Effects of Problem-Solving Therapy and Clinical Case Management on Disability in Low-Income Older Adults.
ABSTRACT: To test the following hypotheses: (1) Clinical case management integrated with problem-solving therapy (CM-PST) is more effective than clinical case management alone (CM) in improving functional outcomes in disabled, impoverished patients and (2) improvement in depression, self-efficacy, and problem-solving skills mediates improvement of disability.Using a randomized controlled trial with a parallel design, 271 individuals were screened and 171 were randomized to 12 weekly sessions of either CM or CM-PST at 1:1 ratio. Raters were blind to patients' assignments. Participants were at least age 60 years with major depression, had at least one disability, were eligible for home-based meals services, and had income no more than 30% of their counties' median. The WHO Disability Assessment Scale was used.Both interventions resulted in improved functioning by 12 weeks (t = 4.28, df = 554, p = 0.001), which was maintained until 24 weeks. Contrary to hypothesis, CM was noninferior to CM-PST (one-sided p = 0.0003, t = -3.5, df = 558). Change in disability was not affected by baseline depression severity, cognitive function, or number of unmet social service needs. Improvements in self efficacy (t = -2.45, df = 672, p = 0.021), problem-solving skill (t = -2.44, df = 546, p = 0.015), and depression symptoms (t = 2.25, df = 672, p = .025) by week 9 predicted improvement in function across groups by week 12.CM is noninferior to CM-PST for late-life depression in low-income populations. The effect of these interventions occur early, with benefits in functional status maintained as long as 24 weeks after treatment initiation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00540865).
Project description:To test the hypotheses that (1) clinical case management integrated with problem-solving therapy (CM-PST) is more effective than clinical case management alone (CM) in reducing depressive symptoms of depressed, disabled, impoverished patients and that (2) development of problem-solving skills mediates improvement of depression.This randomized clinical trial with a parallel design allocated participants to CM or CM-PST at 1:1 ratio. Raters were blind to patients' assignments. Two hundred seventy-one individuals were screened and 171 were randomized to 12 weekly sessions of either CM or CM-PST. Participants were at least 60 years old with major depression measured with the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), had at least one disability, were eligible for home-based meals services, and had income no more than 30% of their counties' median.CM and CM-PST led to similar declines in HAM-D over 12 weeks (t = 0.37, df = 547, p = 0.71); CM was noninferior to CM-PST. The entire study group (CM plus CM-PST) had a 9.6-point decline in HAM-D (t = 18.7, df = 547, p <0.0001). The response (42.5% versus 33.3%) and remission (37.9% versus 31.0%) rates were similar (?(2) = 1.5, df = 1, p = 0.22 and ?(2) = 0.9, df = 1, p = 0.34, respectively). Development of problem-solving skills did not mediate treatment outcomes. There was no significant increase in depression between the end of interventions and 12 weeks later (0.7 HAM-D point increase) (t = 1.36, df = 719, p = 0.17).Organizations offering CM are available across the nation. With training in CM, their social workers can serve the many depressed, disabled, low-income patients, most of whom have poor response to antidepressants even when combined with psychotherapy.
Project description:CONTEXT:Older patients with depression and executive dysfunction represent a population with significant disability and a high likelihood of failing pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVES:To examine whether problem-solving therapy (PST) reduces disability more than does supportive therapy (ST) in older patients with depression and executive dysfunction and whether this effect is mediated by improvement in depressive symptoms. DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial. SETTING:Weill Cornell Medical College and University of California at San Francisco. PARTICIPANTS:Adults (aged >59 years) with major depression and executive dysfunction recruited between December 2002 and November 2007 and followed up for 36 weeks. Intervention Twelve sessions of PST modified for older depressed adults with executive impairment or ST. Main Outcome Measure Disability as quantified using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II. RESULTS:Of 653 individuals referred to this study, 221 met the inclusion criteria and were randomized to receive PST or ST. Both PST and ST led to comparable improvement in disability in the first 6 weeks of treatment, but a more prominent reduction was noted in PST participants at weeks 9 and 12. The difference between PST and ST was greater in patients with greater cognitive impairment and more previous episodes. Reduction in disability paralleled reduction in depressive symptoms. The therapeutic advantage of PST over ST in reducing depression was, in part, due to greater reduction in disability by PST. Although disability increased during the 24 weeks after the end of treatment, the advantage of PST over ST was retained. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that PST is more effective than ST in reducing disability in older patients with major depression and executive dysfunction, and its benefits were retained after the end of treatment. The clinical value of this finding is that PST may be a treatment alternative in an older patient population likely to be resistant to pharmacotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00052091.
Project description:To examine whether an individualized problem-solving intervention provided to family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities provides benefits to both caregivers and their care recipients.Family caregivers were randomly assigned to an education-only control group or a problem-solving training (PST) intervention group. Participants received monthly contacts for 1 year.Family caregivers (129 women, 18 men) and their care recipients (81 women, 66 men) consented to participate.Caregivers completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, the Satisfaction with Life scale, and a measure of health complaints at baseline and in 3 additional assessments throughout the year. Care recipient depression was assessed with a short form of the Hamilton Depression Scale.Latent growth modeling was used to analyze data from the dyads. Caregivers who received PST reported a significant decrease in depression over time, and they also displayed gains in constructive problem-solving abilities and decreases in dysfunctional problem-solving abilities. Care recipients displayed significant decreases in depression over time, and these decreases were significantly associated with decreases in caregiver depression in response to training.PST significantly improved the problem-solving skills of community-residing caregivers and also lessened their depressive symptoms. Care recipients in the PST group also had reductions in depression over time, and it appears that decreases in caregiver depression may account for this effect.
Project description:To describe the methodology of the first NIH-funded clinical trial for seniors with comorbid depression and chronic low back pain.Randomized controlled effectiveness trial using stepped care methodology. Participants are ?60 years old. Phase 1 (6 weeks) is open treatment with venlafaxine xr 150 mg/day and supportive management (SM). Response is 2 weeks of PHQ-9 ?5 and at least 30% improvement in the average numeric rating scale for pain. Nonresponders progress to phase 2 (14 weeks) in which they are randomized to high-dose venlafaxine xr (up to 300 mg/day) with problem solving therapy for depression and pain (PST-DP) or high-dose venlafaxine xr and continued SM. Primary outcomes are the univariate pain and depression response and both observed and self-reported disability. Survival analytic techniques will be used, and the clinical effect size will be estimated with the number needed to treat. We hypothesize that self-efficacy for pain management will mediate response for subjects randomized to venlafaxine xr and PST-DP.Not applicable.The results of this trial will inform the care of these complex patients and further understanding of comorbid pain and depression in late life.
Project description:Interventions directed at the mental health of family dementia caregivers may have limited impact when focused on caregivers who have provided care for years and report high burden levels. We sought to evaluate the mental health effects of problem-solving therapy (PST), designed for caregivers of individuals with a recent diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or early dementia.Seventy-three (43 MCI and 30 early dementia) family caregivers were randomly assigned to receive PST or a comparison condition (nutritional education). Depression, anxiety, and problem-solving orientation were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention.In general, the PST caregiver intervention was feasible and acceptable to family caregivers of older adults with a new cognitive diagnosis. Relative to nutritional education, PST led to significantly reduced depression symptoms, particularly among early dementia caregivers. PST also lowered caregivers' anxiety levels, and led to lessening of negative problem orientation.Enhanced problem-solving skills, learned early after a loved one's cognitive diagnosis (especially dementia), results in positive mental health outcomes among new family caregivers.
Project description:Older individuals with emotional distress and a history of psychologic trauma are at risk for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. This study was an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from the study "Prevention of Depression in Older African Americans". It examined whether Problem Solving Therapy-Primary Care (PST-PC) would lead to improvement in PTSD symptoms in patients with subsyndromal depression and a history of psychologic trauma. The control condition was dietary education (DIET). Participants (n=60) were age 50 or older with scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale of 11 or greater and history of psychologic trauma. Exclusions stipulated no major depression and substance dependence within a year. Participants were randomized to 6-8 sessions of either PST-PC or DIET and followed 2 years with booster sessions every 6 months; 29 participants were in the PST-PC group and 31 were in the DIET group. Mixed effects models showed that improvement of PTSD Check List scores was significantly greater in the DIET group over two years than in the PST-PC group (based on a group time interaction). We observed no intervention?time interactions in Beck Depression Inventory or Brief Symptom Inventory-Anxiety subscale scores.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Depression exerts a staggering toll that is worsened with co-occurring chronic conditions such as obesity. It is imperative to develop more effective interventions for depression and to identify objective and biological plausible neural mechanisms to understand intervention outcomes. The current study uses functional neuroimaging to determine whether a behavioural intervention changes the negative affect circuit and whether these changes relate to subsequent improvements in both symptom and problem-solving outcomes in depressed patients with co-occurring obesity.<h4>Methods</h4>This study ('ENGAGE') was a pre-planned element of the randomized controlled trial, 'RAINBOW' (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02246413). 108 depressed patients with obesity were randomized to receive an integrated collaborative care intervention (I-CARE) or usual care. Participants underwent functional neuroimaging using an established facial emotion task at baseline and two months (coinciding with the first two months of intervention focused on problem-solving therapy ('PST')). Amygdala, insula and anterior cingulate cortex activation was extracted using pre-planned definitions and standardized methods. The primary health and behavioural outcomes were depression symptom severity and problem-solving ability respectively, assessed at baseline, the main 6-month outcome point and at 12-month follow up. Mediation analyses used an intent-to-treat approach.<h4>Findings</h4>PST, relative to usual care, reduced amygdala activation engaged by threat stimuli at two months. This reduction mediated subsequent improvements in depression severity in an intervention-dependent manner. PST did not change insula activation at two months but did temper the strength of the relationship between insula activation and improvements in problem-solving ability.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The negative affect circuit may be an important neural target and potential mediator of PST in patients with comorbid obesity.<h4>Funding</h4>US National Institutes of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute R01 HL119453 and UH2/UH3 HL132368.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) often experience debilitating caregiver burden and emotional distress. To address these negative emotional consequences of caregiving, we will test and refine a strategy training intervention - Problem-Solving Training (PST) - that promotes self-efficacy and reduces caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. Previous research supports efficacy of PST; however, we do not know exactly how many PST sessions are needed or if post-training "boosters" are required to maintain PST benefits. Additionally, we translated and culturally-adapted PST into "Descubriendo Soluciones Juntos" (DSJ), our novel intervention for Spanish-speaking caregivers.<h4>Method</h4>In this 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial, we will test remotely-delivered PST/DSJ sessions for both English- and Spanish-speaking caregivers of persons with ADRD to determine the optimal number of PST/DSJ sessions and ongoing "booster" sessions needed to best help caregivers navigate their current and future needs.<h4>Aims</h4>1) Compare the efficacy of three vs. six PST/DSJ sessions each with and without booster sessions for decreasing caregiver burden and depression and enhancing caregiver problem-solving; 2) Identify key factors associated with efficacy of PST/DSJ, including age, gender, primary language, relationship to care recipient, and uptake of the PST/DSJ strategy.<h4>Results</h4>These results will establish guidelines needed for an evidence-based, culturally-adapted, and implementable problem-solving intervention to reduce caregiver stress and burden and improve caregiver health and well-being.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This work promotes inclusion of diverse and underserved populations and advances therapeutic behavioral interventions that improve the lives of caregivers of individuals with chronic conditions.
Project description:To test the hypothesis that Problem Solving Therapy (PST) is more effective than Supportive Therapy (ST) in reducing suicidal ideation in older adults with major depression and executive dysfunction. We further explored whether patient characteristics, such as age, sex, and additional cognitive impairment load (e.g., memory impairments) were related to changes in suicidal ideation over time.Secondary data analysis using data from a randomized clinical trial allocating participants to PST or ST at 1:1 ratio. Raters were blind to patients' assignments.University medical centers.221 people aged 65 years old and older with major depression determined by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R diagnosis and executive dysfunction as defined by a score of 33 or less on the Initiation-Perseveration Score of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale or a Stroop Interference Task score of 25 or less.12 weekly sessions of PST or ST.The suicide item of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.Of the 221 participants, 61% reported suicidal ideation (SI). The ST group had a lower rate of improvement in SI after 12 weeks (44.6%) than did the PST group (60.4%, Fisher's exact test p = 0.031). Logistic regression showed significantly greater reductions in SI in elders who received PST at both 12 weeks (OR: .50, Z = -2.16, p = 0.031) and 36 weeks (OR: 0.5, Z = -1.96, p = 0.05) after treatment.PST is a promising intervention for older adults who are at risk for suicide. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00052091.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Existing treatments for depression are known to have only modest effects, are insufficiently targeted, and are inconsistently utilized, particularly in older adults. Indeed, older adults with impaired cognitive control networks tend to demonstrate poor response to a majority of existing depression interventions. Cognitive control interventions delivered using entertainment software have the potential to not only target the underlying cerebral dysfunction associated with depression, but to do so in a manner that is engaging and engenders adherence to treatment protocol. METHODS:In this proof-of-concept trial (Clinicaltrials.gov #: NCT02229188), individuals with late life depression (LLD) (22; 60+ years old) were randomized to either problem solving therapy (PST, n = 10) or a neurobiologically inspired digital platform designed to enhance cognitive control faculties (Project: EVO™, n = 12). Given the overlapping functional neuroanatomy of mood disturbances and executive dysfunction, we explored the impact of an intervention targeting cognitive control abilities, functional disability, and mood in older adults suffering from LLD, and how those outcomes compare to a therapeutic gold standard. RESULTS:EVO participants demonstrated similar improvements in mood and self-reported function after 4 weeks of treatment to PST participants. The EVO participants also showed generalization to untrained measures of working memory and attention, as well as negativity bias, a finding not evident in the PST condition. Individuals assigned to EVO demonstrated 100% adherence. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides preliminary findings that this therapeutic video game targeting cognitive control deficits may be an efficacious LLD intervention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings.