Preliminary Empirical Validation of the "Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale" With a Sample of Spanish Athletes.
ABSTRACT: The theory of self-determination establishes the existence of three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relationship). If these needs are satisfied, optimal personal well-being will be achieved. The Basic Needs Satisfactions in Sport Scale (BNSSS) is a measurement developed to evaluate these needs within the sporting context. The BNSSS measures the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs through 20 items distributed in five dimensions: autonomy-choice, autonomy-volition, autonomy-perceived locus of internal causality, competence, and relatedness. The purpose of this study is to validate a Spanish version of the BNSSS. The sample were 441 team athletes with a mean age of 17.46 (SD = 3.59), which 46.5% were men and the remaining percentage (53.5%) were women. After a standardised data collection, confirmatory factor analysis and invariance analyses were performed, as well as composite reliability. The obtained version showed a good overall fit of the model and values of composite reliability higher to 0.70. Therefore, a useful tool for assessing basic psychological needs in team sports was obtained.
Project description:This intervention study investigates the effects of teacher autonomy support on basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation for giving physical education classes and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity. The sample consisted of 61 students (32 in the experimental group and 29 in the control group), aged 12 to 14 years. Two physical education teachers were part of the group, one who was trained to give autonomy-support classes and the other used the usual class model. The experimental group teacher gave classes based on the autonomy support style, while his control group counterpart did not follow any model. The students, assessed before and after the 8-month intervention, were measured for perception of interpersonal teaching style, basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity. The results showed that the experimental group exhibited higher indices for autonomy, competence and relatedness, self-determined motivation and satisfaction from engaging in physical activity, when compared to the control group. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of programs that support autonomy in physical education classes, emphasizing the importance of pedagogical strategies and educational programs that promote the development of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and its positive consequences in relation to physical education classes.
Project description:PURPOSE: Internalization of students' motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC), relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students' basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more 'human centred' teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. CONCLUSION: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students' self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.
Project description:The contribution of this research lies in its dual approach to the question of physical activity (PA) among adolescents, combining objective measurement of PA by teenagers and a comparison of psychological satisfaction through physical activities involving differing degrees of autonomy (i.e., organized or unstructured). Using the conceptual framework of Self-Determination Theory, the analysis also examines the relationship between levels of PA among adolescents and physical self-concept and satisfaction of basic psychological needs during exercise. The study surveyed 129 first-year higher secondary education students from schools in the city of A Coruña. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs during organized and unstructured physical activities was measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale. PA levels were assessed based on step count per day for a week as measured by an accelerometer. The results show that the daily step average recorded by students (7,400) is below the minimum recommended levels of PA for this age group, that students are more active on weekdays than at the weekend, and that there is no significant difference in PA levels between male and female subjects (T = 0.23, p < 0.05, d = 0.04). Findings from the comparative analysis of the three basic psychological needs show greater satisfaction of the need for autonomy during unstructured activities (T = 6.15, p < 0.001, d = 0.68), and greater satisfaction of the need for competence during organized activities (T = -2.50, p < 0.05, d = 0.27). No variation in terms of sex was found in relation to satisfaction of the need for autonomy or relatedness from unstructured activities; however, girls showed notably lower satisfaction than boys in relation to the need for competence (T = -2.62, p < 0.01, d = 0.49). Self-esteem was found to play an important mediating role and observed to be strongly related to sex (T = -5.16, p < 0.001, d = 0.90). Organized PA was found to provide greater need satisfaction among boys than girls across all categories. The study showed no relationship between psychological variables and objectively measured PA (Pillai's trace: F = 0.86, p > 0.05, ?2 = 0.08, observed power = 0.66). Basic psychological needs show significant positive interrelation between them and a significant positive relationship between them and physical self-concept, as expected based on previous literature.
Project description:While teachers' psychological needs have been evaluated in terms of need satisfaction, need thwarting of teachers is under-researched. This study developed a Chinese version of a Psychological Need Thwarting (PNT) scale for teachers and evaluated both its psychometric properties and measurement invariance across groups. Psychometric criteria for the scale were evaluated, with satisfactory levels of internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validities, and model goodness-of-fit. One item translated from the original PNT scale was removed due to cross-loading. Criterion validity was established, with R2 = 0.54 for the factor of burnout (emotional exhaustion). Measurement invariance was established using confirmatory factor analysis for the factors of gender, grade of instruction, and position. The teachers evaluated demonstrated higher levels of competence thwarting, as compared to autonomy and relatedness thwarting, but overall higher levels of thwarting as compared to previous research. Males reported higher levels of autonomy and competence thwarting as compared to females and secondary school teachers reported higher levels of relatedness thwarting as compared to primary school teachers. The developed scale can serve as a valuable tool in evaluating the thwarting of teachers' psychological needs, an issue which can profoundly impact teachers' and students' mental health and performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical activity (PA) can promote mental health, but the mechanisms underpinning this association are not well-established. This study examined if perceptions of three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) mediate the association between number of years participating in PA and mental health in adolescence. METHODS:Participants included 937 children (55% female) age 10-11 at inception of the longitudinal MATCH study, who provided data every 4?months over 6?years. Mediation analyses were used to assess the natural direct effect of number of years of PA participation (cycles 1-15) during late childhood and adolescence on later mental health (cycle 16), measured with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), and the natural indirect effect through each of self-perceived autonomy, competence and relatedness, and self-report MVPA (cycle 15). RESULTS:In single mediator models, indirect effects of autonomy, competence, relatedness and self-report MVPA were statistically significant. In joint mediation models (each of three models including one basic psychological need and MVPA), autonomy, competence and relatedness mediated 71, 27, and 51% of the association respectively; MVPA mediated 27-31% of the association. In the mediation model including all four mediators, relatedness mediated the largest proportion of the association, followed by autonomy and MVPA. CONCLUSION:Results support developing strategies to encourage adolescents to engage and remain involved in PA. This could foster perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness as well as MVPA, which in turn may enhance mental health.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Sexual and reproductive health are significant aspects of quality of life. Healthcare often fails to provide adequate support for young cancer survivors in this area, hence the need to develop more effective interventions. The present study aimed to describe experiences of participating in a web-based psycho-educational intervention focusing on sexual dysfunction and fertility distress after cancer, and to explore these experiences within the theoretical frame of the basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness and autonomy according to self-determination theory. METHODS:Individual semi-structured interviews with 24 women and 4 men, age 19-40, were abductively analyzed using the Framework approach for qualitative content analysis. RESULTS:Participant experiences corresponded well with the three main deductive themes competence, relatedness and autonomy, divided into a total of nine subthemes illustrating varying degrees of basic need satisfaction with considerable nuance but not without ambiguity. While satisfaction of the need for competence could be linked to the amount of information in relation to participants' cognitive capacity, satisfaction of the need for relatedness seemed to be of special importance for these young adults with cancer experience. Invitation to the program meant a chance at alleviating loneliness and normalizing problems, symptoms and concerns. Participants' descriptions of perceived autonomy support were more challenging and ambiguous, because of the many contradictions in participants' responses to their variable situations. CONCLUSION:Basic psychological needs were confirmed as flexible positions along a continuum rather than discrete and mutually exclusive qualities. Understanding the variety of basic need satisfaction may enhance the design of future web-based interventions to be even more inclusive, tailorable and autonomy-supportive. Further research is warranted to determine the role of basic need satisfaction as a possible mediator for web-based psychoeducational interventions in cancer survivorship care.
Project description:Research has shown that outdoor educational interventions can lead to students' increased self-regulated motivational behavior. In this study, we searched into the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN), i.e., autonomy support, the learners' experience of competence, and relatedness, both within the peer group and with their teachers, through outdoor learning. From 2014 to 2016, n = 281 students attended "research weeks" at a Student Science Lab in the Alpine National Park Berchtesgaden (Germany). The program is a curriculum-based one-week residential course, centered on a 2-day research expedition. Both before and after the course, students completed a composite questionnaire addressing BPN-satisfaction and overall motivational behavior in relation to the Self-Determination Index (SDI). At the latter time-point, students also reported on their experiences during the intervention. Questionnaire data was analyzed using a set of Bayesian General Linear Models with random effects. Those quantitative measures have been complemented by and contextualized with a set of qualitative survey methods. The results showed that the basic psychological needs influence the motivational behavior in both contexts equally, however on different scale levels. The basic needs satisfaction in the outdoor context is decisively higher than indoors. Moreover, the increment of competence-experience from the school context to the hands-on outdoor program appears to have the biggest impact to students' increased intrinsic motivation during the intervention. Increased autonomy support, student-teacher relations, and student-student relations have much less or no influence on the overall difference of motivational behavior. Gender does not influence the results. The contextualization partly supports those results and provide further explanation for the students' increased self-regulation in the outdoors. They add some explanatory thrust to the argument that outdoor teaching, be it during a residential week, or during occasional but regular sessions as integral part of the "normal" teaching, fosters intrinsic motivational behavior in science with lower secondary students.
Project description:In music education, women are present in great numbers. In professional settings, however, women musicians are not as predominant. With some exceptions, such as Scandinavian countries, women still pursue gender equality in professional music practice. To inquire about the causes of this, we considered if gender-differences in amotivation in conservatoire instrument practice could be associated with aspects of learning environment. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that learning environments may influence motivation, by satisfying or thwarting students' psychological needs and by selectively endorsing specific extrinsic goals. Thus, we analysed if-women and men-amotivation variations could be explained by differences in behavioural regulations and satisfaction of their psychological needs for competence and autonomy. Participants (67 women and 74 men, 18-47 years old) completed validated scales for amotivation, behavioural regulations, and needs satisfaction. Students exhibited high intrinsic and introjected regulations, and high autonomy and competence needs satisfaction. Students' identified regulation levels were modest, and external regulation and amotivation levels were low. Women students' perceived competence was lower, and their amotivation was higher than men's. Amotivation variations were explained positively by identified regulation and negatively by context-derived satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence (and autonomy, only among women). Results suggest that internalization of extrinsic goals can pose difficulties and that psychological needs satisfaction may counteract amotivation (autonomy being potentially more important for women musicians).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The effectiveness of medical school efforts in addressing suboptimal student wellbeing rests, in part, on how students perceive their learning environment. The study aim was to determine whether students' sport background was a contributing factor in students' perceptions of the medical program as supportive of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We also examined the relationship between sport background and students' leisure-time exercise in medical school. METHODS:Using an online questionnaire, quantitative data were collected from students enrolled in the 4?year medical program at a large Canadian university. Two hundred (n?=?200) students had complete responses on the measures used in the study. Analysis of variance and correlational analysis were used to examine the relationships between students' sport background, their perceptions of the learning environment, and leisure-time exercise in medical school. RESULTS:Compared with students with no sport background, students with a team sport background perceived their need for relatedness to be satisfied to a greater degree in the medical program. Students who pursued sports at higher levels of involvement (competitively) perceived the medical program as more autonomy-supportive than students who pursued sports at lower levels of involvement (recreationally). Irrespective of their sport background, students' involvement in leisure-time exercise decreased over the years in the medical program. However, students with a sport background engaged in leisure-time exercise in medical school to a greater extent than students with no sport background. DISCUSSION:The findings indicate that sport background is associated with students' perceptions of the learning environment as supportive of their needs for autonomy and relatedness, but not for competence, and is linked to their leisure-time exercise in medical school. The observed relationships could help inform medical schools curricular initiatives in preventing student burnout right from the start of medical school.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Advancing social purpose in organizations is usually studied from the macro perspective, i.e., how it benefits organizational business goals or society more broadly. In this paper, we focus on social purpose from the perspective of the employee and propose that advancing social purpose in an organization allows individuals to fulfil an important human need for the meaning of work (MW). This study's objective was to assess whether a volunteering Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program in a manufacturing company allows employees to fulfil their basic psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The data was collected through in-depth interviews with 15 employees and an analysis of artifacts.<h4>Results</h4>In the analysis, three main themes describing different aspects of voluntary work at the company were identified. We found that across all groups of interviewed employees the voluntary activities served the needs of (1) relatedness, (2) competence, and (3) autonomy. We conclude that CSR programs have the most positive impact on MW when they allow employees to engage in prosocial actions and satisfy those needs.