A Newly Designed Mobile-Based Computerized Cognitive Addiction Therapy App for the Improvement of Cognition Impairments and Risk Decision Making in Methamphetamine Use Disorder: Randomized Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been found to improve cognitive deficits and impulse control problems in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). However, there is limited research regarding this therapy's feasibility when using mobile-based health technologies in supporting recovery from MUD in China.The main aim of this study was to test whether 4 weeks of a newly designed computerized cognitive addiction therapy (CCAT) app can improve cognitive impairments, eliminate drug-related attention bias, and attenuate risk decision-making behaviors in participants with MUD.Forty MUD participants were assigned randomly to either the CCAT group (n=20), who received 4 weeks of CCAT plus regular detoxification treatment as usual, or the control group (n=20), who only received the regular detoxification treatment as usual, in drug rehabilitation centers in Shanghai. The CCAT was designed by combine methamphetamine use-related picture stimuli with cognitive training with the aim of improving cognitive function and eliminating drug-related attention bias. The CogState Battery, Delay Discounting Task (DDT), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) were administered face-to-face to all participants before and after CCAT interventions.Forty male patients were recruited. The mean age was 32.70 (SD 5.27) years in the CCAT group and mean 35.05 (SD 8.02) years in the control group. Compared to the control group, CCAT improved working memory in the CCAT group (P=.01). Group×time interactions were observed among DDT, IGT, and BART tasks, with rates of discounting delayed rewards, IGT, and BART scores (P<.001) being reduced among those who received CCAT, whereas no changes were found in the control group.The newly designed CCAT can help to improve cognitive impairment and impulsive control in MUD. Further study is needed to understand the underlying brain mechanisms of the cognitive therapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03318081; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03318081 (Archived by WebCite at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03318081).
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and impulsivity has long been debated, impulsivity has not been systematically examined in clinical samples of OCD. Meanwhile, recent findings suggest that impulsivity is multi-dimensional construct that can be examined through several constructs. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate multiple facets of impulsivity in OCD. METHOD: The recruitment includes 80 OCD and 76 healthy control participants. Participants completed a test battery comprising three behavioral tasks of stop signal task (SST), delay discounting task (DDT) and balloon analog risk test (BART), and one self-report measure of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). RESULTS: OCD subjects showed significantly lower stop signal reaction time of SST reflecting higher action impulsivity and higher delay discounting parameter of DDT suggesting increased choice impulsivity but significantly lower adjusted mean pump of BART implying lower risk taking propensity of BART than healthy control. CONCLUSION: Increased Action and choice impulsivity, and decreased risk taking propensities were found in OCD. These findings seem to be consistent with clinical characteristics of OCD such as greater preference for or avoid risky situations (avoidance), inability to wait tension relief may provoke safety behaviors (compulsion) and inability to stop already started behaviors (repetition).
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between trait impulsivity, risk-taking, and decision-making performance. We recruited 20 healthy participants who performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) to measure decision-making and risk-taking. The impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Resting-state neural activity was recorded to explore whether brain oscillatory rhythms provide important information about the dispositional trait of impulsivity. We found a significant correlation between the ability to develop a successful strategy and the propensity to take more risks in the first trials of the BART. Risk-taking was negatively correlated with cognitive impulsivity in participants who were unable to develop a successful strategy. Neither risk-taking nor decision-making was correlated with cortical asymmetry. In a more exploratory approach, the group was sub-divided in function of participants' performances at the IGT. We found that the group who developed a successful strategy at the IGT was more prone to risk, whereas the group who failed showed a greater cognitive impulsivity. These results emphasize the need for individuals to explore their environment to develop a successful strategy in uncertain situations, which may not be possible without taking risks.
Project description:Performance on complex decision-making tasks may depend on a multitude of processes. Two such tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), are of particular interest because they are associated with real world risky behavior, including illegal drug use. We used cognitive models to disentangle underlying processes in both tasks. Whereas behavioral measures from the IGT and BART were uncorrelated, cognitive models revealed two reliable cross-task associations. Results suggest that the tasks similarly measure loss aversion and decision-consistency processes, but not necessarily the same learning process. Additionally, substance-using individuals (and especially stimulant users) performed worse on the IGT than healthy controls did, and this pattern could be explained by reduced decision consistency.
Project description:Background:Individuals with substance use disorders exhibit maladaptive decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which involves selecting from card decks differing in the magnitudes of rewards, and the frequency and magnitude of losses. We investigated whether baseline IGT performance could predict responses to contingency management (CM) by treatment-seeking individuals with methamphetamine use disorder (MA Use Disorder) in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods:Twenty-nine individuals with MA Use Disorder underwent an 8-week, escalating reinforcement, voucher-based CM treatment in a study on the suitability of CM therapy for the South African context. Along with 20 healthy control participants, they performed a computerized version of the IGT before starting CM treatment. Seventeen participants maintained abstinence from methamphetamine throughout the trial (full responders), and 12 had an incomplete response (partial responders). Performance on the IGT was scored for magnitude effect (selection of large immediate rewards with high long-term loss) and for frequency effect (preference for frequent rewards and avoidance of frequent losses). Group differences were investigated using linear mixed-effect modeling. Results:Partial responders made more selections from decks providing large, immediate rewards and long-term losses than healthy controls [p = 0.038, g = -0.77 (-1.09: -0.44)]. Full responders showed a greater, nonsignificant preference for frequent rewards and aversion to frequent losses than partial responders [p = 0.054, g = -0.63 (-0.95: -0.29)]. Conclusions:A predilection for choices based on the size and immediacy of reward may reflect a cognitive strategy that works against CM. Pretesting with a decision-making task, such as the IGT, may help in matching cognitive therapies to clients with MA Use Disorder.
Project description:Background:Various authors have described the elements of impulsive approach and inhibitory control in drug users. These two components have been studied in terms of personality traits, performance on tasks that measure impulsive behavior, and neurophysiology. However, few studies have analyzed the association between these constructs. Thus, the aim of the present study is to analyze the associations between personality traits and performance on impulsivity tasks. Methods:A follow-up study was conducted with a baseline assessment at the beginning and end of treatment. The sample was composed of 121 patients undergoing treatment in therapeutic communities. Personality domains were evaluated through the PID-5. The impulsivity tasks employed were the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Delay Discounting Test (DDT), Go/No-Go and Stroop test. Results:A correlation was found between DDT scores and the domains of detachment (r = -.315; p<.01), antagonism (r = -.294; p<.01), and disinhibition (r = .215; p<.05). Performance on the Stroop task was significantly associated with psychoticism (r = .232; p<.05) and negative affect (r = .212; p<.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that IGT scores and negative affect predict retention in treatment. Conclusions:These findings partially support the hypothesized association between sensation-seeking personality traits and detachment with impulsive choice tasks; and the relationships between negative affect and psychoticism traits with performance on inhibitory control tasks. Further, impulsive choice task scores and negative affect are both shown to predict retention in treatment.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that individual differences in tendency to overeat relate to impulsivity, possibly by increasing reactivity to food-related cues in the environment. This study tested whether acute exposure to food cues enhanced impulsive and risky responses in women classified on tendency to overeat, indexed by scores on the three factor eating questionnaire disinhibition (TFEQ-D), restraint (TFEQ-R) and hunger scales. Ninety six healthy women completed two measures of impulsive responding (delayed discounting, DDT and a Go No-Go, GNG, task) and a measure of risky decision making (the balloon analogue risk task, BART) as well as questionnaire measures of impulsive behaviour either after looking at a series of pictures of food or visually matched controls. Impulsivity (DDT) and risk-taking (BART) were both positively associated with TFEQ-D scores, but in both cases this effect was exacerbated by prior exposure to food cues. No effects of restraint were found. TFEQ-D scores were also related to more commission errors on the GNG, while restrained women were slower on the GNG, but neither effect was modified by cue exposure. Overall these data suggest that exposure to food cues act to enhance general impulsive responding in women at risk of overeating and tentatively suggest an important interaction between tendency for impulsive decision making and food cues that may help explain a key underlying risk factor for overeating.
Project description:Background:A growing body of research demonstrated impaired executive functions in individuals with severe obesity, including increased sensitivity to reward and impulsive decision making under risk conditions. For the assessment of decision making in patients with severe obesity, studies widely used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) or the Delay Discounting Task (DDT), which cover short-term or long-term consequences of decisions only. A further development originating from the field of addiction research is the Cards and Lottery Task (CLT), in which each decision made has conflicting immediate and long-term consequences at the same time. The present study aimed to validate the CLT in individuals with severe obesity. Methods:Patients with severe obesity (N = 78, 67% women, 42.9 ± 10.4 years old, body mass index of 48.1 ± 8.3 kg/m2) were included. Convergent validity was evaluated using the computerized Delay Discounting Task and well-established self-report questionnaires assessing different aspects of impulsivity. For discriminant validity, CLT performance was compared between symptom groups characterized by high versus low impulsivity. The task's clinical validity was evaluated based on associations with general and eating disorder psychopathology, and body mass index. Test-retest reliability was determined by administering the CLT in n = 31 participants without weight-loss treatment one year later. The task's sensitivity to change due to weight loss was evaluated by retesting n = 32 patients one year after receiving obesity surgery. Results:The number of advantageous decisions in the CLT was significantly positively associated with delay discounting and effortful control, and significantly negatively correlated with behavioral impulsivity. CLT performance differed significantly between individuals with and without symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and between samples with severe obesity and healthy controls. Clinically, CLT performance was significantly associated with general, but not eating disorder psychopathology. The CLT showed moderate test-retest reliability after one year in weight-stable individuals and was sensitive to change in those undergoing obesity surgery. Conclusions:This study identified the CLT to be a highly promising, new complex measure of short- and long-term decision making with good reliability and validity in individuals with severe obesity. Future studies should assess its association with the IGT and predictive value for real-life health behavior.
Project description:Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i.e., Go/No-Go task, Stop Signal task, and Spatial Span task) and delay discounting (i.e., Classic Delay Discounting and Real-Time Delay Discounting tasks), as well as the relationship between these measures. Results indicated that sex moderated the effects of group on task performance. Specifically, girls with ADHD, but not boys with the disorder, exhibited atypical delay discounting of real-time rewards. Results from correlational analyses indicated that delay discounting and cognitive control were not significantly correlated in the overall sample. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that among girls with ADHD poorer spatial working memory and inhibitory control predicted greater real-time discounting. Collectively, findings provide support for distinct patterns of cognitive control and delay discounting among school-aged girls and boys with ADHD. Additionally, findings suggest that among girls with ADHD, those who exhibit relatively poor working memory and inhibitory control might be a particularly vulnerable subgroup with the greatest propensity to exhibit maladaptive decision-making.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) in the United States has risen dramatically in the past four decades and is concentrated in populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite the public health consequences of MUD, there are no FDA-approved psychopharmacological treatments. Psychosocial treatment alone has been shown to reduce methamphetamine use, but high attrition rates limit treatment efficacy. Promising findings from animal models of MUD using exogenous oxytocin, a social neuropeptide, have set the stage for translational work. Along with unique anti-addiction effects, oxytocin holds a primary role in enhancing social salience and modulating stress. In humans, oxytocin administration, combined with evidence-based psychosocial interventions, may act synergistically to improve addiction treatment outcomes and improve retention rates in current MUD treatment. METHODS/DESIGN:We are conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oxytocin-enhanced motivational interviewing group therapy (MIGT). Oxytocin or placebo 40 IU is administered intranasally in conjunction with six, weekly MIGT sessions. We will recruit 50 MSM, initiating treatment for MUD from specialized community health programs in San Francisco, CA, USA. Individuals will be randomized (1:1) to receive six, weekly sessions of MIGT with or without oxytocin. Our primary outcome is session attendance. Other outcomes of interest include: measures of group cohesion, anxiety, psychophysiology, and stimulant craving and use. DISCUSSION:This will be the first study of oxytocin's effects in humans with MUD. Findings from this novel protocol will attempt to bridge existing animal data with the need for innovative clinical treatments for MUD, inform the growing field of pharmacologically-enhanced psychotherapy, and help to elucidate mechanisms behind oxytocin's potential anti-addiction effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02881177 . Registered on 26 August 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dysfunction in brain network dynamics has been found to correlate with many psychiatric disorders. However, there is limited research regarding resting electroencephalogram (EEG) brain network and its association with cognitive process for patients with methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). This study aimed at using EEG microstate analysis to determine whether brain network dynamics in patients with MUD differ from those of healthy controls (HC). METHODS:A total of 55 MUD patients and 27 matched healthy controls were included for analysis. The resting brain activity was recorded by 64-channel electroencephalography. EEG microstate parameters and intracerebral current sources of each EEG microstate were compared between the two groups. Generalized linear regression model was used to explore the correlation between significant microstates with drug history and cognitive functions. RESULTS:MUD patients showed lower mean durations of the microstate classes A and B, and a higher global explained variance of the microstate class C. Besides, MUD patients presented with different current density power in microstates A, B, and C relative to the HC. The generalized linear model showed that MA use frequency is negatively correlated with the MMD of class A. Further, the generalized linear model showed that MA use frequency, scores of Two-back task, and the error rate of MA word are correlated with the MMD and GEV of class B, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Intracranial current source densities of resting EEG microstates are disrupted in MUD patients, hence causing temporal changes in microstate topographies, which are correlated with attention bias and history of drug use.