Integrating culturally informed approaches into physiotherapy assessment and treatment of chronic pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To evaluate patient engagement with, and the feasibility of, a novel, culturally adapted physiotherapy pain management approach. DESIGN:A participant-blinded and assessor-blinded pilot randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Outpatient physiotherapy departments at two public hospitals and one district pain clinic. PARTICIPANTS:Adults (n=48) with chronic musculoskeletal pain (daily pain >3?months), who self-identified as Mandaean, Assyrian or Vietnamese, were randomised to one of two physiotherapy treatment conditions. INTERVENTIONS:24 participants underwent combined group and individualised treatment described as 'culturally adapted physiotherapy', while 24 underwent evidence-informed 'usual physiotherapy care'. Both treatment arms consisted of up to 10 sessions over a 3-month period. OUTCOME MEASURES:Patient engagement was measured via participant attendance, adherence and satisfaction data. Secondary outcomes included clinical measures of pain severity, interference and suffering, physical function and negative emotional state. RESULTS:96% of participants undergoing culturally adapted physiotherapy completed treatment, compared with 58% of the usual physiotherapy group. For the culturally adapted group attendance (87%±18%) and adherence (68%±32%) were higher relative to usual care (68%±32%?and 55%±43%). Satisfaction was similar for the culturally adapted (82.7%±13.4%) and usual care (79.3±17.3) groups. For secondary outcomes, a significant between-group effect for pain-related suffering in favour of the culturally adapted group was observed with a medium effect size (partial ?2 0.086, mean 3.56, 95%?CI 0.11 to 7), while results for pain severity, interference, physical function and negative emotional state were similar. CONCLUSIONS:Aligning treatment with the beliefs and values of culturally and linguistically diverse communities enhances patient engagement with physiotherapy. These results support the feasibility of a larger, multisite trial to determine if improved engagement with culturally adapted physiotherapy translates to improved clinical outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12616000857404; Pre-results.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:There is strong evidence that biopsychosocial approaches are efficacious in the management of chronic pain. However, implementation of these approaches in clinical practice is known not to account for the beliefs and values of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients. This limitation in translation of research contributes to the disparities in outcomes for CALD patients with chronic pain adding to the socioeconomic burden of this prevalent condition. Cultural adaptation of chronic pain assessment and management is urgently required. Thus, the aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to determine the feasibility, participant acceptance with and clinical effectiveness of a culturally adapted physiotherapy assessment and treatment approach when contrasted with 'usual evidence based physiotherapy care' for three CALD communities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Using a participant-blinded and assessor-blinded randomised controlled pilot design, patients with chronic pain who self-identify as Assyrian, Mandaean or Vietnamese will be randomised to either 'culturally adapted physiotherapy assessment and treatment' or 'evidence informed usual physiotherapy care'. We will recruit 16 participants from each ethnocultural community that will give a total of 24 participants in each treatment arm. Both groups will receive physiotherapy treatment for up to 10 sessions over 3 months. Outcomes including feasibility data, acceptance with the culturally adapted intervention, functional and pain-related measures will be collected at baseline and 3 months by a blinded assessor. Analysis will be descriptive for feasibility outcomes, while measures for clinical effectiveness will be explored using independent samples t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. This analysis will inform sample size estimates while also allowing for identification of revisions in the protocol or intervention prior to a larger scale RCT. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This trial has full ethical approval (HREC/16/LPOOL/194). The results from this pilot RCT will be presented at scientific meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12616000857404.
Project description:There is an emergent body of evidence supporting exercise therapy and physical activity in the management of musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to explore potential barriers and facilitators with patients and physiotherapists with patellofemoral pain involved in a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) study. The trial investigated a loaded self-managed exercise intervention, which included education and advice on physical activity versus usual physiotherapy as the control. Qualitative study, embedded within a mixed-methods design, using semi-structured interviews. A UK National Health Service physiotherapy clinic in a large teaching hospital. Purposively sampled 20 participants within a feasibility RCT study; 10 patients with a diagnosis of patellofemoral pain, aged between 18 and 40 years, and 10 physiotherapists delivering the interventions. In respect to barriers and facilitators, the five overlapping themes that emerged from the data were: (1) locus of control; (2) belief and attitude to pain; (3) treatment expectations and preference; (4) participants' engagement with the loaded self-managed exercises and (5) physiotherapists' clinical development. Locus of control was one overarching theme that was evident throughout. Contrary to popular concerns relating to painful exercises, all participants in the intervention group reported positive engagement. Both physiotherapists and patients, in the intervention group, viewed the single exercise approach in a positive manner. Participants within the intervention group described narratives demonstrating self-efficacy, with greater internal locus of control compared with those who received usual physiotherapy, particularly in relation to physical activity. Implementation, delivery and evaluation of the intervention in clinical settings may be challenging, but feasible with the appropriate training for physiotherapists. Participants' improvements in pain and function may have been mediated, in some part, by greater self-efficacy and locus of control. ISRCTN35272486; Pre-results.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In response to issues with timely access and high non-attendance rates for Emergency Department (ED) physiotherapy, a telephone assessment and advice service was evaluated as part of a quality improvement project. This telehealth option requires minimal resources, with the added benefit of allowing the healthcare professional streamline care. A primary aim was to investigate whether this service model can reduce wait times and non-attendance rates, compared to usual care. A secondary aim was to evaluate service user acceptability.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a single-site quality improvement cohort study that compares data on wait time to first physiotherapy contact, non-attendance rates and participant satisfaction between patients that opted for a service based on initial telephone assessment and advice, versus routine face-to-face appointments. 116 patients were referred for ED physiotherapy over the 3-month pilot at the ED and out-patient physiotherapy department, XMercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland. 91 patients (78%) opted for the telephone assessment and advice service, with 40% (n=36) contacting the service. 25 patients (22%) opted for the face-to-face service. Data on wait time and non-attendance rates was gathered using the hospital data reporting system. Satisfaction data was collected on discharge using a satisfaction survey adapted from the General Practice Assessment Questionnaire. Independent-samples t-test or Mann Whitney U Test was utilised depending on the distribution of the data. For categorical data, Chi-Square tests were performed. A level of significance of p ? 0.05 was set for this study.<h4>Results</h4>Those that contacted the telephone assessment and advice service had a significantly reduced wait time (median 6?days; 3-8?days) compared to those that opted for usual care (median 35?days; 19-39?days) (p ? 0.05). There was no significant between-group differences for non-attendance rates or satisfaction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A telephone assessment and advice service may be useful in minimising delays for advice for those referred to ED Physiotherapy for musculoskeleltal problems. This telehealth option appears to be broadly acceptable and since it can be introduced rapidly, it may be helpful in triaging referrals and minimising face-to-face consultations, in line with COVID-19 recommendations. However, a large scale randomised controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to compare the effectiveness of a brief physiotherapy intervention with "usual" physiotherapy for patients with neck pain. Secondly, to evaluate the effect of patients' preferences on outcome. DESIGN: Non-inferiority randomised controlled trial eliciting preferences independently of randomisation. SETTING: Physiotherapy departments in a community setting in Yorkshire and north Lincolnshire. PARTICIPANTS: 268 patients (mean age 48 years) with subacute and chronic neck pain, who were referred by their general practitioner and randomly assigned to a brief physiotherapy intervention (one to three sessions) using cognitive behaviour principles to encourage self management and return to normal function or usual physiotherapy, at the discretion of the physiotherapist concerned. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire (NPQ), a specific measure of functional disability resulting from neck pain. Also, the short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, a generic, health related, quality of life measure; and the Tampa scale for kinesophobia, a measure of fear and avoidance of movement. RESULTS: At 12 months, patients allocated to usual physiotherapy had a small but significant improvement in NPQ scores compared with patients in the brief intervention group (mean difference 1.99, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 3.52; P = 0.01). Although the result shows a significant inferiority of the intervention, the confidence interval shows that the effect could be in the non-inferiority range for the brief intervention (below 1.2 points of NPQ score). Patients who preferred the brief intervention and received this treatment had similar outcomes to patients receiving usual physiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Usual physiotherapy may be only marginally better than a brief physiotherapy intervention for neck pain. Patients with a preference for the brief intervention may do at least as well with this approach. Additional training for the physiotherapists in cognitive behaviour techniques might improve this approach further.
Project description:There are high rates of treatment non-completion for personality disorder and those who do not complete treatment have poorer outcomes. A goal-based motivational interview may increase service users' readiness to engage with therapy and so enhance treatment retention. We conducted a feasibility study to inform the design of a randomized controlled trial. The aims were to test the feasibility of recruitment, randomization and follow-up, and to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the motivational interview.Patients in an outpatient personality disorder service were randomized to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. The main randomized controlled trial feasibility criteria were recruitment of 54% of referrals, and 80% of clients and therapists finding the intervention acceptable. Information was collected on treatment attendance, the clarity of therapy goals and treatment engagement.The recruitment rate was 29% (76 of 258). Of 12 interviewed at follow-up, eight (67%) were positive about the Personal Concerns Inventory. Pre-intervention interviews were conducted with 61% (23 out of 38) of the Personal Concerns Inventory group and 74% (28 out of 38) of the treatment as usual group. Participants' therapy goals were blind-rated for clarity on a scale of 0 to 10. The mean score for the Personal Concerns Inventory group was 6.64 (SD = 2.28) and for the treatment as usual group 2.94 (SD = 1.71). Over 12 weeks, the median percentage session attendance was 83.33% for the Personal Concerns Inventory group (N = 17) and 66.67% for the treatment as usual group (N = 24). Of 59 eligible participants at follow-up, the Treatment Engagement Rating scale was completed for 40 (68%). The mean Treatment Engagement Rating scale score for the Personal Concerns Inventory group was 6.64 (SD = 2.28) and for the treatment as usual group 2.94 (SD = 1.71). Of the 76 participants, 63 (83%) completed the Client Service Receipt Inventory at baseline and 34 of 59 (58%) at follow-up.Shortfalls in recruitment and follow-up data collection were explained by major changes to the service. However, evidence of a substantial positive impact of the Personal Concerns Inventory on treatment attendance, clarity of therapy goals and treatment engagement, make a full-scale evaluation worth pursuing. Further preparatory work is required for a multisite trial.ClinicalTrials.Gov.UK Identifier - NCT01132976.
Project description:Among the multiple conservative modalities, physiotherapy is a commonly utilized treatment modality in managing chronic non-specific spinal pain. Despite the scientific progresses with regard to pain and motor control neuroscience, treatment of chronic spinal pain (CSP) often tends to stick to a peripheral biomechanical model, without targeting brain mechanisms. With a view to enhance clinical efficacy of existing physiotherapeutic treatments for CSP, the development of clinical strategies targeted at 'training the brain' is to be pursued. Promising proof-of-principle results have been reported for the effectiveness of a modern neuroscience approach to CSP when compared to usual care, but confirmation is required in a larger, multi-center trial with appropriate evidence-based control intervention and long-term follow-up.The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a modern neuroscience approach, compared to usual care evidence-based physiotherapy, for reducing pain and improving functioning in patients with CSP. A secondary objective entails examining the effectiveness of the modern neuroscience approach versus usual care physiotherapy for normalizing brain gray matter in patients with CSP.The study is a multi-center, triple-blind, two-arm (1:1) randomized clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. 120 CSP patients will be randomly allocated to either the experimental (receiving pain neuroscience education followed by cognition-targeted motor control training) or the control group (receiving usual care physiotherapy), each comprising of 3 months treatment. The main outcome measures are pain (including symptoms and indices of central sensitization) and self-reported disability. Secondary outcome measures include brain gray matter structure, motor control, muscle properties, and psychosocial correlates. Clinical assessment and brain imaging will be performed at baseline, post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Web-based questionnaires will be completed at baseline, after the first 3 treatment sessions, post-treatment, and at 6 and 12-months follow-up.Findings may provide empirical evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of a modern neuroscience approach to CSP for reducing pain and improving functioning, (2) the effectiveness of a modern neuroscience approach for normalizing brain gray matter in CSP patients, and (3) factors associated with therapy success. Hence, this trial might contribute towards refining guidelines for good clinical practice and might be used as a basis for health authorities' recommendations.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02098005.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of undertaking a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT). SETTING:This was a pilot, pragmatic superiority RCT with a qualitative element, recruiting from 14 general practitioner (GP) practices in England. PARTICIPANTS:Patients over 18 years of age presenting to their GP with unilateral lumbar radicular syndrome (LRS), defined as radicular pain and/or neurological symptoms originating from lumbar nerve roots, were eligible to participate in the study, those who did not have a clear understanding of the English language or had comorbidities preventing rehabilitation were ineligible. INTERVENTIONS:Participants were randomised into early intervention physiotherapy or usual care with the former receiving their treatment within 2 weeks after randomisation and the latter 6 weeks postrandomisation. Both groups received a patient-centred, goal-orientated physiotherapy programme specific to their needs. Participants received up to six treatment sessions over an 8-week period. OUTCOME MEASURES:Process outcomes to determine the feasibility of the study and an exploratory analysis of patient-reported outcomes, including self-rated disability, pain and general health, these were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 26 weeks postrandomisation. RESULTS:80 participants were recruited in 10 GP practices over 34 weeks and randomised to (early intervention physiotherapy n=42, usual care n=38). Follow-up rates at 26 weeks were 32 (84%) in the usual care and 36 (86%) in the early intervention physiotherapy group. The mean area under the curve (larger values indicating more disability) for the Oswestry Disability Index over the 26 weeks was 16.6 (SD 11.4) in the usual care group and 16.0 (SD 14.0) in the intervention group. A difference of -0.6 (95% CI -0.68 to 5.6) in favour of the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the study suggest a full RCT is feasible and will provide evidence as to the optimal timing of physiotherapy for patients with LRS. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02618278, ISRCTN25018352.
Project description:Multidisciplinary pain management programs (MPMP) for patients suffering from chronic back pain include a variety of treatment modalities. The patients' perceived helpfulness of these treatment modalities remains unclear. The aims of this prospective observational cohort study were to assess (i) the patients' perceived helpfulness of different treatment modalities, (ii) the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the patient's perspective and (iii) whether treatment outcomes are affected by helpfulness ratings. Treatment modalities of this three-week MPMP consisted of individual physiotherapy, group-based physiotherapy, relaxation therapy, aquatic therapy, back education, medical training therapy, biofeedback, psychological pain therapy and music therapy. The study comprised 395 patients. The main outcome was the patients' perceived treatment helpfulness at the end of the program measured by a self-reported questionnaire ranging from 1 (not at all helpful) to 6 (extremely helpful). Secondary outcomes were treatment effects on pain, pain related disability, functional ability and level of depressive symptoms measured by self-reported questionnaires (NRS, PDI, FFbH-R, ADS-L). A total of 276 patients (22-64 years, 57% female) were available for overall analysis. Multivariate-analysis-of-variance- (MANOVA-) related results revealed that perceived treatment helpfulness (range 1-6) differed significantly between treatment modalities: individual physiotherapy (M = 5.00), group-based physiotherapy (M = 4.87), relaxation therapy (M = 4.6), aquatic therapy (M = 4.54), back education (M = 4.43), medical training therapy (M = 3.38), biofeedback (M = 3.31), psychological pain therapy (M = 3.15), music therapy (M = 3.02). Pain, pain related disability and levels of depressive symptoms significantly improved after the program (p < 0.001) whereas functional ability decreased (p < 0.01). Significant correlations were found between helpfulness ratings and sociodemographic data indicating that perceived treatment helpfulness was influenced by patient-related factors. Importantly, the degree of pain-related improvements was affected by the patients' perceived treatment helpfulness. In conclusion, patients' perceived treatment helpfulness differs significantly between treatment modalities and corresponds to treatment outcome.
Project description:This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of parental problem-solving skills training (PSST) compared with treatment as usual on improving parental mental health symptoms, physical health and well-being, and parenting behaviors. Effects of parent PSST on child outcomes (pain, emotional, and physical functioning) were also examined. Participants included 61 parents of children aged 10 to 17 years with chronic pain randomized to PSST (n = 31) or treatment as usual (n = 30) groups. Parents receiving PSST participated in 4 to 6 individual sessions of training in problem-solving skills. Outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, immediately after treatment, and at a 3-month follow-up. Feasibility was determined by therapy session attendance, therapist ratings, and parent treatment acceptability ratings. Feasibility of PSST delivery in this population was demonstrated by high compliance with therapy attendance, excellent retention, high therapist ratings of treatment engagement, and high parent ratings of treatment acceptability. PSST was associated with posttreatment improvements in parental depression (d = -0.68), general mental health (d = 0.64), and pain catastrophizing (d = -0.48), as well as in child depression (d = -0.49), child general anxiety (d = -0.56), and child pain-specific anxiety (d = -0.82). Several effects were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Findings demonstrate that PSST is feasible and acceptable to parents of youths with chronic pain. Treatment outcome analyses show promising but mixed patterns of effects of PSST on parent and child mental health outcomes. Further rigorous trials of PSST are needed to extend these pilot results.
Project description:In recognition of the need to reach more families, the Legacy for Children™ (Legacy) program was translated and culturally adapted for Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers and their infants. This study examined the cultural adaptations and logistical supports needed for successful implementation with Spanish-speaking mothers. The research team used purposive techniques to sample Hispanic bi-lingual providers (N = 14) and supervisors (N = 5) of local home-based parenting programs (Healthy Families, Parents as Teachers, and SafeCare®). The goal of the study was to determine from providers and supervisors the social validity (satisfaction, relevancy, importance, and acceptability of the intervention) and cultural congruency of the adapted Legacy curriculum. Researchers conducted a qualitative analysis of the transcriptions using a template approach within NVivo 10 software to identify broad themes within focus group data. Overall, results indicated many positive aspects of the Legacy program including content, approach, pace, topics, structure, social engagement, and straightforward curriculum language. Emergent themes from the focus groups included best practices in identifying, recruiting, and approaching Hispanic mothers, as well as key engagement strategies. Recommended revisions of the adapted Legacy curriculum focused on enhancing visual and auditory supplements, making minor improvements to lower the reading level, and reducing barriers to attendance. Implications for cultural adaptation of parenting programs are discussed.