Growth-Promoting and Antioxidant Effects of Magnolia Bark Extract in Chickens Uninfected or Co-Infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima as an Experimental Model of Necrotic Enteritis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Magnolia tree bark has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported investigating the effects of dietary supplementation with magnolia bark extract in chickens. Objective:We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of chickens with a Magnolia officinalis bark extract would increase growth performance in uninfected and Eimeria maxima/Clostridium perfringens co-infected chickens. Methods:A total of 168 chickens were fed from hatch either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with 0.33 mg or 0.56 mg M. officinalis bark extract/kg (M/H low or M/H high, respectively) from days 1 to 35. At day 14, half of the chickens were orally infected with E. maxima, followed by C. perfringens infection at day 18 to induce experimental avian necrotic enteritis. Daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, body weight gain, and final body weight were measured as indicators of growth performance. Serum ?1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured as an indicator of systemic inflammation, and intestinal lesion scores were determined as a marker of disease progression. Transcript levels for catalase, heme oxygenase 1, and superoxide dismutase in the intestine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle were measured as indicators of antioxidant status. Results:Growth performance increased between days 1 and 35 in uninfected and E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infected chickens fed M/H-low or M/H-high diets compared with unsupplemented controls. Gut lesion scores were decreased, whereas AGP concentrations were unchanged, in co-infected chickens fed magnolia-supplemented diets compared with unsupplemented controls. In general, transcripts for antioxidant enzymes increased in chickens fed magnolia-supplemented diets compared with unsupplemented controls, and significant interactions between dietary supplementation and co-infection were observed for all antioxidant enzyme transcript levels. Conclusion:Magnolia bark extract might be useful for future development of dietary strategies to improve poultry health, disease resistance, and productivity without the use of antibiotic growth promoters.
Project description:Subtherapeutic levels of dietary antibiotics increase growth performance in domestic animals, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 1-week-old broiler chickens were challenged with LPS (experiment 1), or co-infected with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens as an experimental model of necrotic enteritis (experiment 2), and fed a standard basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with virginiamycin or bacitracin methylene disalicylate. In experiment 1, LPS-challenged chickens fed the unsupplemented diet had decreased body weight gains, compared with unsupplemented controls given the PBS control. In contrast, antibiotic supplementation increased body weight gains in both the LPS-challenged and PBS groups, compared with the antibiotic-free diet. LPS-challenged chickens fed the unsupplemented diet had increased expression levels of intestinal tight junction proteins (ZO1, JAM2), MUC2 gel-forming mucin, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A) at 24 h post-challenge, compared with unsupplemented chickens given the PBS control. However, LPS-challenged chickens fed the antibiotic-supplemented diets had decreased levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokine transcripts, compared with LPS-challenged chickens given the unsupplemented basal diet. In experiment 2, E. maxima/C. perfringens-co-infected chickens fed the antibiotic-supplemented diets had increased body weight gains, decreased intestinal pathology, and greater intestinal crypt depth, compared with co-infected chickens given the unsupplemented diet. Further, similar to LPS challenge, E. maxima/C. perfringens-co-infection of chickens fed the antibiotic-supplemented diets decreased expression levels of intestinal inflammatory cytokines, compared with co-infected chickens given the unsupplemented diet. These results support the hypothesis that dietary antibiotic growth promoters might increase poultry growth, in part, through down-regulation of pathogen-induced inflammatory responses.
Project description:Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. The incidence of avian NE has been progressively increasing following the removal of antibiotics from poultry feed. We evaluated the effect of diets supplemented with the thermally-processed clays, calcium montmorillonite (CaMM) on clinical signs, immunopathology, and cytokine responses in broiler chickens using an experimental model of NE consisting of co-infection with Eimeria maxima and C. perfringens. In Trial 1, Ross/Ross chickens were fed from hatch with a normal basal diet or a CaMM-supplemented diet with or without a fermentable fiber, an organic acid, and/or a plant extract, and co-infected with E. maxima and C. perfringens under conditions simulating clinical infection in the field. Chickens fed a diet supplemented with CaMM plus a fermentable fiber and an organic acid had increased body weight gain, reduced gut lesions, and increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens ?-toxin and NetB toxin compared with chickens fed the basal diet alone. Levels of transcripts for interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-? superfamily-15 were significantly altered in the intestine and spleen of CaMM-supplemented chickens compared with unsupplemented controls (p<0.05). In Trial 2, Cobb/Cobb chickens were fed an unsupplemented diet or a diet supplemented with CaMM or Varium®, each with a fermentable fiber and an organic acid, and co-infected with E. maxima and C. perfringens under subclinical infection conditions. Compared with unsupplemented controls, broilers fed with CaMM plus a fermentable fiber and an organic acid had increased body weight gain, and reduced feed conversion ratio, mortality, and intestinal lesions, compared with chickens fed an unsupplemented diet (p<0.05). Dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with CaMM plus a fermentable fiber and an organic acid might be useful to control avian NE in the field.
Project description:Background:The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of encapsulated essential oils and organic acids (BLJ) on growth performance and gut health using a coinfection model of NE in broiler chickens. Methods:Two hundred and eighty-eight one-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned using a 2?×?2 factorial design into two groups fed either 0 or 500?mg/kg dietary BLJ and co-challenged (or not challenged for the control) with Eimeria spp./C. perfringens. Results:Infected birds fed the BLJ-supplemented diet exhibited an improved feed conversion ratio throughout the trial (P <?0.01), a higher villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio, and reduced intestinal C. perfringens counts, liver C. perfringens carriage, gut lesion scores and serum fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) concentrations at 7?d post-infection compared with those of birds without BLJ supplementation (P <?0.05). NE-infected birds fed BLJ exhibited significantly upregulated claudin-1 and IGF-2 mRNA levels (P <?0.05), increased A20 mRNA expression and significantly downregulated TRAF-6, TNFSF15 and TOLLIP mRNA levels in the jejunum at 7?d post-infection compared with those in birds without BLJ supplementation (P <?0.05). Compared with the uninfected and untreated birds, the uninfected birds fed BLJ displayed increased relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Coprococcus but reduced Rikenellaceae levels. Compared with the unsupplemented NE-challenged birds, infected birds fed BLJ showed an increased relative abundance of Unclassified_Lachnospiraceae and a significantly decreased relative abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae. Conclusion:BLJ supplementation improved growth performance and gut health in NE-infected broiler chickens by strengthening the intestinal barrier function, positively modulating the gut microbiota community and differentially regulating intestinal immune responses. Our results also suggested that adding BLJ effectively controlled NE infections after experimental Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens coinfection.
Project description:Background:Clostridium perfringens-induced chicken necrotic enteritis (NE) is responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide annually. Recently, as a result of antibiotic growth promoter prohibition, the prevalence of NE in chickens has reemerged. This study was aimed to reduce NE through titrating dietary deoxycholic acid (DCA) as an effective antimicrobial alternative. Materials and methods:Day-old broiler chicks were assigned to six groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (basal diet), 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5?g/kg (on top of basal diet) DCA. The birds were challenged with Eimeria maxima (20,000 oocysts/bird) at d 18 and C. perfringens (109?CFU/bird per day) at d 23, 24, and 25 to induce NE. The birds were sacrificed at d 26 when ileal tissue and digesta were collected for analyzing histopathology, mRNA accumulation and C. perfringens colonization by real-time PCR, targeted metabolomics of bile acids, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results:At the cellular level, birds infected with E. maxima and C. perfringens developed subclinical NE and showed shortening villi, crypt hyperplasia and immune cell infiltration in ileum. Dietary DCA alleviated the NE-induced ileal inflammation in a dose-dependent manner compared to NE control birds. Consistent with the increased histopathological scores, subclinical NE birds suffered body weight gain reduction compared to the uninfected birds, an effect attenuated with increased doses of dietary DCA. At the molecular level, the highest dose of DCA at 1.5?g/kg reduced C. perfringens luminal colonization compared to NE birds using PCR and FISH. Furthermore, the dietary DCA reduced subclinical NE-induced intestinal inflammatory gene expression and cell apoptosis using PCR and TUNEL assays. Upon further examining ileal bile acid pool through targeted metabolomics, subclinical NE reduced the total bile acid level in ileal digesta compared to uninfected birds. Notably, dietary DCA increased total bile acid and DCA levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to NE birds. Conclusion:These results indicate that DCA attenuates NE-induced intestinal inflammation and bile acid reduction and could be an effective antimicrobial alternative against the intestinal disease.
Project description:The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens.This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B. coagulans levels (0 or 4 × 109 CFU/kg of diet) and two disease challenge statuses (control or NE challenged).NE-induced reduction in body weight gain was relieved by the addition of B. coagulans into broiler diets compared with the NE-infected birds. NE infection damaged intestinal morphological structure, promoted intestinal C. perfringens growth and liver invasion, and enhanced anti-C. perfringens specific sIgA concentrations in the gut and specific IgG levels in serum compared with the uninfected birds. NE infection significantly (P < 0.05) decreased mucin-2 (at 14 d post-infection (DPI), toll -like receptor 2 (TLR2, at 7 and 14 DPI), TLR4 (at 7 and 14 DPI), tumor necrosis factor super family 15 (TNFSF15, at 7 and 14 DPI), lysozyme (LYZ, at 14 DPI) and fowlicidin-2 (at 7 and 14 DPI) mRNA levels, whereas it dramatically (P = 0.001) increased IFN-γ mRNA levels at 7 DPI. However, challenged birds fed diets supplemented with B. coagulans showed a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in gut lesion scores, decreased C. perfringens numbers in the cecum and liver, and an increase in fowlicidin-2 mRNA levels in compared with the uninfected birds. In addition, compared with the non-supplemented group, dietary inclusion of B. coagulans improved intestinal barrier structure, further increased specific sIgA levels and alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity in the jejunum, enhanced the expression of jejunum lysozyme mRNA, and inhibited the growth, colonization, and invasion of C. perfringens; in contrast, it reduced serum-specific IgG concentrations and jejunum IFN-γ mRNA levels.These results indicated that dietary B. coagulans supplementation appeared to be effective in preventing the occurrence and reducing the severity of C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler chickens.
Project description:The study determined the effect of the addition of 15% of camelina, flax, and sunflower seeds to iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets for broiler chickens during 21-42 days of age on the nutrient digestibility, production traits, slaughter analysis parameters, hematological indices, blood mineral elements, and dietary value of breast and drumstick meat. Two hundred one-day-old broiler chickens were assigned to four groups (treatments) with five replicates (10 birds per cage, 5 females and 5 males). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Broiler chickens receiving diets supplemented with camelina and flax seeds exhibited an increase (p < 0.05) in average body weight and a decrease (p < 0.05) in the ether extract content and energy digestibility of the diets. Moreover, the best carcass quality with a high proportion of muscles and low abdominal fat content (p < 0.05) was noted in broilers fed flax- and sunflower-enriched diets. The treatments with the oil seeds reduced the ether extract content and the calorific value of breast and drumstick muscles. The flax seeds contributed to an increase in the Fe content in drumstick muscles. Additionally, some blood parameters were influenced by the flax seed supplementation, e.g., the level of hemoglobin declined (p < 0.05) and the iron level in plasma increased (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the camelina, flax, and sunflower seeds can be regarded as good dietary components with positive effects on the dietary value of poultry meat.
Project description:A total of 360 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a feeding study to assess the influence of macronutrients and energy density on feed intakes from 10 to 31 days post-hatch. The study comprised ten dietary treatments from five dietary combinations and two feeding approaches: sequential and choice feeding. The study included eight experimental diets and each dietary combination was made from three experimental diets. Choice fed birds selected between three diets in separate feed trays at the same time; whereas the three diets were offered to sequentially fed birds on an alternate basis during the experimental period. There were no differences between starch and protein intakes between choice and sequentially fed birds (P > 0.05) when broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch, protein and lipid concentrations. When broiler chickens selected between diets with different starch and protein but similar lipid concentrations, both sequentially and choice fed birds selected similar ratios of starch and protein intake (P > 0.05). However, when broiler chickens selected from diets with different protein and lipid but similar starch concentrations, choice fed birds had higher lipid intake (129 versus 118 g/bird, P = 0.027) and selected diets with lower protein concentrations (258 versus 281 g/kg, P = 0.042) than birds offered sequential diet options. Choice fed birds had greater intakes of the high energy diet (1471 g/bird, P < 0.0001) than low energy (197 g/bird) or medium energy diets (663 g/bird) whilst broiler chickens were offered diets with different energy densities but high crude protein (300 g/kg) or digestible lysine (17.5 g/kg) concentrations. Choice fed birds had lower FCR (1.217 versus 1.327 g/g, P < 0.0001) and higher carcass yield (88.1 versus 87.3%, P = 0.012) than sequentially fed birds. This suggests that the dietary balance between protein and energy is essential for optimal feed conversion efficiency. The intake path of macronutrients from 10-31 days in choice and sequential feeding groups were plotted and compared with the null path if broiler chickens selected equal amounts of the three diets in the combination. Regardless of feeding regimen, the intake paths of starch and protein are very close to the null path; however, lipid and protein intake paths in choice fed birds are father from the null path than sequentially fed birds.
Project description:Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is responsible for huge financial losses in the poultry industry annually. A diet highly supplemented with fishmeal is one factor predisposing chickens to the development of clinical NE. However, the effects of fishmeal-rich diets on the gut microbiota and immune response in chickens with C. perfringens challenge over the long-term are not well-understood. Here, a chicken NE model was established in which chickens were fed high fishmeal diet and subsequently infected with C. perfringens (FM/CP). Two control groups of chickens, one that was not infected and had a high fishmeal feeding (FM) and another group only infected with C. perfringens with basic diets (CP), were used as comparators. We analyzed the gut microbiota and immune response of the three groups at the age of 20, 24 [1 day post-infection (dpi)] and 30 days (7 dpi) using 16S rDNA sequencing and real-time PCR, respectively. We found that the composition of the gut microbiota had significant shifted in both the CP and FM/CP groups, although the CP group did not have intestinal lesions. The structure of the gut microbiota in C. perfringens-challenged chickens, independent of a high fishmeal diet, had the tendency to return to their non-infection state if the chickens no longer received C. perfringens challenge. Gut microbiota variation with time in challenged chickens with high fishmeal diet feeding was superimposed upon that of non-infected chickens with high fishmeal feeding. For the immune response, the relative expression of IL-8 in the ileum was significantly higher in infected chickens independent of high fishmeal feeding than in non-infected chickens. However, the expression of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) genes in chicken liver were significantly increased in FM/CP compared to the other groups. In conclusion, high fishmeal feeding induced significant changes to the structure of chicken gut microbiota over time and such changes provided an opening for C. perfringens infection to progress to NE. The relative expression of AGP and SAA in liver tissue may be used as diagnostic biomarkers for poultry NE but such an indication requires further investigation.
Project description:Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Probiotics are used as potential alternatives to antibiotics to prevent NE. It is known that Clostridium butyricum can act as a probiotic that can prevent infection. However, whether or not it exerts a beneficial effect on NE in chickens remains elusive. Therefore, we investigated the impact of C. butyricum on immune response and intestinal microbiota during the development of NE in chickens, including experimental stages with basal diets, high-fishmeal-supplementation diets, and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Chickens were divided into two groups from day 1 to day 20: one group had its diet supplemented with C. butyricum supplementation and one did not. At day 20, the chickens were divided into four groups: C. perfringens challenged and unchallenged chickens with and without C. butyricum supplementation. All groups were fed a basal diet for 13 days and thereafter a basal diet with 50% fishmeal from day 14 to 24. Chickens were infected with C. perfringens from day 21 to 23. At days 13, 20 and 24, samples were collected for analysis of the relative expression of immune response and intestinal mucosa barrier-related genes and intestinal microbes. The results show that C. butyricum can inhibit the increase in IL-17A gene expression and the reduction in Claudin-1 gene induced-expression caused by C. perfringens challenge. Moreover, C. butyricum was found to increase the expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in infected chickens. Although C. butyricum was found to have a significant beneficial effect on the structure of intestinal bacteria in the basal diet groups and decrease the abundance of C. perfringens in the gut, it did not significantly affect the occurrence of intestinal lesions and did not significantly correct the shift in gut bacterial composition post C. perfringens infection. In conclusion, although C. butyricum promotes the expression of anti-inflammatory and tight junction protein genes and inhibits pro-inflammatory genes in C. perfringens-challenged chickens, it is not adequate to improve the structure of intestinal microbiota in NE chickens. Therefore, more effective schemes of C. butyricum supplementation to prevent and treat NE in chickens need to be identified.
Project description:Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important intestinal infectious disease of commercial poultry flocks caused by Clostridium perfringens. Using an experimental model of NE involving co-infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria maxima, transcriptome profiling and functional genomics approaches were applied to identify the genetic mechanisms that might regulate the host response to this disease. Microarray hybridization identified 1,049 transcripts whose levels were altered (601 increased, 448 decreased) in intestinal lymphocytes from C. perfringens/E. maxima co-infected Ross chickens compared with uninfected controls. Five biological functions, all related to host immunity and inflammation, and 11 pathways were identified from this dataset. To further elucidate the role of host genetics in NE susceptibility, two inbred chicken lines, ADOL line 6 and line 7 which share an identical B2 major histocompatibility complex haplotype but differ in their susceptibility to virus infection, were compared for clinical symptoms and the expression levels of a panel of immune-related genes during experimental NE. Line 6 chickens were more susceptible to development of experimental NE compared with line 7, as revealed by decreased body weight gain and increased E. maxima oocyst shedding. Of 21 immune-related genes examined, 15 were increased in C. perfringens/E. maxima co-infected line 6 vs. line 7 chickens. These results suggest that immune pathways are activated in response to experimental NE infection and that genetic determinants outside of the chicken B complex influence resistance to this disease.