Molecular basis for the inhibition of the methyl-lysine binding function of 53BP1 by TIRR.
ABSTRACT: 53BP1 performs essential functions in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and it was recently reported that Tudor interacting repair regulator (TIRR) negatively regulates 53BP1 during DSB repair. Here, we present the crystal structure of the 53BP1 tandem Tudor domain (TTD) in complex with TIRR. Our results show that three loops from TIRR interact with 53BP1 TTD and mask the methylated lysine-binding pocket in TTD. Thus, TIRR competes with histone H4K20 methylation for 53BP1 binding. We map key interaction residues in 53BP1 TTD and TIRR, whose mutation abolishes complex formation. Moreover, TIRR suppresses the relocation of 53BP1 to DNA lesions and 53BP1-dependent DNA damage repair. Finally, despite the high-sequence homology between TIRR and NUDT16, NUDT16 does not directly interact with 53BP1 due to the absence of key residues required for binding. Taken together, our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism underlying TIRR-mediated suppression of 53BP1-dependent DNA damage repair.
Project description:P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) regulates the double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway choice. A recently identified 53BP1-binding protein Tudor-interacting repair regulator (TIRR) modulates the access of 53BP1 to DSBs by masking the H4K20me2 binding surface on 53BP1, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report the 1.76-Å crystal structure of TIRR in complex with 53BP1 tandem Tudor domain. We demonstrate that the N-terminal region (residues 10-24) and the L8-loop of TIRR interact with 53BP1 Tudor through three loops (L1, L3, and L1'). TIRR recognition blocks H4K20me2 binding to 53BP1 Tudor and modulates 53BP1 functions in vivo. Structure comparisons identify a TIRR histidine (H106) that is absent from the TIRR homolog Nudt16, but essential for 53BP1 Tudor binding. Remarkably, mutations mimicking TIRR binding modules restore the disrupted binding of Nudt16-53BP1 Tudor. Our studies elucidate the mechanism by which TIRR recognizes 53BP1 Tudor and functions as a cellular inhibitor of the histone methyl-lysine readers.
Project description:53BP1 controls two downstream subpathways, one mediated by PTIP and Artemis and the other by RIF1 and MAD2L2/Shieldin, to coordinate DNA repair pathway choices. However, the upstream regulator(s) of 53BP1 function in DNA repair remain unknown. We and others recently reported that TIRR associates with 53BP1 to stabilize it and prevents 53BP1 localization to DNA damage sites by blocking 53BP1 Tudor domain binding to H4K20me2 sites. Here, we report that the Nudix hydrolase NUDT16, a TIRR homolog, regulates 53BP1 stability. We identified a novel posttranslational modification of 53BP1 by ADP-ribosylation that is targeted by a PAR-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF146, leading to 53BP1 polyubiquitination and degradation. In response to DNA damage, ADP-ribosylated 53BP1 increased significantly, resulting in its ubiquitination and degradation. These data suggest that NUDT16 plays a major role in controlling 53BP1 levels under both normal growth conditions and during DNA damage. Notably, overexpression of a NUDT16 catalytically inactive mutant blocked 53BP1 localization to double-strand breaks because (i) the mutant binding to TIRR increased after IR; (ii) the mutant enhanced 53BP1 Tudor domain binding to TIRR, and (iii) the mutant impaired the interaction of 53BP1 Tudor domain with H4K20me2. Moreover, NUDT16's catalytic hydrolase activity was required for 53BP1 de-ADP-ribosylation, 53BP1 protein stability, and its function in cell survival. In summary, we demonstrate that NUDT16 regulates 53BP1 stability and 53BP1 recruitment at double-strand breaks, providing yet another mechanism of 53BP1 regulation.Significance: This study provides a novel mechanism of 53BP1 regulation by demonstrating that NUDT16 has hydrolase activities that remove ADP-ribosylation of 53BP1 to regulate 53BP1 stability and 53BP1 localization at DSBs.
Project description:53BP1 (also called TP53BP1) is a chromatin-associated factor that promotes immunoglobulin class switching and DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining. To accomplish its function in DNA repair, 53BP1 accumulates at DSB sites downstream of the RNF168 ubiquitin ligase. How ubiquitin recruits 53BP1 to break sites remains unknown as its relocalization involves recognition of histone H4 Lys?20 (H4K20) methylation by its Tudor domain. Here we elucidate how vertebrate 53BP1 is recruited to the chromatin that flanks DSB sites. We show that 53BP1 recognizes mononucleosomes containing dimethylated H4K20 (H4K20me2) and H2A ubiquitinated on Lys?15 (H2AK15ub), the latter being a product of RNF168 action on chromatin. 53BP1 binds to nucleosomes minimally as a dimer using its previously characterized methyl-lysine-binding Tudor domain and a carboxy-terminal extension, termed the ubiquitination-dependent recruitment (UDR) motif, which interacts with the epitope formed by H2AK15ub and its surrounding residues on the H2A tail. 53BP1 is therefore a bivalent histone modification reader that recognizes a histone 'code' produced by DSB signalling.
Project description:P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is a multi-functional double-strand break repair protein that is essential for class switch recombination in B lymphocytes and for sensitizing BRCA1-deficient tumours to poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP) inhibitors. Central to all 53BP1 activities is its recruitment to double-strand breaks via the interaction of the tandem Tudor domain with dimethylated lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4K20me2). Here we identify an uncharacterized protein, Tudor interacting repair regulator (TIRR), that directly binds the tandem Tudor domain and masks its H4K20me2 binding motif. Upon DNA damage, the protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phosphorylates 53BP1 and recruits RAP1-interacting factor 1 (RIF1) to dissociate the 53BP1-TIRR complex. However, overexpression of TIRR impedes 53BP1 function by blocking its localization to double-strand breaks. Depletion of TIRR destabilizes 53BP1 in the nuclear-soluble fraction and alters the double-strand break-induced protein complex centring 53BP1. These findings identify TIRR as a new factor that influences double-strand break repair using a unique mechanism of masking the histone methyl-lysine binding function of 53BP1.
Project description:Dynamic protein interaction networks such as DNA double-strand break (DSB) signaling are modulated by post-translational modifications. The DNA repair factor 53BP1 is a rare example of a protein whose post-translational modification-binding function can be switched on and off. 53BP1 is recruited to DSBs by recognizing histone lysine methylation within chromatin, an activity directly inhibited by the 53BP1-binding protein TIRR. X-ray crystal structures of TIRR and a designer protein bound to 53BP1 now reveal a unique regulatory mechanism in which an intricate binding area centered on an essential TIRR arginine residue blocks the methylated-chromatin-binding surface of 53BP1. A 53BP1 separation-of-function mutation that abolishes TIRR-mediated regulation in cells renders 53BP1 hyperactive in response to DSBs, highlighting the key inhibitory function of TIRR. This 53BP1 inhibition is relieved by TIRR-interacting RNA molecules, providing proof-of-principle of RNA-triggered 53BP1 recruitment to DSBs.
Project description:Recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin flanking double strand breaks (DSBs) requires ?H2AX/MDC1/RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of chromatin and interaction of 53BP1 with histone H4 methylated on lysine 20 (H4K20me). Several histone methyltransferases have been implicated in 53BP1 recruitment, but their quantitative contributions to the 53BP1 response are unclear. We have developed a multi-photon laser (MPL) system to target DSBs to subfemtoliter nuclear volumes and used this to mathematically model DSB response kinetics of MDC1 and of 53BP1. In contrast to MDC1, which revealed first order kinetics, the 53BP1 MPL-DSB response is best fitted by a Gompertz growth function. The 53BP1 MPL response shows the expected dependency on MDC1 and RNF8. We determined the impact of altered H4K20 methylation on 53BP1 MPL response kinetics in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking key H4K20 histone methyltransferases. This revealed no major requirement for the known H4K20 dimethylases Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 in 53BP1 recruitment or DSB repair function, but a key role for the H4K20 monomethylase, PR-SET7. The histone methyltransferase MMSET/WHSC1 has recently been implicated in 53BP1 DSB recruitment. We found that WHSC1 homozygous mutant MEFs reveal an alteration in balance of H4K20 methylation patterns; however, 53BP1 DSB responses in these cells appear normal.
Project description:The pathogenic sequelae of BRCA1 mutation in human and mouse cells are mitigated by concomitant deletion of 53BP1, which binds histone H4 dimethylated at Lys20 (H4K20me2) to promote nonhomologous end joining, suggesting that a balance between BRCA1 and 53BP1 regulates DNA double strand-break (DSB) repair mechanism choice. Here we document that acetylation is a key determinant of this balance. TIP60 acetyltransferase deficiency reduced BRCA1 at DSB chromatin with commensurate increases in 53BP1, whereas HDAC inhibition yielded the opposite effect. TIP60-dependent H4 acetylation diminished 53BP1 binding to H4K20me2 in part through disruption of a salt bridge between H4K16 and Glu1551 in the 53BP1 Tudor domain. Moreover, TIP60 deficiency impaired homologous recombination and conferred sensitivity to PARP inhibition in a 53BP1-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that acetylation in cis to H4K20me2 regulates relative BRCA1 and 53BP1 DSB chromatin occupancy to direct DNA repair mechanism.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, cells initiate complex signalling cascades leading to growth arrest and DNA repair. The recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged sites requires the activation of the ubiquitination cascade controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, and methylation of histone H4 on lysine 20. However, molecular events that regulate the accessibility of methylated histones, to allow the recruitment of 53BP1 to DNA breaks, are unclear. Here, we show that like 53BP1, the JMJD2A (also known as KDM4A) tandem tudor domain binds dimethylated histone H4K20; however, JMJD2A is degraded by the proteasome following the DNA damage in an RNF8-dependent manner. We demonstrate that JMJD2A is ubiquitinated by RNF8 and RNF168. Moreover, ectopic expression of JMJD2A abrogates 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites, indicating a role in antagonizing 53BP1 for methylated histone marks. The combined knockdown of JMJD2A and JMJD2B significantly rescued the ability of RNF8- and RNF168-deficient cells to form 53BP1 foci. We propose that the RNF8-dependent degradation of JMJD2A regulates DNA repair by controlling the recruitment of 53BP1 at DNA damage sites.
Project description:Although selective binding of 53BP1 to dimethylated histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me2) at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is a necessary and pivotal determinant of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-directed repair, the enzymes that generate H4K20me2 at DSBs were unclear. Here, we determined that the PR-Set7 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1) regulates de novo H4K20 methylation at DSBs. Rapid recruitment of PR-Set7 to DSBs was dependent on the NHEJ Ku70 protein and necessary for NHEJ-directed repair. PR-Set7 monomethyltransferase activity was required, but insufficient, for H4K20me2 and 53BP1 nucleation at DSBs. We determined that PR-Set7-mediated H4K20me1 facilitates Suv4-20 methyltransferase recruitment and catalysis to generate H4K20me2 necessary for 53BP1 binding. The orchestrated and concerted activities of PR-Set7 and Suv4-20 were required for proficient 53BP1 nucleation and DSB repair. This report identifies PR-Set7 as an essential component of NHEJ and implicates PR-Set7 as a central determinant of NHEJ-directed repair early in mammalian DSB repair pathway choice.
Project description:Individual posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of p53 mediate diverse p53-dependent responses; however, much less is known about the combinatorial action of adjacent modifications. Here, we describe crosstalk between the early DNA damage response mark p53K382me2 and the surrounding PTMs that modulate binding of p53 cofactors, including 53BP1 and p300. The 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the tandem Tudor domain (TTD) of 53BP1 in complex with p53 peptide acetylated at K381 and dimethylated at K382 (p53K381acK382me2) reveals that the dual PTM induces a conformational change in p53. The ?-helical fold of p53K381acK382me2 positions the side chains of R379, K381ac, and K382me2 to interact with TTD concurrently, reinforcing a modular design of double PTM mimetics. Biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses show that other surrounding PTMs, including phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues of p53, affect association with TTD. Our findings suggest a novel PTM-driven conformation switch-like mechanism that may regulate p53 interactions with binding partners.