11-/- mice are fully susceptible to collagen Ab-induced arthritis (CAIA). In contrast, FCN B-/- and MASP-2-/-/sMAp-/- mice are substantially protected, with clinical disease activity decreased significantly (p < 0.05) by 47 and 70%, respectively. Histopathology scores, C3, factor D, FCN B deposition, and infiltration of synovial macrophages and neutrophils were similarly decreased in FCN B-/- and MASP-2-/-/sMAp-/- mice. Our data support that FCN B plays an important role in the development of CAIA, likely through ligand recognition in the joint and MASP activation, and that MASP-2 also contributes to the development of CAIA, likely in a C4-independent manner. Decreased AP activity in the sera from FCN B-/- and MASP-2-/-/sMAp-/- mice with arthritis on adherent anti-collagen Abs also support the hypothesis that pathogenic Abs, as well as additional inflammation-related ligands, are recognized by the LP and operate in vivo to activate complement. Finally, we also speculate that the residual disease seen in our studies is driven by the AP and/or the C2/C4 bypass pathway via the direct cleavage of C3 through an LP-dependent mechanism.
Project description:It is well-known that heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) inhibit complement activation. It is however not known whether fractionation and/or modification of GAGs might deliver pathway-specific inhibition of the complement system. Therefore, we evaluated a library of GAGs and their derivatives for their functional pathway specific complement inhibition, including the MASP-specific C4 deposition assay. Interaction of human MASP-2 with heparan sulfate/heparin was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance, ELISA and in renal tissue. In vitro pathway-specific complement assays showed that highly sulfated GAGs inhibited all three pathways of complement. Small heparin- and heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides were selective inhibitors of the lectin pathway (LP). These small oligosaccharides showed identical inhibition of the ficolin-3 mediated LP activation, failed to inhibit the binding of MBL to mannan, but inhibited C4 cleavage by MASPs. Hexa- and pentasulfated tetrasaccharides represent the smallest MASP inhibitors both in the functional LP assay as well in the MASP-mediated C4 assay. Surface plasmon resonance showed MASP-2 binding with heparin and heparan sulfate, revealing high Kon and Koff rates resulted in a Kd of ~2 ?M and confirmed inhibition by heparin-derived tetrasaccharide. In renal tissue, MASP-2 partially colocalized with agrin and heparan sulfate, but not with activated C3, suggesting docking, storage, and potential inactivation of MASP-2 by heparan sulfate in basement membranes. Our data show that highly sulfated GAGs mediated inhibition of all three complement pathways, whereas short heparin- and heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides selectively blocked the lectin pathway via MASP-2 inhibition. Binding of MASP-2 to immobilized heparan sulfate/heparin and partial co-localization of agrin/heparan sulfate with MASP, but not C3b, might suggest that in vivo heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as a docking platform for MASP-2 and possibly prevent the lectin pathway from activation.