Lactate potentiates angiogenesis and neurogenesis in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT: Lactate accumulation has been observed in the brain with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the outcome of lactate accumulation has not been well characterized. Here, we report that lactate accumulation contributes to angiogenesis and neurogenesis in ICH. In the first set of the experiment, a rat model of ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the brain. The effects of lactate accumulation on the neurological function, apoptosis, and numbers of newborn endothelial cells and neurons, as well as the proliferation-associated signaling pathway, were evaluated in the rat brain. In the second set, exogenous L-lactate was infused into intact rat brains so that its effects could be further assessed. Following ICH, lactate accumulated around the hematoma; the numbers of PCNA+/vWF+ nuclei and PCNA+/DCX+ cells were significantly increased compared with the numbers in the Sham group. Moreover, ICH induced translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) p65 into the nucleus, resulting in a notable upregulation of VEGF and bFGF mRNAs and proteins compared with the levels in the Sham controls. Administration of a lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor dramatically inhibited these effects, decreased the vascular density, and aggravated neurological severity scores and apoptosis after ICH. After exogenous L-lactate infusion, the numbers of PCNA+/vWF+ nuclei and PCNA+/DCX+ cells were strikingly increased compared with the numbers in the Sham controls. In addition, lactate facilitated NF-?B translocation to induce increased transcription of VEGF and bFGF. Co-infusion with an NF-?B inhibitor significantly inhibited these effects. These data suggest that lactate potentiates angiogenesis and neurogenesis by activating the NF-?B signaling pathway following ICH.
Project description:Whether hippocampal neurogenesis persists throughout life in the human brain is not fully resolved. Here, we demonstrate that hippocampal neurogenesis is persistent through the tenth decade of life and is detectable in patients with mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer's disease. In a cohort of 18 participants with a mean age of 90.6 years, Nestin+Sox2+ neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and DCX+ neuroblasts and immature neurons were detected, but their numbers greatly varied between participants. Nestin+ cells localize in the anterior hippocampus, and NPCs, neuroblasts, and immature neurons are evenly distributed along the anterior to posterior axis. The number of DCX+PCNA+ cells is reduced in mild cognitive impairments, and higher numbers of neuroblasts are associated with better cognitive status. The number of DCX+PCNA+ cells correlates with functional interactions between presynaptic SNARE proteins. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis persists in the aged and diseased human brain and that it is possibly associated with cognition.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Lactate accumulation in the brain is caused by the anaerobic metabolism induced by ischemic damages, which always accompanies intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). Our former findings showed that microglia's movement was always directly toward hemorrhagic center with the highest lactate concentration, and penumbra area has the largest density of compactly arrayed microglia. However, the relationship between microglia and lactate concentration has not been well documented. METHODS:Cerebral hemorrhage model was successfully achieved by injecting collagenase VII (causing stabile localized bleeding) in CPu (striatum) of SD rats. Emodin was used as a potential therapeutic for ICH. The function of the lactate was examined with in vitro culture studies. Then, the effect of lactate on the proliferation, cell survival, migration, and phagocytosis property of microglia was investigated by in vitro culture studies. RESULTS:Lactate accumulation was observed with in vivo MRS method, and its concentration was monitored during the recovery of ICH and treatment of emodin. Lactate concentration significantly increased in the core and penumbra regions of hemorrhagic foci, and it decreased after the treatment of emodin. The in vitro culture study was verified that lactate was beneficial for the proliferation, cell survival, migration, and phagocytosis property of the microglia. CONCLUSION:Results from in vitro verification study, investigations from the recovery of ICH, and treatment of emodin verify that lactate plays an important role during the recovery of ICH. This could provide a novel therapeutic approach for ICH.
Project description:As the impairment of myocardial microenvironments due to coronary microembolization (CME) compromises the treatment effect of percutaneous coronary intervention and leads to adverse prognosis, we hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transplantation could improve cardiac function in the condition of CME. Low- (2 × 105) and high- (2 × 106) dose rat bone marrow-derived EPCs were transplanted in a model of CME. To develop a CME model, rats were injected with autologous micro-blood-clots into the left ventricle. Echocardiograph was examined before and 1, 7, and 28 days after EPC transplantation; serum cardiac troponin I (cTNI), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and cardiac microRNA expression were examined one day after EPCs transplantation. Heart morphology and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vWF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression were examined one day after EPC transplantation. After 10 days of culture inductions, BM-EPCs have high purity as confirmed by flow cytometry. Cardiac function reflected by left ventricular ejection fraction significantly decreased after CME treatment and rescued by low-dose EPC. Compared to the sham group, cTNI and vWF serum levels increased significantly after CME treatment and rescued by low-dose EPC and high-dose EPC. Low-dose EPC treatment decreased myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and elevated cardiac expression of VEGF and vWF, while decreasing the cardiac expression of bFGF. Low-dose EPC treatment significantly suppressed cardiac expression of microRNA-19a but significantly enhanced microRNA-21, microRNA-214, and microRNA-486-3p expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that low-dose EPC transplantation may play a proangiogenic, antifibroblast, antifibrosis, and antinecrosis role and enhance cardiac function in a rat model of CME through a microRNA-related pathway.
Project description:Memantine has demonstrated beneficial effects on several types of brain insults via therapeutic mechanisms mainly related to its activity as a receptor antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate. However, the influences of memantine on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain obscure. This research probed into the neurovascular protective mechanisms of memantine after ICH and its impacts on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) ser1412 phosphorylation. ICH model was established by employing intrastriatal collagenase injection in rats. After modeling, rats were then allocated randomly into sham-operated (sham), vehicle-treated (ICH+V), and memantine-administrated (ICH+M) groups. Memantine (20 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered 30 min after ICH and thenceforth once daily. Rats were dedicated at 0.25, 6, 12, 24 h, 3 and 7 d post-ICH for measurement of corresponding indexes. Behavioral changes, brain edema, levels of nNOS ser1412 phosphorylation, peroxynitrite, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, NLRP3, IL-1? and numbers of dying neurons, as well as the cellular localization of gelatinolytic activity, were detected among the groups. Memantine improved the neurologic deficits and mitigated brain water content, levels of MMP-9, NLRP3, IL-1? and dying neurons. Additionally, treatment with memantine also reduced nNOS ser1412 phosphorylation and peroxynitrite formation compared with the ICH+V group at 24 h after ICH. In situ zymography simultaneously revealed that gelatinase activity was primarily colocalized with vessel walls and neurons. We concluded that memantine ameliorated blood-brain barrier disruption and neurologic dysfunction in an ICH rat model. The underlying mechanism might involve repression of nNOS ser1412 phosphorylation, as well as peroxynitrite-related MMP-9 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aldose reductase (AR) inhibition on posterior capsular opacification (PCO) with the use of a pig eye capsular bag model. METHODS:Pig eye capsular bags were prepared by capsulorhexis and cultured in medium without or with AR inhibitors for 7 days. Immunostaining was performed in paraformaldehyde-fixed capsular bags to determine the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), beta-crystallin, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. The effect of AR inhibition on basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF)-induced mitogenic signaling in cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) was examined. Cell growth was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell counting, the expression of alpha-SMA, beta-crystallin, and ICAM-1 by Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis, protein kinases by Western blot analysis, and NF-kappaB activation by gel shift and reporter assays. RESULTS:During culture of pig eye capsular bags, residual cells on both the anterior and the posterior capsule showed vigorous growth. Treatment with AR inhibitors significantly prevented the lens epithelial cell growth in capsular bags and expression of alpha-SMA, beta-crystallin, and ICAM-1. HLECs showed a dose-dependent response to BFGF, proliferation at lower concentrations (<20 ng/mL) and differentiation/transdifferentiation at higher concentrations (>50 ng/mL). Inhibition of AR also prevented the BFGF-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK, and NF-kappaB in HLECs. CONCLUSIONS:Results suggest that AR is required for lens epithelial cell growth and differentiation/transdifferentiation in the capsular bags, indicating that inhibition of AR could be a potential therapeutic target in the prevention of PCO.
Project description:A considerable number of cells expressing typical immature neuronal markers including doublecortin (DCX+) are present around layer II in the cerebral cortex of young and adult guinea pigs and other larger mammals, and their origin and biological implication await further characterization. We show here in young adult guinea pigs that these DCX+ cells are accompanied by in situ cell division around the superficial cortical layers mostly in layer I, but they co-express proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and an early neuronal fate determining factor, PAX6. A small number of these DCX+ cells also colocalize with BrdU following administration of this mitotic indicator. Cranial X-ray irradiation causes a decline of DCX+ cells around layer II, and novel environmental exploration induces c-Fos expression among these cells in several neocortical areas. Together, these data are compatible with a notion that DCX+ cortical neurons around layer II might derive from proliferable neuronal precursors around layer I in young adult guinea pig cerebrum, and that these cells might be modulated by experience under physiological conditions.
Project description:This study explored the hypothesis that intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) promotes release of diffusible factors that can significantly influence the structure and function of cerebral arteries remote from the site of injury, through action on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors. Four groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied (n = 8 each): 1) sham; 2) sham + 60 mg/kg ip imatinib; 3) ICH (collagenase method); and 4) ICH + 60 mg/kg ip imatinib given 60 min after injury. At 24 h after injury, sham artery passive diameters (+3 mM EGTA) averaged 244 ± 7 µm (at 60 mmHg). ICH significantly increased passive diameters up to 6.4% and decreased compliance up to 42.5%. For both pressure- and potassium-induced contractions, ICH decreased calcium mobilization up to 26.2% and increased myofilament calcium sensitivity up to 48.4%. ICH reduced confocal colocalization of smooth muscle ?-actin (?Actin) with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and increased its colocalization with smooth muscle MHC, suggesting that ICH promoted contractile differentiation. ICH also enhanced colocalization of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) with both ?Actin and regulatory 20-kDa myosin light chain. All effects of ICH on passive diameter, compliance, contractility, and contractile protein colocalization were significantly reduced or absent in arteries from animals treated with imatinib. These findings support the hypothesis that ICH promotes release into the cerebrospinal fluid of vasoactive factors that can diffuse to and promote activation of cerebrovascular PDGF receptors, thereby altering the structure, contractile protein organization, contractility, and smooth muscle phenotype of cerebral arteries remote from the site of hemorrhage.
Project description:The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) family shows a great potential in the treatment of diabetes, but little attention is paid to basic FGF (bFGF). In this study, to explore the metabolic effects of bFGF on diabetes, metabolic changes in serum and feces were analyzed in the normal rats, the streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the bFGF-treated diabetic rats using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approach. Interestingly, bFGF treatment significantly decreased glucose, lipid and low density lipoprotein/very low density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) levels in serum of diabetic rats. Moreover, bFGF treatment corrected diabetes-induced reductions in citrate, lactate, choline, glycine, creatine, histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and glutamine in serum. Fecal propionate was significantly increased after bFGF treatment. Correlation analysis shows that glucose, lipid and LDL/VLDL were significantly negatively correlated with energy metabolites (citrate, creatine and lactate) and amino acids (alanine, glycine, histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and glutamine). In addition, a weak but significant correlation was observed between fecal propionate and serum lipid (R = -0.35, P = 0.046). Based on metabolic correlation and pathway analysis, therefore, we suggest that the glucose and lipid lowering effects of bFGF in the STZ-induced diabetic rats may be achieved by activating microbial metabolism, increasing energy metabolism and correcting amino acid metabolism.
Project description:Transfer-RNA-Derived Small RNA (tsRNA) is s a novel class of short non-coding RNA including stress-induced tRNA fragments (tiRNA) and tRNA-derived fragments (tRF). Using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the tsRNA expression profiles in the brain of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and sham rats at days 21. Meanwhile, tsRNA levels in ICH treated with the Traditional Chinese Medicine named Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) were detected. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that tsRNAs were the important regulators in ICH and potential new therapeutic targets of BYHWD. Overall design: tiRNA and tRF profiles in the right globus pallidus of ICH, sham, and BYHWD rats at days 21, in triplicate, using Illumina NextSeq 500 system.