Multiple Sessions of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Reduced Craving and Relapses for Alcohol Use: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Alcohol Use Disorder.
ABSTRACT: Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, has been studied as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for alcohol dependence. In a previous study, we showed that five consecutive sessions of tDCS applied bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) reduced relapse to the use of alcohol in alcohol use disorder (AUD) outpatients. However, no changes on craving scores were observed. In the present study, we investigated if an extended number of sessions of the same intervention would reduce craving and relapses for alcohol use in AUD inpatients. Methods: Thus, a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, clinical trial with parallel arms was conducted (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02091284). AUD patients from two private and one public clinics for treatment of drug dependence were randomly allocated to two groups: real tDCS (5 × 7 cm2, 2 mA, for 20 min, cathodal over the left dlPFC, and anodal over the right dlPFC) and sham-tDCS. Real or sham-tDCS was applied once a day, every other day, in a total of 10 sessions. Craving was monitored by a 5-item obsessive compulsive drinking scale once a week (one time before, three times during and once after brain stimulation) over about 5 weeks. Results: Craving scores progressively decreased over five measurements in both groups but were significantly reduced only in the real tDCS group after treatment. Corrected Hedges' within-group (initial and final) effect sizes of craving scores were of 0.3 for the sham-tDCS and of 1.1 for the real tDCS group. Effect size was 3-fold larger in the real tDCS group. In addition, the between-group analysis on craving score difference was nearly significant, and the effect size was 0.58, in favor for a larger effect in the real tDCS group when compared to sham-tDCS. Furthermore, in a 3-months follow-up after intervention, 72.2% of sham-tDCS group relapsed to the alcohol use whereas 72.7% of tDCS group were abstinent. Conclusions: Multiple sessions of bilateral prefrontal tDCS were well tolerated with no significant adverse events. Thus, extended repetitive bilateral tDCS over the dlPFC is a promising adjunctive clinical tool that could be used to reduce alcohol craving and relapses and facilitate alcoholism cessation.
Project description:Background: Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been investigated as additional therapeutic tool for drug use disorder. In a previous study, we showed that five sessions of tDCS applied bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) reduced craving to the use of crack-cocaine in inpatients from a specialized clinic. In the present study, we examine if an extended number of sessions of the same intervention would reduce craving even further and affect also relapses to crack-cocaine use. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, clinical trial with parallel arms was conducted (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02091167). Crack-cocaine patients from two private and one public clinics for treatment of drug use disorder were randomly allocated to two groups: real tDCS (5 cm × 7 cm, 2 mA, for 20 min, cathodal over the left dlPFC and anodal over the right dlPFC, n = 19) and sham-tDCS (n = 16). Real or sham-tDCS was applied once a day, every other day, in a total of 10 sessions. Craving was monitored by a 5-item obsessive compulsive drinking scale once a week (one time before, three times during and once after brain stimulation) over about 5 weeks and relapse was monitored after their discharge from clinics for up to 60 days. Results: Craving scores progressively decreased over five measurements in both sham- and real tDCS groups. Corrected Hedges' within-group (initial and final) effect sizes of craving scores were of 0.77 for the sham-tDCS and of 0.97 for the real tDCS group. The between-groups effect size was of 0.34, in favor of the real tDCS group over sham-tDCS group. Relapse rates were high and quite similar between groups in the 30- and 60-days follow-up after discharge from the hospital. Conclusion: Extended repetitive bilateral tDCS over the dlPFC had no add-on effects over regular treatment when considering craving and relapses to the crack-cocaine use in a sample of crack-cocaine patients with severe use disorder. Different tDCS montages targeting other cortical regions and perhaps additional extension of sessions need to be investigated to reach more efficiency in managing craving and relapses to crack-cocaine use.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may reduce craving and smoking. However, little is known regarding brain correlates of these behavioral changes. We aimed to evaluate whether 10 sessions of tDCS modulate cigarette consumption, craving and brain reactivity to smoking cues in subjects with tobacco use disorder (TUD). In a double blind parallel-arms study, 29 subjects with TUD who wished to quit smoking were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active or sham tDCS applied with the anode over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a large cathode over the left occipital region. As compared to sham, active tDCS significantly reduced smoking craving and increased brain reactivity to smoking-cues within the right posterior cingulate, as measured with a functional magnetic resonance imaging event-related paradigm. However, we failed to find a significant difference between active and sham groups regarding the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and the exhaled carbon monoxide during one month. These findings suggested that 10 sessions of tDCS over the right DLPFC may reduce craving by modulating activity within the resisting-to-smoke network but might not be significantly more effective than sham to decrease cigarette consumption.
Project description:Background:Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation. We targeted three large-scale RSNs; the default mode network (DMN), the executive control network (ECN), and the salience network (SN). Methods:Fifteen males were recruited after signing written informed consent. We conducted a double-blinded sham-controlled crossover study. Twenty-minute "real" and "sham" tDCS (2 mA) were applied over the DLPFC on two separate days in random order. Each subject received both stimulation conditions with a 1-week washout period. The anode and cathode electrodes were located over the right and left DLPFC, respectively. Resting state fMRI was acquired before and after real and sham stimulation. Subjective craving was assessed before and after each fMRI scan. The RSNs were identified using seed-based analysis and were compared using a generalized linear model. Results:Subjective craving decreased significantly after real tDCS compared to sham stimulation (p = .03). Moreover, the analysis shows significant modulation of DMN, ECN, and SN after real tDCS compared to sham stimulation. Additionally, alteration of subjective craving score was correlated with modified activation of the three networks. Discussion:Given the observed alteration of the targeted functional brain networks in methamphetamine users, new potentials are highlighted for tDCS as a network intervention strategy and rsfMRI as a suitable monitoring method for these interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent studies reported that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduced craving and cigarette smoking. We aimed to evaluate whether 3 sessions of tDCS over the DLPFC modulate cigarette smoking which is a critical factor in tobacco smokers. METHODS:In a double-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel experimental study, 22 participants who wished to quit smoking received tDCS with the cathodal over the right DLPFC and anodal over the left DLPFC based on the 10-20 EEG international system (F4, F3) at an intensity of 1.5 mA for 20 minutes during three consecutive days. For sham stimulation, the electrodes placement was the same as for the active stimulation. RESULTS:For the short time interval (8 days after the end of the tDCS regimen), the number of smoked cigarettes was reduced similarly in the active and sham groups (p < 0.001). Also, at the long time-interval (4 months after the end of the tDCS regimen) as compared to pre-tDCS, there was no significant difference in the number of smoked cigarettes in the active (p = 0.806) or the sham (p = 0.573) groups. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences between the active and sham tDCS groups on cigarette smoking. CONCLUSION:These findings suggested that 3 sessions of tDCS over the right and left DLPFC may reduce number of smoked cigarettes for short-time period but might not be significantly more effective than sham to decrease cigarette smoking.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The effectiveness of repetitive transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on reducing smoking behaviour has been studied with mixed results. Smoking behaviour is influenced by affect and context, therefore we choose to use mobile ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to measure changes in smoking behaviour after tDCS. METHODS:In a randomized, placebo-controlled, between subject study, we applied tDCS bilaterally with the anodal electrode targeting the right DLPFC (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03027687). Smokers were allocated to six sessions of either active tDCS (n = 35) or sham tDCS (n = 36) and received two sessions on three different days in one week. They were asked to keep track of their daily cigarette consumption, craving and affect in an application on their mobile phones for three months starting one week before the first tDCS session. RESULTS:Number of smoked cigarettes a day progressively decreased up to one week after the last tDCS session in both conditions. Active treatment had no additional effect on cigarette consumption, craving and affect. CONCLUSIONS:In this exploratory study, repetitive bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC had no effect on daily smoking behaviour. Future research needs to investigate how motivation to quit smoking and the number of tDCS sessions affect the efficacy of repetitive tDCS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Modifying attentional processes with attentional bias modification (ABM) might be a relevant add-on to treatment in addiction. This study investigated whether influencing cortical plasticity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could increase training effects. tDCS could also help alcohol-dependent patients to overcome craving and reduce relapse, independent of training. These approaches were combined to investigate effects in the treatment of alcoholism.<h4>Methods</h4>Ninety-eight patients (analytical sample = 83) were randomly assigned to 4 groups in a 2-by-2 factorial design. Patients received 4 sessions of ABM (control or real training) combined with 2 mA tDCS (active: 20 minutes or sham: 30 seconds) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Alcohol bias and craving were assessed, and treatment outcome was measured as relapse after 1 year.<h4>Results</h4>Attentional bias scores indicated that during the training only the group with active tDCS and real ABM displayed an overall avoidance bias (p < 0.05). From pre- to postassessment, there were no main or interaction effects of tDCS and ABM on the bias scores, craving, or relapse (p > 0.2). However, effects on relapse after active tDCS were in the expected direction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was no evidence of a beneficial effect of tDCS or ABM or the combination. Whether the absence of effect was due to issues with the outcome measurements (e.g., lack of craving, high dropout, and unreliable measurements) or aspects of the intervention should be further investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have independently shown benefits for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD). Recent work suggests tDCS may enhance mindfulness. The combination of MBRP and tDCS may provide synergistic benefits and may target both behavioral and neurobiological dysfunctions in AUD. The goal of this double-blind sham-controlled randomized trial was to examine the efficacy of a rolling group MBRP treatment combined with tDCS among individuals interested in reducing their drinking. METHODS:Individuals who were interested in reducing their alcohol use (n = 84; 40.5% female; mean age = 52.3; 98.9% with current AUD) were randomized to receive active (2.0 milliamps) or sham (0.0 milliamps) anodal tDCS (5 cm × 3 cm electrode) of the right inferior frontal gyrus with the 5 cm × 3 cm cathodal electrode applied to the left upper arm, combined with 8 weeks of outpatient MBRP rolling group treatment. Assessments were conducted at baseline, posttreatment, and 2 months following treatment. The primary outcome was drinks per drinking day, and secondary outcomes were percent heavy drinking days, self-reported craving, alcohol cue reactivity in an alcohol cue task, and response inhibition in a stop signal reaction time task. RESULTS:Results indicated significant reductions in drinks per drinking day over time, B(SE) = -0.535 (0.16), p = 0.001, and a significant dose effect for number of groups attended, B(SE) = -0.259 (0.11), p = 0.01. There were also significant effects of time and dose for number of groups attended on secondary outcomes of percent heavy drinking days and alcohol cue reactivity. There were no effects of active versus sham tDCS on primary or secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Findings from the current study provide initial support for the effectiveness of rolling group MBRP as an outpatient treatment for drinking reduction. The current study did not find additive effects of this tDCS protocol in enhancing MBRP among individuals with drinking reduction goals.
Project description:Impaired cognitive-motivational functioning is present in many psychiatric disorders, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Emotion regulation is a key intermediate factor, relating to the (cognitive) regulation of emotional and motivational states, such as in regulation of craving or negative emotions that may lead to relapse in alcohol use. These cognitive-motivational functions, including emotion regulation, are a target in cognitive behavioral therapy and may possibly be improved by neurostimulation techniques. The present between-subjects, single-blind study assesses the effects of sham-controlled high-frequency neuronavigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (10 Hz) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) on several aspects relevant for emotion regulation (emotion processing and reappraisal abilities) and related brain activity, as well as self-reported craving in a sample of alcohol use disorder patients (AUD; n = 39) and healthy controls (HC; n = 36). During the emotion reappraisal task, participants were instructed to either attend or reappraise their emotions related to the negative, positive, neutral, and alcohol-related images, after which they rated their experienced emotions. We found that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces self-reported experienced emotions in response to positive and negative images in AUD patients, whereas experienced emotions were increased in response to neutral and positive images in HCs. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses, we found that rTMS reduces right dlPFC activity during appraisal of affective images relative to sham stimulation only in AUD patients. We could not confirm our hypotheses regarding the effect of rTMS craving levels, or on reappraisal related brain function, since no significant effects of rTMS on craving or reappraisal related brain function were found. These findings imply that rTMS can reduce the emotional impact of images as reflected in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response, especially in AUD patients. Future studies should replicate and expand the current study, for instance, by assessing the effect of multiple stimulation sessions on both explicit and implicit emotion regulation paradigms and craving, and assess the effect of rTMS within subgroups with specific addiction-relevant image preferences. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02557815.
Project description:Background:The electrophysiological evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of multiple transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions on consciousness improvement in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOCs) has not been firmly established. Objectives:To assess the effects of repeated tDCS in patients with prolonged DOCs by Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score and event-related potential (ERP). Method:Using a sham-controlled randomized double-blind design, 26 patients were randomly assigned to either a real [five vegetative state (VS) and eight minimally conscious state (MCS) patients] or sham (six VS and seven MCS patients) stimulation group. The patients in the real stimulation group underwent 20 anodal tDCS sessions of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) over 10 consecutive working days. The CRS-R score and P300 amplitude and latency in a hierarchical cognitive assessment were recorded to evaluate the consciousness level before tDCS and immediately after the 20 sessions. Results:The intra-group CRS-R analysis revealed a clinically significant improvement in the MCS patients in the real stimulation group. The inter-group CRS-R analysis showed a significant difference in CRS-R between VS and MCS patients at baseline in both the real and sham stimulation groups. The intra-group ERP analysis revealed a significant increase in P300 amplitude after tDCS in the MCS patients in the real stimulation group, but no significant differences in P300 latency. For the inter-group ERP analysis, we observed significant differences regarding the presence of P300 at baseline between the VS and MCS patients in both groups. Conclusion:The repeated anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC could produce clinically significant improvements in MCS patients. The observed tDCS-related consciousness improvements might be related to improvements in attention resource allocation (reflected by the P300 amplitude). The findings support the use of tDCS in clinical practice and ERP might serve as an efficient electrophysiological assessment tool in patients with DOCs.
Project description:Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can temporarily interrupt or facilitate activity in a focal brain region. Several lines of evidence suggest that rTMS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can affect processes involved in drug addiction. We hypothesized that a single session of low-frequency rTMS of the left DLPFC would modulate cue-induced craving for methamphetamine (MA) when compared to a sham rTMS session.In this single-blind, sham-controlled crossover study, 10 non-treatment seeking MA-dependent users and 8 healthy controls were randomized to receive 15 min of sham and real (1 Hz) DLPFC rTMS in two experimental sessions separated by 1h. During each rTMS session, participants were exposed to blocks of neutral cues and MA-associated cues. Participants rated their craving after each cue block.In MA users, real rTMS over the left DLPFC increased self-reported craving as compared to sham stimulation (17.86 ± 1.46 vs. 24.85 ± 1.57, p=0.001). rTMS had no effect on craving in healthy controls. One Hertz rTMS of the left DLPFC was safe and tolerable for all participants.Low frequency rTMS of the left DLPFC transiently increased cue-induced craving in MA participants. These preliminary results suggest that 1 Hz rTMS of the left DLPFC may increase craving by inhibiting the prefrontal cortex or indirectly activating subcortical regions involved in craving.