Lamins and Lamin-Associated Proteins in Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.
ABSTRACT: The nuclear lamina is a multi-protein lattice composed of A- and B-type lamins and their associated proteins. This protein lattice associates with heterochromatin and integral inner nuclear membrane proteins, providing links among the genome, nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton. In the 1990s, mutations in EMD and LMNA were linked to Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since then, the number of diseases attributed to nuclear lamina defects, including laminopathies and other disorders, has increased to include more than 20 distinct genetic syndromes. Studies of patients and mouse genetic models have pointed to important roles for lamins and their associated proteins in the function of gastrointestinal organs, including liver and pancreas. We review the interactions and functions of the lamina in relation to the nuclear envelope and genome, the ways in which its dysfunction is thought to contribute to human disease, and possible avenues for targeted therapies.
Project description:Laminopathies encompass a wide array of human diseases associated to scattered mutations along LMNA, a single gene encoding A-type lamins. How such genetic alterations translate to cellular defects and generate such diverse disease phenotypes remains enigmatic. Recent work has identified nuclear envelope proteins--emerin and the linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex--which connect the nuclear lamina to the cytoskeleton. Here we quantitatively examine the composition of the nuclear envelope, as well as the architecture and functions of the cytoskeleton in cells derived from two laminopathic mouse models, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (Lmna(L530P/L530P)) and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (Lmna(-/-)). Cells derived from the overtly aphenotypical model of X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (Emd(-/y)) were also included. We find that the centrosome is detached from the nucleus, preventing centrosome polarization in cells under flow--defects that are mediated by the loss of emerin from the nuclear envelope. Moreover, while basal actin and focal adhesion structure are mildly affected, RhoA activation, cell-substratum adhesion, and cytoplasmic elasticity are greatly lowered, exclusively in laminopathic models in which the LINC complex is disrupted. These results indicate a new function for emerin in cell polarization and suggest that laminopathies are not directly associated with cells' inability to polarize, but rather with cytoplasmic softening and weakened adhesion mediated by the disruption of the LINC complex across the nuclear envelope.
Project description:Mutations in genes encoding the intermediate filament nuclear lamins and associated proteins cause a wide spectrum of diseases sometimes called "laminopathies." Diseases caused by mutations in LMNA encoding A-type lamins include autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and related myopathies, Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B1 and developmental and accelerated aging disorders. Duplication in LMNB1 encoding lamin B1 causes autosomal dominant leukodystrophy and mutations in LMNB2 encoding lamin B2 are associated with acquired partial lipodystrophy. Disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding lamin-associated integral inner nuclear membrane proteins include X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, sclerosing bone dysplasias, HEM/Greenberg skeletal dysplasia and Pelger-Huet anomaly. While mutations and clinical phenotypes of "laminopathies" have been carefully described, data explaining pathogenic mechanisms are only emerging. Future investigations will likely identify new "laminopathies" and a combination of basic and clinical research will lead to a better understanding of pathophysiology and the development of therapies.
Project description:Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the nuclear envelope (NE) proteins lamins A/C, cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy and other diseases collectively known as laminopathies. The mechanisms responsible for these diseases remain incompletely understood. Using three mouse models of muscle laminopathies and muscle biopsies from individuals with LMNA-related muscular dystrophy, we found that Lmna mutations reduced nuclear stability and caused transient rupture of the NE in skeletal muscle cells, resulting in DNA damage, DNA damage response activation and reduced cell viability. NE and DNA damage resulted from nuclear migration during skeletal muscle maturation and correlated with disease severity in the mouse models. Reduction of cytoskeletal forces on the myonuclei prevented NE damage and rescued myofibre function and viability in Lmna mutant myofibres, indicating that myofibre dysfunction is the result of mechanically induced NE damage. Taken together, these findings implicate mechanically induced DNA damage as a pathogenic contributor to LMNA skeletal muscle diseases.
Project description:The nuclear lamina is essential for the maintenance of nuclear shape and mechanics. Mutations in lamin genes have been identified in a heterogeneous spectrum of human diseases known as "laminopathies" associated with nuclear envelope defects and deregulation of cellular functions. Interestingly, osteosarcoma is the only neoplasm described in the literature in association with laminopathies. This study aims characterized the expression of A-type and B-type lamins and emerin in osteosarcoma, revealing a higher percentage of dysmorphic nuclei in osteosarcoma cells in comparison to normal osteoblasts and all the hallmarks of laminopathic features. Both lamins and emerin were differentially expressed in osteosarcoma cell lines in comparison to normal osteoblasts and correlated with tumor aggressiveness. We analysed lamin A/C expression in a tissue-microarray including osteosarcoma samples with different prognosis, finding a positive correlation between lamin A/C expression and the overall survival of osteosarcoma patients. An inefficient MKL1 nuclear shuttling and actin depolymerization, as well as a reduced expression of pRb and a decreased YAP nuclear content were observed in A-type lamin deficient 143B cells. In conclusion, we described for the first time laminopathic nuclear phenotypes in osteosarcoma cells, providing evidence for an altered lamins and emerin expression and a deregulated nucleoskeleton architecture of this tumor.
Project description:Emerin (EMD) and barrier to autointegration factor 1 (BANF1) each bind A-type lamins (LMNA) as fundamental components of nuclear lamina structure. Mutations in LMNA, EMD and BANF1 are genetically linked to many tissue-specific disorders including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy (LMNA, EMD), lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (LMNA) and progeria (LMNA, BANF1). To explore human genetic variation in these genes, we analyzed EMD and BANF1 alleles in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) cohort of 60,706 unrelated individuals. We identified 13 rare heterozygous BANF1 missense variants (p.T2S, p.H7Y, p.D9N, p.S22R, p.G25E, p.D55N, p.D57Y, p.L63P, p.N70T, p.K72R, p.R75W, p.R75Q, p.G79R), and one homozygous variant (p.D9H). Several variants are known (p.G25E) or predicted (e.g., p.D9H, p.D9N, p.L63P) to perturb BANF1 and warrant further study. Analysis of EMD revealed two previously identified variants associated with adult-onset cardiomyopathy (p.K37del, p.E35K) and one deemed 'benign' in an Emery-Dreifuss patient (p.D149H). Interestingly p.D149H was the most frequent emerin variant in ExAC, identified in 58 individuals (overall allele frequency 0.06645%), of whom 55 were East Asian (allele frequency 0.8297%). Furthermore, p.D149H associated with four 'healthy' traits: reduced triglycerides (-0.336; p = 0.0368), reduced waist circumference (-0.321; p = 0.0486), reduced cholesterol (-0.572; p = 0.000346) and reduced LDL cholesterol (-0.599; p = 0.000272). These traits are distinct from LMNA-associated metabolic disorders and provide the first insight that emerin influences metabolism. We also identified one novel in-frame deletion (p.F39del) and 62 novel emerin missense variants, many of which were relatively frequent and potentially disruptive including p.N91S and p.S143F (?0.041% and ?0.034% of non-Finnish Europeans, respectively), p.G156S (?0.39% of Africans), p.R204G (?0.18% of Latinx), p.R207P (?0.08% of South Asians) and p.R221L (?0.15% of Latinx). Many novel BANF1 variants are predicted to disrupt dimerization or binding to DNA, histones, emerin or A-type lamins. Many novel emerin variants are predicted to disrupt emerin filament dynamics or binding to BANF1, HDAC3, A-type lamins or other partners. These new human variants provide a foundational resource for future studies to test the molecular mechanisms of BANF1 and emerin function, and to understand the link between emerin variant p.D149H and a 'healthy' lipid profile.
Project description:LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C, two major components of the nuclear lamina, a network of intermediate filaments underlying the inner nuclear membrane. Most of LMNA mutations are associated with cardiac and/or skeletal muscles defects. Muscle laminopathies include Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy, Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 1B, LMNA-related Congenital Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. To identify potential alterations in signaling pathways regulating muscle differentiation in LMNA-mutated myoblasts, we used a previously described model of conditionally immortalized murine myoblasts: H-2K cell lines. Comparing gene expression profiles in wild-type and Lmna?8-11 H-2K myoblasts, we identified two major alterations in the BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) pathway: Bmp4 downregulation and Smad6 overexpression. We demonstrated that these impairments lead to Lmna?8-11 myoblasts premature differentiation and can be rescued by downregulating Smad6 expression. Finally, we showed that BMP4 pathway defects are also present in myoblasts from human patients carrying different heterozygous LMNA mutations.
Project description:The alteration of the several roles that Lamin A/C plays in the mammalian cell leads to a broad spectrum of pathologies that - all together - are named laminopathies. Among those, the Emery Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD) is of particular interest as, despite the several known mutations of Lamin A/C, the genotype-phenotype correlation still remains poorly understood; this suggests that the epigenetic background of patients might play an important role during the time course of the disease. Historically, both a mechanical role of Lamin A/C and a regulative one have been suggested as the driving force of laminopathies; however, those two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Recent scientific evidence shows that Lamin A/C sustains the correct gene expression at the epigenetic level thanks to the Lamina Associated Domains (LADs) reorganization and the crosstalk with the Polycomb Group of Proteins (PcG). Furthermore, the PcG-dependent histone mark H3K27me3 increases under mechanical stress, finally pointing out the link between the mechano-properties of the nuclear lamina and epigenetics. Here, we summarize the emerging mechanisms that could explain the high variability seen in Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Lamins are type-V intermediate filament proteins that comprise the nuclear lamina. Although once considered static structural components that provide physical support to the inner nuclear envelope, recent studies are revealing additional functional and regulatory roles for Lamins in chromatin organization, gene regulation, DNA repair, cell division and signal transduction. In this issue of Cell Stress, Oyston et al. (2018) reports the function of Lamin in the maintenance of nervous system integrity and neural circuit function using Drosophila. A number of laminopathies in humans exhibit age-dependent neurological phenotypes, but understanding how defects in specific neural cell types or circuitries contribute to patient phenotypes is very challenging. Drosophila provides a simple yet sophisticated system to begin untangling the vulnerability of diverse neuronal cell types and circuits against cellular stressors induced by defects in nuclear lamina organization.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is caused by mutations in EMD encoding emerin and LMNA encoding A-type lamins, proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the past decade, there has been an extraordinary burst of research on the nuclear envelope. Discoveries resulting from this basic research have implications for better understanding the pathogenesis and developing treatments for EDMD. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent clinical research has confirmed that EDMD is one of several overlapping skeletal muscle phenotypes that can result from mutations in EMD and LMNA with dilated cardiomyopathy as a common feature. Basic research on the nuclear envelope has provided new insights into how A-type lamins and emerin function in force transmission throughout the cell, which may be particularly important in striated muscle. Much of the recent research has focused on the heart and LMNA mutations. Prevalence and outcome studies have confirmed the relative severity of cardiac disease. Robust mouse models of EDMD caused by LMNA mutations has allowed for further insight into pathogenic mechanisms and potentially beneficial therapeutic approaches. SUMMARY:Recent clinical and basic research on EDMD is gradually being translated to clinical practice and possibly novel therapies.
Project description:The aim of this review article is to evaluate the current knowledge on associations between muscle formation and regeneration and components of the nuclear lamina. Lamins and their partners have become particularly intriguing objects of scientific interest since it has been observed that mutations in genes coding for these proteins lead to a wide range of diseases called laminopathies. For over the last 10 years, various laboratories worldwide have tried to explain the pathogenesis of these rare disorders. Analyses of the distinct aspects of laminopathies resulted in formulation of different hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of the development of these diseases. In the light of recent discoveries, A-type lamins--the main building blocks of the nuclear lamina--together with other key elements, such as emerin, LAP2α and nesprins, seem to be of great importance in the modulation of various signaling pathways responsible for cellular differentiation and proliferation.