Chlorogenic Acid Improves Intestinal Development via Suppressing Mucosa Inflammation and Cell Apoptosis in Weaned Pigs.
ABSTRACT: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol in the human diet and plants, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on intestinal development and health in weaned pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs were randomly assigned to two treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg CGA. After a 14 d trial, samples were collected. Compared with the control group, CGA supplementation decreased the serum tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1?IL-6 concentrations and elevated the serum immunoglobulin G and jejunal secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations. Meanwhile, jejunal villus height, duodenal and jejunal villus width, and jejunal and ileal villus height/crypt depth were increased by CGA. CGA not only decreased the number of duodenal and jejunal cells in the G0G1 phase but also increased the number of jejunal and ileal cells in the S phase. The percentages of late and total apoptotic cells in jejunum and the ratio of B-cell lymphoma-2-assiciated X protein to B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in duodenum and jejunum were also decreased by CGA supplementation. Finally, CGA upregulated the expression level of Bcl-2 in duodenum and jejunum, whereas it downregulated the expression levels of caspase-3 in duodenum and jejunum, caspase-9 in jejunum, as well as Fas in jejunum and ileum. This study suggested that the beneficial effects of CGA on intestinal development and health are partially due to improvement in immune defense and suppression in excessive apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in weaned pigs.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5 × 1010 cfu/kg L. reuteri LR1 for a 14-d period. At the end of study, the ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and 1 randomly selected pig from each pen was euthanized for sample collection. The LR1 increased ADG (22.73%, P < 0.05) compared with CON. The villus height of the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) and crypt depth in duodenum was reduced (P < 0.05), along with increased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum by LR1 compared with CON and OA. LR1 increased (P < 0.05) ileal mucosal content of IL-22 and transforming growth factor-? compared with OA. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) and OA decreased (P < 0.05) the ileal content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and the abundance of transcripts of porcine ?-defensin 2 and protegrin 1-5. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 and occludin transcripts in the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum, and those of mucin-2 in ileal mucosa. The relative expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 were increased (P < 0.05) in ileal mucosa in pigs fed LR1 compared with CON. In conclusion, these data indicated that dietary LR1 supplementation at 5 × 1010 cfu/kg improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs.
Project description:Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural phenolic acid, which is an important component of biologically active dietary phenols isolated from various species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, intestinal digestion and absorption function, and the expression levels of intestinal digestion and absorption-related genes in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 200 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg CGA, respectively, in a 14-d trial. Pigs on the 1,000 mg/kg CGA-supplemented group had greater (P < 0.05) G:F compared with those on the control (CON) group. In Exp. 2, 24 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to two groups and fed with a basal diet (CON group) or a basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg CGA (the optimum does from Exp. 1; CGA group). After a 14-d trial, 8 pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect serum and intestinal samples. Compared with the CON group, the ADG, G:F, as well as the apparent total tract digestibility of CP, crude fat, and ash were increased (P < 0.05), whereas the diarrhea incidence was decreased (P < 0.05) in the CGA group. Pigs on the CGA group had greater (P < 0.05) serum albumin and IGF-1, and lower (P < 0.05) serum urea nitrogen than pigs on the CON group. Furthermore, dietary CGA supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in the serum, the activity of maltase in the jejunum and ileum, as well as the activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in the jejunum. The mRNA levels of sodium glucose transport protein-1 (SGLT1) and zinc transporter-1 (ZNT1) in the duodenum and the mRNA levels of SGLT1, glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2), and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) in the jejunum were upregulated (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the CGA diet. These results suggested that dietary CGA supplementation has the potentials to improve the growth performance and decrease the diarrhea incidence of the weaned pigs, possibly through improving the antioxidant capacity and enhancing the intestinal digestion and absorption function.
Project description:Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions. The molecular mechanisms determining regionally defined enterocyte functions, however, are poorly delineated. We previously showed that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) is essential to define jejunal enterocytes. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal identity within the intestinal epithelium.To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel Gata4 conditional knock-in mouse line and expressed GATA4 in the ileum, where it is absent.We found that GATA4-expressing ileum lost ileal identity. The global gene expression profile of GATA4-expressing ileal epithelium aligned more closely with jejunum and duodenum rather than ileum. Focusing on jejunal vs ileal identity, we defined sets of jejunal and ileal genes likely to be regulated directly by GATA4 to suppress ileal identity and promote jejunal identity. Furthermore, our study implicates GATA4 as a transcriptional repressor of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15), which encodes an enterokine that has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases.Overall, this study refines our understanding of an important GATA4-dependent molecular mechanism to pattern the intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis by elaborating on GATA4's function as a crucial dominant molecular determinant of jejunal enterocyte identity. Microarray data from this study have been deposited into NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) and are accessible through GEO series accession number GSE75870.
Project description:The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of yeast culture, cell wall hydrolysates, and yeast extracts (collectively "yeast products," YP) on the performance, intestinal physiology, and health of weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of three treatments for a 14-d feeding experiment, including (1) a basal diet (control), (2) 1.2 g/kg of YP, and (3) 20 mg/kg of colistin sulfate (CSE). No statistically significant differences were observed in average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or gain-to-feed ratio among CSE, YP, and control piglets. Increased prevalence of diarrhea was observed among piglets fed the YP diet, whereas diarrhea was less prevalent among those fed CSE. Duodenal and jejunal villus height and duodenal crypt depth were greater in the control group than they were in the YP or CSE groups. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the duodenal and jejunal villi were enhanced by YP, whereas IEL in the ileal villi were reduced in weaned piglets fed YP. Secretion of jejunal and ileal interleukin-10 (IL-10) was higher and intestinal and serum antioxidant indexes were affected by YP and CSE. In YP- and CSE-supplemented animals, serum D-lactate concentration and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity were both increased, and intestinal mRNA expressions of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced as compared to the control animals. In conclusion, YP supplementation in the diets of weaned piglets appears to increase the incidence of diarrhea and has adverse effects on intestinal morphology and barrier function.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glutamine (Gln) supplementation on the intestinal mucosa barrier in piglets. METHODS:A total of 180 barrows with initial weight 10.01±0.03 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, and each treatment consisted of three pens and twenty pigs per pen. The piglets of three groups were fed with control diet [0.62% alanine (Ala)], Ala-Gln diet (0.5% Ala-Gln), Gln diet (0.34% Gln and 0.21% Ala), respectively. RESULTS:The results showed that in comparison with control diet, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased the height of villi in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05), Gln supplementation increased the villi height of jejunum (p<0.05), Ala-Gln supplementation up-regulated the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05), raised the mRNA expressions of Claudin-1, Occludin, zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and the protein levels of Occludin, ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05), Ala-Gln supplementation enlarged the number of goblet cells in duodenal and ileal epithelium (p<0.05), Gln increased the number of goblet cells in duodenal epithelium (p<0.05) and Ala-Gln supplementation improved the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in the jejunal mucosa (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:These results demonstrated that dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could maintain the integrity of small intestine and promote the functions of intestinal mucosa barriers in piglets.
Project description:Background:Weanling pigs, with immature immune system and physiological function, usually experience post-weaning diarrhea. This study determined the effects of dietary Clostridium butyricum supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea, and immunity of weaned pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods:In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 144 weaned piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to six groups, with six replicates per group and four pigs per replicate, receiving a control diet (CON) or diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB) or C. butyricum (CB) (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8%), respectively. All diets in Exp. 1 were a highly digestible basal diet, with 3,000 mg/kg zinc oxide supplied in the first 2 wk only. In Exp. 2, 180 piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to five groups, with six replicates per group and six pigs per replicate, receiving CON, AB, or CB (0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.6%) diets. The digestibility of diets was lower than those in Exp. 1, and did not include zinc oxide. At 36 d of Exp. 2, 12 piglets were selected from each of the CON and 0.4% CB groups, six piglets were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 ?g/kg body weight) and the other six piglets with normal saline; animals were killed at 4 h after injection to collect blood, intestine, and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. Results:In Exp. 1, CB and AB diets had no effect on growth performance of piglets. In Exp. 2, 0.4% CB decreased feed-gain ratio (P?<?0.1), diarrhea score (P?<?0.05), and increased duodenal, jejunal, and ileal villus height and jejunal villus height/crypt depth (P?<?0.05). The 0.4% CB decreased the plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? (P?<?0.05) but increased ileal mucosa IL-10 and TLR2 mRNA expression (P?<?0.05). Furthermore, 0.4% CB altered the microbial profile, with Bacillus and Ruminococcaceae UGG-003 at genus level and Lactobacillus casei and Parasutterella secunda at species level were higher than CON in colonic content (P?<?0.05). Conclusions:Dietary C. butyricum supplementation had positive effects on growth of weaned piglets with less digestible diets. There was a tendency to reduce the feed-gain ratio, which could reduce feed costs in pig production. Moreover, C. butyricum decreased post-weaning diarrhea by improving the intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora profile, and immune function.
Project description:This study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of dietary leonurine hydrochloride (LH) supplementation on intestinal morphology and barrier integrity and further illuminate its underlying antioxidant and immunomodulatory mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated broilers. A total of 120 1-d-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to 4 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 5 birds per cage. The experiment was designed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with LH (0 or 120 mg/kg) and LPS (injection of saline or 1.5 mg/kg body weight) as treatments. On days 14, 16, 18, and 20 of the trial, broilers were intraperitoneally injected with LPS or physiological saline. Compared with the control group, LPS-challenged broilers showed impaired growth performance (P < 0.05) from day 15 to day 21 of the trial, increased serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactic acid (D-LA) levels coupled with reduced glutathione (GSH) content and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity (duodenal and jejunal mucosa), reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content (duodenal, jejunal, and ileal mucosa), and compromised morphological structure of the duodenum and jejunum. Additionally, LPS challenge increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and reduced tight junction (TJ) protein expression in the jejunum. However, dietary LH prevented LPS-induced reductions in average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in broilers. It also alleviated LPS challenge-induced increases in serum DAO levels, MDA content (duodenal and jejunal mucosa), and jejunal crypt depth (P < 0.05) but reduced villus height, GSH content (jejunal mucosa), and T-SOD activity (duodenal and jejunal mucosa) (P < 0.05). Additionally, LH supplementation significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of nuclear factor (NF)-?B, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and upregulated the mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin in the jejunal mucosa induced by LPS (P < 0.05). On the other hand, LH administration prevented LPS-induced activation of the p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and attenuated IkB alpha (I?B?) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B (p65) in the jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, dietary LH supplementation attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption mainly by accelerating the expression of TJ proteins and inhibiting activation of the NF-?B/MAPK signaling pathway.
Project description:Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function, which was possibly due to the decreasing apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and the improvement of intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Background:The objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of dietary tributyrin on intestinal mucosa development, oxidative stress, mitochondrial function and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway. Methods:Seventy-two pigs were divided into two treatments and received either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 750?mg/kg tributyrin. Each treatment has six replicates of six pigs. After 14?days, 6 pigs from each treatment were selected and the jejunal samples were collected. Results:Results showed that supplemental tributyrin increased (P?<?0.05) villus height and villus height: crypt depth of weaned pigs. Pigs fed tributyrin had greater (P?<?0.05) RNA/DNA and protein/DNA ratios than pigs on the control group. The mRNA levels of sodium glucose transport protein-1 and glucose transporter-2 in the jejunum were upregulated (P?<?0.05) in pigs fed the tributyrin diet. Dietary tributyrin supplementation lowered (P?<?0.05) the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content in jejunum, enhanced (P?<?0.05) the mitochondrial function, as demonstrated by decreased (P?<?0.05) reactive oxygen species level and increased (P?<?0.05) mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, tributyrin increased (P?<?0.05) mitochondrial DNA content and the mRNA abundance of genes related to mitochondrial functions, including peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, mitochondrial transcription factor A, nuclear respiratory factor-1 in the jejunum. Supplementation with tributyrin elevated (P?<?0.05) the phosphorylation level of AMPK and inhibited (P?<?0.05) the phosphorylation level of mTOR in jejunum compared with the control group. Conclusions:These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with tributyrin promotes intestinal mucosa growth, extenuates oxidative stress, improves mitochondrial function and modulates the AMPK-mTOR signal pathway of weaned pigs.
Project description:To explore the effect of selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) on intestinal barrier functions in weaned pigs upon oxidative stress, a 2 × 2 factorial design was utilized and thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned into four groups. Pigs with or without exposure to oxidative stress (diquat challenge) were fed with a basal diet or a SeY-containing diet. The trial lasted for 21 days, and result showed that SeY supplementation attenuated body-weight reduction and significantly decreased the serum concentrations of diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactic acid in pigs upon diquat challenge (P < 0.05). Diquat challenge decreased the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V/C) in the jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05). However, SeY supplementation not only elevated the villus height and the ratio of V/C (P < 0.05) but also improved the distribution and abundance of tight-junction protein ZO-1 in the jejunum epithelium. Interestingly, SeY supplementation acutely decreased the total apoptosis rate of intestinal epithelial cells in pigs upon diquat challenge (P < 0.05). Moreover, SeY elevated the content of antioxidant molecules such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) but significantly decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). Importantly, SeY elevated the expression levels of critical functional genes such as the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) in the intestinal mucosa upon diquat challenge (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of caspase-3 was downregulated by SeY in the duodenum and jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). These results indicated that SeY attenuated oxidative stress-induced intestinal mucosa disruption, which was associated with elevated mucosal antioxidative capacity and improved intestinal barrier functions.