QTL Mapping of Seed Glucosinolate Content Responsible for Environment in Brassica napus.
ABSTRACT: Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a major class of secondary metabolites. The content of seed GSL is largely regulated by environments in rapeseed (Brassica napus). However, the genetic control of seed GSL content responsible for environment in B. napus has been poorly understood. In the current study, a doubled haploid (DH) population from a cross between winter and semi-winter lines of rapeseed was grown in two distinct eco-environments, Germany and China, to evaluate the eco-environment effect and dissect the quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for environment for seed GSL in rapeseed. The deviation value of GSL content between eco-environments (GSLE) was calculated for each line in the DH population and the QTLs for GSLE were detected. GSLE ranged from -46.90 to 36.13 ?mol g-1 meal in the DH population, suggesting the prominent eco-environmental effects for seed GSL in rapeseed. Four QTLs for GSLE were identified on chromosomes A04, A06, and A09 explaining 4.70?9.93% of the phenotypic variation. Comparison of QTLs of seed GSL content between different eco-environments found three QTLs for GSL on A02 from 37.6 to 45.4 cM, A04 from 0 to 17.2 cM, and A09 from 67.0 to 98.6 cM exhibited significant difference of QTL effect between the German and Chinese eco-environments (P < 0.01), indicating the environment sensibility of these loci on seed GSL content. Moreover, flowering time (FT), an important environment adaptation trait in plant, was also investigated in this study. Comparative QTL analysis among GSLE, GSL, and FT revealed that three regions on chromosomes A02, A04, and A09 not only exhibited significant differences in QTL effect between Germany and China, but also co-located with the QTL intervals of GSLE and FT. Our results revealed that most of the GSL loci can influence GSL accumulation under different eco-environments, whereas the three QTL intervals on A02, A04, and A09 might be sensitive to the eco-environments for seed GSL content.
Project description:Seed weight (SW) is one of three determinants of seed yield, which positively correlates with silique length (SL) in Brassica napus (rapeseed). However, the genetic mechanism underlying the relationship between seed weight (SW) and silique length (SL) is largely unknown at present. A natural population comprising 157 inbred lines in rapeseed was genotyped by whole-genome re-sequencing and investigated for SW and SL over four years. The genome-wide association study identified 20 SNPs in significant association with SW on A01, A04, A09, C02, and C06 chromosomes and the phenotypic variation explained by a single locus ranged from 11.85% to 34.58% with an average of 25.43%. Meanwhile, 742 SNPs significantly associated with SL on A02, A03, A04, A07, A08, A09, C01, C03, C04, C06, C07, and C08 chromosomes were also detected and the phenotypic variation explained by a single locus ranged from 4.01 to 48.02% with an average of 33.33%, out of which, more than half of the loci had not been reported in the previous studies. There were 320 overlapping or linked SNPs for both SW and SL on A04, A09, and C06 chromosomes. It indicated that both overlapping and independent genetic loci controlled both SW and SL in B. napus. On the haplotype block on A09 chromosome, the allele variants of a known gene BnaA.ARF18.a controlling both SW and SL were identified in the natural population by developing derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers. These findings are valuable for understanding the genetic mechanism of SW and SL and also for rapeseed molecular breeding programs.
Project description:Root-knot nematode is a very destructive pathogen, to which most peanut cultivars are highly susceptible. Strong resistance is present in the wild diploid peanut relatives. Previously, QTLs controlling nematode resistance were identified on chromosomes A02, A04 and A09 of Arachis stenosperma. Here, to study the inheritance of these resistance alleles within the genetic background of tetraploid peanut, an F<sub>2</sub> population was developed from a cross between peanut and an induced allotetraploid that incorporated A. stenosperma, [Arachis batizocoi x A. stenosperma]<sup>4×</sup>. This population was genotyped using a SNP array and phenotyped for nematode resistance. QTL analysis allowed us to verify the major-effect QTL on chromosome A02 and a secondary QTL on A09, each contributing to a percentage reduction in nematode multiplication up to 98.2%. These were validated in selected F<sub>2:3</sub> lines. The genome location of the large-effect QTL on A02 is rich in genes encoding TIR-NBS-LRR protein domains that are involved in plant defenses. We conclude that the strong resistance to RKN, derived from the diploid A. stenosperma, is transferrable and expressed in tetraploid peanut. Currently it is being used in breeding programs for introgressing a new source of nematode resistance and to widen the genetic basis of agronomically adapted peanut lines.
Project description:The cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea L., is an important oil and food crop globally.High-density genetic linkage mapping is a valuable and effective method for exploring complex quantitative traits. In this context, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) of 146 lines was developed by crossing Huayu28 and P76. We developed 433,679 high-quality SLAFs, of which 29,075 were polymorphic. 4,817 SLAFs were encoded and grouped into different segregation patterns. A high-resolution genetic map containing 2,334 markers (68 SSRs and 2,266 SNPs) on 20 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 2586.37?cM was constructed for peanut. The average distance between adjacent markers was 2.25?cM. Based on phenotyping in seven environments, QTLs for oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and the ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid (O/L) were identified and positioned on linkage groups A03, A04, A09, B09 and B10. Marker2575339 and Marker2379598 in B09 were associated with C18:1, C18:2 and O/L in seven environments, Marker4391589 and Marker4463600 in A09 were associated with C18:1, C18:2 and O/L in six environments. This map exhibits high resolution and accuracy, which will facilitate QTL discovery for essential agronomic traits in peanut.
Project description:The majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to pod shatter in an unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH) and inter-mated (IF2) crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering) and R2 (prone to pod shattering) accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02, and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09) and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06) could be repeatedly detected across environments in a diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those that appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs.
Project description:Silique length (SL) and seed weight (SW) are important yield-associated traits in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Although many quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SL and SW have been identified in B. napus, comparative analysis for those QTL is seldom performed. In the present study, 20 and 21 QTL for SL and SW were identified in doubled haploid (DH) and DH-derived reconstructed F2 populations in rapeseed, explaining 55.1-74.3% and 24.4-62.9% of the phenotypic variation across three years, respectively. Of which, 17 QTL with partially or completely overlapped confidence interval on chromosome A09, were homologous with two overlapped QTL on chromosome C08 by aligning QTL confidence intervals with the reference genomes of Brassica crops. By high density selective genotyping of DH lines with extreme phenotypes, using a Brassica single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, the QTL on chromosome A09 was narrowed, and aligned into 1.14-Mb region from 30.84 to 31.98?Mb on chromosome R09 of B. rapa and 1.05-Mb region from 27.21 to 28.26?Mb on chromosome A09 of B. napus. The alignment of QTL with Brassica reference genomes revealed homologous QTL on A09 and C08 for SL. The narrowed QTL region provides clues for gene cloning and breeding cultivars by marker-assisted selection.
Project description:Seed yield (SY) is the most important trait in rapeseed, is determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs) and is also easily subject to environmental influence. Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SY and SYRTs have been reported in Brassica napus; however, no studies have focused on seven agronomic traits simultaneously affecting SY. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs using a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that were expressed stably in winter cultivation area for 3 years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq.A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5, and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to the constructed high-density consensus map and QTL comparison from literatures, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologous genes were observed, including five each gene for SY and thousand seed weight, and one gene each for biomass yield, branch height, and plant height. The genomic information of these QTLs will be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding and in analyzing QTL expression in different environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an important class of genetic marker for target gene mapping. As of yet, there is no rapid and effective method to identify SNPs linked with agronomic traits in rapeseed and other crop species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate a novel method for identifying SNP markers in rapeseed by deep sequencing a representative library and performing bulk segregant analysis. With this method, SNPs associated with rapeseed pod shatter-resistance were discovered. Firstly, a reduced representation of the rapeseed genome was used. Genomic fragments ranging from 450-550 bp were prepared from the susceptible bulk (ten F2 plants with the silique shattering resistance index, SSRI <0.10) and the resistance bulk (ten F2 plants with SSRI >0.90), and also Solexa sequencing-produced 90 bp reads. Approximately 50 million of these sequence reads were assembled into contigs to a depth of 20-fold coverage. Secondly, 60,396 'simple SNPs' were identified, and the statistical significance was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. There were 70 associated SNPs whose -log(10)p value over 16 were selected to be further analyzed. The distribution of these SNPs appeared a tight cluster, which consisted of 14 associated SNPs within a 396 kb region on chromosome A09. Our evidence indicates that this region contains a major quantitative trait locus (QTL). Finally, two associated SNPs from this region were mapped on a major QTL region. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 70 associated SNPs were discovered and a major QTL for rapeseed pod shatter-resistance was found on chromosome A09 using our novel method. The associated SNP markers were used for mapping of the QTL, and may be useful for improving pod shatter-resistance in rapeseed through marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. This approach will accelerate the discovery of major QTLs and the cloning of functional genes for important agronomic traits in rapeseed and other crop species.
Project description:The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding.
Project description:The peanut (<i>Arachis hypogaea</i> L.) is an important grain legume extensively cultivated worldwide, supplying edible oil and protein for human consumption. As in many other crops, plant height is a crucial factor in determining peanut architecture traits and has a unique effect on resistance to lodging and efficiency of mechanized harvesting as well as yield. Currently, the genetic basis underlying plant height remains unclear in peanut, which have hampered marker-assisted selection in breeding. In this study, we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for peanut plant height by using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations including "Yuanza 9102 × Xuzhou 68-4 (YX)" and "Xuhua 13 × Zhonghua 6 (XZ)". In the YX population, 38 QTLs including 10 major QTLs from 9 chromosomes were detected in 4 environments, and 8 consensus QTLs integrated by meta-analysis expressed stably across multiple environments. In the XZ population, 3 major QTLs and seven minor QTLs from 6 chromosomes were detected across 3 environments. Generally, most major QTLs from the two populations were located on pseudomolecule chromosome 9 of <i>Arachis duranesis</i> (A09), indicating there would be key genes on A09 controlling plant height. Further analysis revealed that <i>qPHA09.1a</i> from the XZ population and one consensus QTL, <i>cqPHA09.d</i> from the YX population were co-localized in a reliable 3.4 Mb physical interval on A09, which harbored 161 genes including transcription factors and enzymes related to signaling transduction and cell wall formation. The major and stable QTLs identified in this study may be useful for further gene cloning and identification of molecular markers applicable for breeding.
Project description:A high density genetic linkage map for the complex allotetraploid crop species Brassica napus (oilseed rape) was constructed in a late-generation recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers assayed by the Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array. The linkage map contains 9164 SNP markers covering 1832.9 cM. 1232 bins account for 7648 of the markers. A subset of 2795 SNP markers, with an average distance of 0.66 cM between adjacent markers, was applied for QTL mapping of seed colour and the cell wall fiber components acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose and hemicellulose. After phenotypic analyses across four different environments a total of 11 QTL were detected for seed colour and fiber traits. The high-density map considerably improved QTL resolution compared to the previous low-density maps. A previously identified major QTL with very high effects on seed colour and ADL was pinpointed to a narrow genome interval on chromosome A09, while a minor QTL explaining 8.1% to 14.1% of variation for ADL was detected on chromosome C05. Five and three QTL accounting for 4.7% to 21.9% and 7.3% to 16.9% of the phenotypic variation for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, were also detected. To our knowledge this is the first description of QTL for seed cellulose and hemicellulose in B. napus, representing interesting new targets for improving oil content. The high density SNP genetic map enables navigation from interesting B. napus QTL to Brassica genome sequences, giving useful new information for understanding the genetics of key seed quality traits in rapeseed.