Overexpression of THI4 and HAP4 Improves Glucose Metabolism and Ethanol Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Redox homeostasis is essential to the maintenance of cell metabolism. Changes in the redox state cause global metabolic and transcriptional changes. Our previous study indicated that the overexpression of NADH oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to increased glucose consumption and ethanol production. Gene expression related to thiamine synthesis and osmotolerance as well as HAP4 expression was increased in response to redox change caused by the overexpression of NADH oxidase. To identify detailed relationships among cofactor levels, thiamine synthesis, expression of HAP4, and osmotolerance, and to determine whether these changes are interdependent, THI4 and HAP4 were overexpressed in S. cerevisiae BY4741. The glucose consumption rate of THI4-overexpressing strain (thi4-OE) was the highest, followed by HAP4-overexpressing strain (hap4-OE) > NADH oxidase-overexpressing strain (nox-OE) > control strain (con), while strain hap4-OE showed the highest concentration of ethanol after 26 h of fermentation. Reduced glycerol production and increased osmotolerance were observed in thi4-OE and hap4-OE, as well as in nox-OE. HAP4 globally regulated thiamine synthesis, biomass synthesis, respiration, and osmotolerance of cells, which conferred the recombinant strain hap4-OE with faster glucose metabolism and enhanced stress resistance. Moreover, overexpression of HAP4 might extend the life span of cells under caloric restriction by lowering the NADH level. Although overexpression of THI4 and HAP4 induced various similar changes at both the metabolic and the transcriptional level, the regulatory effect of THI4 was more limited than that of HAP4, and was restricted to the growth phase of cells. Our findings are expected to benefit the bio-ethanol industry.
Project description:Redox homeostasis is fundamental to the maintenance of metabolism. Redox imbalance can cause oxidative stress, which affects metabolism and growth. Water-forming NADH oxidase regulates the redox balance by oxidizing cytosolic NADH to NAD(+), which relieves cytosolic NADH accumulation through rapid glucose consumption in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus decreasing the production of the by product glycerol in industrial ethanol production. Here, we studied the effects of overexpression of a water-forming NADH oxidase from Lactococcus lactis on the stress response of S. cerevisiae in aerobic batch fermentation, and we constructed an interaction network of transcriptional regulation and metabolic networks to study the effects of and mechanisms underlying NADH oxidase regulation. The oxidase-overexpressing strain (NOX) showed increased glucose consumption, growth, and ethanol production, while glycerol production was remarkably lower. Glucose was exhausted by NOX at 26 h, while 18.92 ± 0.94 g/L residual glucose was left in the fermentation broth of the control strain (CON) at this time point. At 29.5 h, the ethanol concentration for NOX peaked at 35.25 ± 1.76 g/L, which was 14.37% higher than that for CON (30.82 ± 1.54 g/L). Gene expression involved in the synthesis of thiamine, which is associated with stress responses in various organisms, was increased in NOX. The transcription factor HAP4 was significantly upregulated in NOX at the late-exponential phase, indicating a diauxic shift in response to starvation. The apoptosis-inducing factor Nuc1 was downregulated while the transcription factor Sok2, which regulates the production of the small signaling molecule ammonia, was upregulated at the late-exponential phase, benefiting young cells on the rim. Reactive oxygen species production was decreased by 10% in NOX, supporting a decrease in apoptosis. The HOG pathway was not activated, although the osmotic stress was truly higher, indicating improved osmotolerance. Thus, the NADH oxidase can regulate the metabolism during aerobic fermentation in S. cerevisiae, thereby protecting cells against several stresses. Our findings indicate its suitability for use in industrial processes.
Project description:thi4 mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe exhibit defective thiamine biosynthesis, and thi4 mutations define a gene which is believed to be involved in the phosphorylation of 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine or 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole and/or in the coupling of the two phosphorylated precursors to thiamine monophosphate (A. M. Schweingruber, J. Dlugonski, E. Edenharter, and M. E. Schweingruber, Curr. Genet. 19:249-254, 1991). The thi4 gene was cloned by functional complementation of a thi4 mutant and physically mapped on the left arm of chromosome I close to the genetic marker gln1. The thi4-carrying DNA fragment shows an open reading frame encoding a protein of 518 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 55.6 kDa. The appearance of thi4 mRNA is strongly repressed by thiamine and to a lesser extent by 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole. thi4 mRNA production is under the control of the thi1 gene-encoded transcription factor and of the negative regulators encoded by genes tnr1, tnr2, and tnr3. thi4 is expressed and regulated in manners similar to those of other S. pombe genes involved in thiamine metabolism, including thi2, thi3, and pho4.
Project description:Thiamine (vitamin B1) is synthesized de novo by certain yeast, fungi, plants, protozoans, bacteria and archaea. The pathway of thiamine biosynthesis by archaea is poorly understood, particularly the route of sulfur relay to form the thiazole ring. Archaea harbor structural homologs of both the bacterial (ThiS-ThiF) and eukaryotic (THI4) proteins that mobilize sulfur to thiazole ring precursors by distinct mechanisms.Based on comparative genome analysis, halophilic archaea are predicted to synthesize the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine by the bacterial pathway, initially suggesting that also a bacterial ThiS-ThiF type mechanism for synthesis of the thiazole ring is used in which the sulfur carrier ThiS is first activated by ThiF-catalyzed adenylation. The only ThiF homolog of Haloferax volcanii (UbaA) was deleted but this had no effect on growth in the absence of thiamine. Usage of the eukaryotic THI4-type sulfur relay was initially considered less likely for thiamine biosynthesis in archaea, since the active-site cysteine residue of yeast THI4p that donates the sulfur to the thiazole ring by a suicide mechanism is replaced by a histidine residue in many archaeal THI4 homologs and these are described as D-ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerases. The THI4 homolog of the halophilic archaea, including Hfx. volcanii (HVO_0665, HvThi4) was found to differ from that of methanogens and thermococci by having a cysteine residue (Cys165) corresponding to the conserved active site cysteine of yeast THI4p (Cys205). Deletion of HVO_0665 generated a thiamine auxotroph that was trans-complemented by a wild-type copy of HVO_0665, but not the modified gene encoding an HvThi4 C165A variant.Based on our results, we conclude that the archaeon Hfx. volcanii uses a yeast THI4-type mechanism for sulfur relay to form the thiazole ring of thiamine. We extend this finding to a relatively large group of archaea, including haloarchaea, ammonium oxidizing archaea, and some methanogen and Pyrococcus species, by observing that these organisms code for THI4 homologs that have a conserved active site cysteine residue which is likely used in thiamine biosynthesis. Thus, archaeal members of IPR002922 THI4 family that have a conserved cysteine active site should be reexamined for a function in thiamine biosynthesis.
Project description:Glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for redox-cofactor balancing in anaerobic cultures, causes yield reduction in industrial bioethanol production. Recently, glycerol formation in anaerobic S.?cerevisiae cultures was eliminated by expressing Escherichia coli (acetylating) acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by mhpF) and simultaneously deleting the GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus coupling NADH reoxidation to reduction of acetate to ethanol. Gpd? strains are, however, sensitive to high sugar concentrations, which complicates industrial implementation of this metabolic engineering concept. In this study, laboratory evolution was used to improve osmotolerance of a Gpd? mhpF-expressing S.?cerevisiae strain. Serial batch cultivation at increasing osmotic pressure enabled isolation of an evolved strain that grew anaerobically at 1?M glucose, at a specific growth rate of 0.12 h?¹. The evolved strain produced glycerol at low concentrations (0.64 ± 0.33 g?l?¹). However, these glycerol concentrations were below 10% of those observed with a Gpd? reference strain. Consequently, the ethanol yield on sugar increased from 79% of the theoretical maximum in the reference strain to 92% for the evolved strains. Genetic analysis indicated that osmotolerance under aerobic conditions required a single dominant chromosomal mutation, and one further mutation in the plasmid-borne mhpF gene for anaerobic growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Water-forming NADH oxidase can oxidize cytosolic NADH to NAD(+), thus relieving cytosolic NADH accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies of the enzyme were conducted under aerobic conditions, as O2 is the recognized electron acceptor of the enzyme. In order to extend its use in industrial production and to study its effect on anaerobes, the effects of overexpression of this oxidase in S. cerevisiae BY4741 and Clostridium acetobutylicum 428 (Cac-428) under anaerobic conditions were evaluated. RESULTS:Glucose was exhausted in the NADH oxidase-overexpressing S. cerevisiae strain (Sce-NOX) culture after 26 h, while 43.51 ± 2.18 g/L residual glucose was left in the control strain (Sce-CON) culture at this time point. After 30 h of fermentation, the concentration of ethanol produced by Sce-NOX reached 36.28 ± 1.81 g/L, an increase of 56.38 % as compared to Sce-CON (23.20 ± 1.16 g/L), while the byproduct glycerol was remarkably decreased in the culture of Sce-NOX. In the case of the C. acetobutylicum strain (Cac-NOX) overexpressing NADH oxidase, glucose consumption, cell growth rate, and the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) all decreased, while the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid increased as compared to the control strain (Cac-CON). During fermentation of Cac-CON and Cac-NOX in 100-mL screw-capped bottles, the concentrations of ABE increased with increasing headspace. Additionally, several alternative electron acceptors in C. acetobutylicum fermentation were tested. Nitroblue tetrazolium and 2,6-dichloroindophenol were lethiferous to both Cac-CON and Cac-NOX. Methylene blue could relieve the effect caused by the overexpression of the NADH oxidase on the metabolic network of C. acetobutylicum strains, while cytochrome c aggravated the effect. CONCLUSIONS:The water-forming NADH oxidase could regulate the metabolism of both the S. cerevisiae and the C. acetobutylicum strains in anaerobic conditions. Thus, the recombinant S. cerevisiae strain might be useful in industrial production. Besides the recognized electron acceptor O2, methylene blue and/or the structural analogs may be the alternative elector acceptor of the NADH oxidase in anaerobic conditions.
Project description:In bacteria, many genes involved in the biosynthesis of cofactors such as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) are regulated by ribo switches, regions in the 5' end of mRNAs to which the cofactor binds, thereby affecting translation and/or transcription. TPP riboswitches have now been identified in fungi, in which they alter mRNA splicing. Here, we show that addition of thiamine to cultures of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii alters splicing of transcripts for the THI4 and THIC genes, encoding the first enzymes of the thiazole and pyrimidine branches of thiamine biosynthesis, respectively, concomitant with an increase in intracellular thiamine and TPP levels. Comparison with Volvox carteri, a related alga, revealed highly conserved regions within introns of these genes. Inspection of the sequences identified TPP riboswitch motifs, and RNA transcribed from the regions binds TPP in vitro. The THI4 riboswitch, but not the promoter region, was found to be necessary and sufficient for thiamine to repress expression of a luciferase-encoding reporter construct in vivo. The pyr1 mutant of C. reinhardtii, which is resistant to the thiamine analogue pyrithiamine, has a mutation in the THI4 riboswitch that prevents the THI4 gene from being repressed by TPP. By the use of these ribo switches, thiamine biosynthesis in C. reinhardtii can be effectively regulated at physiological concentrations of the vitamin.
Project description:In anaerobic cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerol production is essential to reoxidize NADH produced in biosynthetic processes. Consequently, glycerol is a major by-product during anaerobic production of ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the single largest fermentation process in industrial biotechnology. The present study investigates the possibility of completely eliminating glycerol production by engineering S. cerevisiae such that it can reoxidize NADH by the reduction of acetic acid to ethanol via NADH-dependent reactions. Acetic acid is available at significant amounts in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues. Consistent with earlier studies, deletion of the two genes encoding NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1 and GPD2) led to elimination of glycerol production and an inability to grow anaerobically. However, when the E. coli mhpF gene, encoding the acetylating NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168; acetaldehyde+NAD++coenzyme A<-->acetyl coenzyme A+NADH+H+), was expressed in the gpd1Delta gpd2Delta strain, anaerobic growth was restored by supplementation with 2.0 g liter(-1) acetic acid. The stoichiometry of acetate consumption and growth was consistent with the complete replacement of glycerol formation by acetate reduction to ethanol as the mechanism for NADH reoxidation. This study provides a proof of principle for the potential of this metabolic engineering strategy to improve ethanol yields, eliminate glycerol production, and partially convert acetate, which is a well-known inhibitor of yeast performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, to ethanol. Further research should address the kinetic aspects of acetate reduction and the effect of the elimination of glycerol production on cellular robustness (e.g., osmotolerance).
Project description:Thiamine is known to be an important compound in human diet and it is a cofactor required for vital metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis, Krebs and Calvin cycle. Besides that, thiamine has been shown to be involved in plant protection against stress. In this study, the level of expression of THIC and THI1/THI4, the genes for the first two enzymes in the thiamine biosynthesis pathway were observed when oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was subjected to oxidative stress. Primers were designed based on the consensus sequence of thiamine biosynthesis genes obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Alnus glutinosa. Oxidative stress were induced with various concentrations of paraquat and samplings were done at various time points post-stress induction. The expression of THIC and THI1/THI4 genes were observed via RT-PCR and qPCR analysis. The expression of THIC was increased 2-fold, while THI1/THI4 gene transcript was increased 4-fold upon induction of oxidative stress. These findings showed that oil palm responded to oxidative stress by over-expressing the genes involved in thiamine biosynthesis. These findings support the suggestion that thiamine may play an important role in plant protection against stress.
Project description:Thiamine deficiency is common in populations consuming polished rice as a major source of carbohydrates. Thiamine is required to synthesize thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), an essential cofactor of enzymes of central metabolism. Its biosynthesis pathway has been partially elucidated and the effect of overexpression of a few genes such as thi1 and thiC, on thiamine accumulation in rice has been reported. Based on current knowledge, this review focuses on the potential of gene editing in metabolic engineering of thiamine biosynthesis pathway to improve thiamine in rice grains. Candidate genes, suitable for modification of the structural part to evolve more efficient versions of enzymes in the pathway, are discussed. For example, adjacent cysteine residues may be introduced in the catalytic domain of thi4 to improve the turn over activity of thiamine thiazole synthase 2. Motif specific editing to modify promoter regulatory regions of genes is discussed to modulate gene expression. Editing cis acting regulatory elements in promoter region can shift the expression of transporters and thiamine binding proteins to endosperm. This can enhance dietary availability of thiamine from rice grains. Differential transcriptomics on rice varieties with contrasting grain thiamine and functional genomic studies will identify more strategic targets for editing in future. Developing functionally enhanced foods by biofortification is a sustainable approach to make diets wholesome.
Project description:Pichia guilliermondii is a Crabtree-negative yeast that does not normally exhibit respirofermentative metabolism under aerobic conditions, and methods to trigger this metabolism may have applications for physiological study and industrial applications. In the present study, CAT8, which encodes a putative global transcriptional activator, was disrupted in P. guilliermondii. This yeast's ethanol titer increased by >20-fold compared to the wild type (WT) during aerobic fermentation using glucose. A comparative transcriptional analysis indicated that the expression of genes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiratory chain was repressed in the CAT8-disrupted (?CAT8) strain, while the fermentative pathway genes were significantly upregulated. The respiratory activities in the ?CAT8 strain, indicated by the specific oxygen uptake rate and respiratory state value, decreased to one-half and one-third of the WT values, respectively. In addition, the expression of HAP4, a transcriptional respiratory activator, was significantly repressed in the ?CAT8 strain. Through disruption of HAP4, the ethanol production of P. guilliermondii was also increased, but the yield and titer were lower than that in the ?CAT8 strain. A further transcriptional comparison between ?CAT8 and ?HAP4 strains suggested a more comprehensive reprogramming function of Cat8 in the central metabolic pathways. These results indicated the important role of CAT8 in regulating the glucose metabolism of P. guilliermondii and that the regulation was partially mediated by repressing HAP4. The strategy proposed here might be applicable to improve the aerobic fermentation capacity of other Crabtree-negative yeasts.