Anion Complexation Studies of 3-Nitrophenyl-Substituted Tripodal Thiourea Receptor: A Naked-Eye Detection of Sulfate via Fluoride Displacement Assay.
ABSTRACT: A thiourea-based tripodal receptor L substituted with 3-nitrophenyl groups has been synthesized, and the binding affinity for a variety of anions has been studied by 1H NMR titrations and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy experiments in dimethyl sulfoxide-d6. As investigated by 1H NMR titrations, the receptor binds an anion in a 1:1 binding mode, showing the highest binding and strong selectivity for sulfate anion. A competitive colorimetric assay in the presence of fluoride suggests that the sulfate is capable of displacing the bound fluoride, showing a sharp visible color change. The strong affinity of L for sulfate was further supported by UV-vis titrations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Time-dependent DFT calculations indicate that the fluoride complex possesses a different optical absorption spectrum (due to charge transfer between the fluoride and the surrounding ligand) than the sulfate complex, reflecting the observed colorimetric change in these two complexes. The receptor was further tested for its biocompatibility on primary human foreskin fibroblasts and HeLa cells, exhibiting an excellent cell viability up to 100 ?M concentration.
Project description:Tris(3-aminopropyl)amine-based tripodal urea and thiourea receptors, tris([(4-cyanophenyl)amino]propyl)urea (L1) and tris([(4-cyanophenyl)amino]propyl)thiourea (L2), have been synthesized and their anion binding properties have been investigated for halides and oxoanions. As investigated by 1H NMR titrations, each receptor binds an anion with a 1:1 stoichiometry via hydrogen-bonding interactions (NH?anion), showing the binding trend in the order of F- > H2PO4- > HCO3- > HSO4- > CH3COO- > SO42- > Cl- > Br- > I in DMSO-d6 . The interactions of the receptors were further studied by 2D NOESY, showing the loss of NOESY contacts of two NH resonances for the complexes of F-, H2PO4-, HCO3-, HSO4- or CH3COO- due to the strong NH?anion interactions. The observed higher binding affinity for HSO4- than SO42- is attributed to the proton transfer from HSO4- to the central nitrogen of L1 or L2 which was also supported by the DFT calculations, leading to the secondary acid-base interactions. The thiourea receptor L2 has a general trend to show a higher affinity for an anion as compared to the urea receptor L1 for the corresponding anion in DMSO-d6 . In addition, the compound L2 has been exploited for its extraction properties for fluoride in water using a liquid-liquid extraction technique, and the results indicate that the receptor effectively extracts fluoride from water showing ca. 99% efficiency (based on L2).
Project description:A urea-based tripodal receptor L substituted with p-cyanophenyl groups has been studied for halide anions using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and X-ray crystallography. The (1)H NMR titration studies suggest that the receptor forms a 1:1 complex with an anion, showing a binding trend in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. The interaction of a fluoride anion with the receptor was further confirmed by 2D NOESY and (19)F NMR spectroscopy in DMSO-d(6). DFT calculations indicate that the internal halide anion is held by six NH···X interactions with L, showing the highest binding energy for the fluoride complex. Structural characterization of the chloride, bromide, and silicon hexafluoride complexes of [LH(+)] reveals that the anion is externally located via hydrogen bonding interactions. For the bromide or chloride complex, two anions are bridged with two receptors to form a centrosymmetric dimer, while for the silicon hexafluoride complex, the anion is located within a cage formed by six ligands and two water molecules.
Project description:A thiophene-based tripodal copper(II) complex has been synthesized as a new colorimetric and optical chemosensor for naked-eye discrimination of halides in acetonitrile and an acetonitrile-water mixture. The binding interactions of the new receptor with several anions were analyzed by UV-Vis titrations, electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results from UV-Vis titrations indicate that the coordinative unsaturated copper(II) complex strongly binds a halide at its vacant copper(II) centre via a metal-ligand bond forming a 1:1 complex, exhibiting binding affinities in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide. The interactions of the receptor with halides were further confirmed by ESI-MS, showing a distinct signal corresponding to a 1:1 complex for each halide, suggesting that the noncovalent interactions also exist in the gas phase. In addition, time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were also carried out to understand the excited-state properties of the chemosensor complexes. A detailed analysis of the TD-DFT calculations shows a consistent red-shift in the first optically-allowed transition, consistent with the observed colorimetric experiments.
Project description:A dipodal bis-urea receptor has been synthesized from the reaction of 8-amino quinoline and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate in dichloromethane, and the anion binding ability of the receptor has been studied using fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, perchlorate, nitrate, dihydrogen phosphate and hydrogen sulfate by UV-Vis titrations in DMSO. The results show that the receptor binds each of the anions with a 1:1 stoichiometry, showing high affinity and moderate selectivity for hydrogen sulfate among the anions studied. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) suggest that an anion (X(-)) is bonded within the cleft formed by the two arms of the receptor through two NH...X(-) and two aromatic CH...X(-) interactions. The results from solution and theoretical studies suggest that binding is predominantly influenced by hydrogen bonding interactions and the basicity of anions.
Project description:The transport of anions across cellular membranes is an important biological function governed by specialised proteins. In recent years, many small molecules have emerged that mimick the anion transport behaviour of these proteins, but only a few of these synthetic molecules also display the gating/switching behaviour seen in biological systems. A small series of thiosquaramides was synthesised and their pH-dependent chloride binding and anion transport behaviour was investigated using 1H NMR titrations, single crystal X-ray diffraction and a variety of vesicle-based techniques. Spectrophotometric titrations and DFT calculations revealed that the thiosquaramides are significantly more acidic than their oxosquaramide analogues, with pKa values between 4.0 and 9.0. This led to the observation that at pH 7.2 the anion transport ability of the thiosquaramides is fully switched OFF due to deprotonation of the receptor, but is completely switched ON at lower pH.
Project description:The recognition of anions by designed receptors has attracted much attention in recent days. In particular, the selective binding of sulfate with artificial receptors is important because of its relevance to many biological and environmental applications. However, the development of organized molecular receptors with high-efficiency for sulfate binding still remains a significant challenge. We report a novel para-phenylene-bridged hexafunctional tripodal receptor that contains a urea-based inner cleft and a thiourea-based outer cleft, providing perfect sites for step-wise binding of two anions within a single cavity. The new receptor was synthesized in a three-step process, and was investigated for its anion binding properties by 1H NMR titrations, 2D NOESY experiments and computational studies. As indicated by solution binding studies, the receptor selectively binds sulfate over other oxoanions, forming a 1:2 stoichiometric complex that is stabilized via strong H-bonding interactions. High-level DFT calculations reveal that the receptor, owing to the enhanced H-bonding ability of thiourea groups, initially encapsulates one sulfate in its thiourea-based outer cleft, followed by a second encapsulation in its urea-based inner cleft. Such a functionalized receptor with the unique combination of urea-based cleft and thiourea-based cleft in a single receptor has not been reported previously.
Project description:A macrocyclic-based fluorescence chemosensor has been designed and synthesized from the reaction of dansyl chloride and a hexaaminomacrocycle containing four secondary and two tertiary amines. The new chemosensor has been examined for its binding ability toward phosphate, sulfate, nitrate, iodide, bromide, chloride, and fluoride by fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO. The results indicate that the compound binds each of the anions with a 1:1 stoichiometry, showing high affinity for the oxoanions, chloride and iodide with the binding constants up to four orders of magnitude. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) suggest that the ligand is deformed in order to encapsulate an anion, and each anion, except fluoride, is bonded to the macrocycle through two NH…X(-) and four CH…X(-) interactions.
Project description:Herein we describe a large capsule-like bis-calixpyrrole 1, which is able to host concurrently two dihydrogen phosphate anions within a relatively large internal cavity. Evidence for the concurrent, dual recognition of the encapsulated anions came from 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies and ITC titrations carried out in CD2Cl2/CD3OD (9/1, v/v) or dichloroethane (DCE), as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Receptor 1 was also found to bind two dianionic sulfate anions bridged by two water molecules in the solid state. The resulting sulfate dimer was retained in DCE solution, as evidenced by spectroscopic analyses. Finally, receptor 1 was found capable of accommodating two trianionic pyrophosphate anions in the cavity. The present experimental findings are supported by DFT calculations along with 1H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, ITC studies, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses.
Project description:A new quinoline-based tripodal thiourea has been synthesized, which exclusively binds fluoride anion in DMSO, showing no affinity for other anions including, chloride, bromide, iodide, perchlorate, nitrate and hydrogen sulfate. As investigated by (1)H NMR, the receptor forms both 1:1 and 1:2 complex yielding the binding constants of 2.32(3) (in log ?1 ) and 4.39(4) (in log ?2 ), respectively; where quinoline groups are protonated by the fluoride-induced proton transfer from the solution to the host molecule. The 1:2 binding is due to the interactions of one fluoride with NH binding sites of urea sites and another fluoride with secondary (+)NH binding sites within the tripodal pocket. The formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes has been confirmed by the theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT).
Project description:A p-xylyl-based macrocycle L has been synthesized and its binding properties with halides have been investigated by (1)H NMR titrations, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As investigated by (1)H NMR titrations, the ligand preferentially binds a halide in a 1:2 binding mode, with the association constants (in log K2) of 2.82, 2.70, 2.28, and 2.20 for fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide, respectively. The overall binding trend was found to be in the order of fluoride > chloride > bromide > iodide, reflecting that the binding strength correlates with the relative basicity and size of the respective halide. Crystallographic studies indicate that the ligand forms 1:2 complexes with chloride, bromide and iodide. In the chloride complex, the ligand is hexaprotonated and each chloride is held via three NH···Cl(-) bonds. The ligand is tetraprotonated for the other complexes, where each halide is H-bonded to two secondary ammonium NH(+) groups via NH···X(-) bonds. The results of DFT calculations performed on [H6L](6+) at M062x/6-311G (d,p) level in both gas and solvent phases, suggest that the ligand binds halides with the binding energy in the order of F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-), supporting the experimental data obtained from (1)H NMR studies. Results from DFT calculations further indicate that a 1:2 binding is energetically more favorable than a 1:1 binding of the ligand.