Cytotoxic Anomoian B and Aplyzanzine B, New Bromotyrosine Alkaloids from Indonesian Sponges.
ABSTRACT: Two new bromotyrosine derivatives, anomoian B (1) and aplyzanzine B (2), were isolated, respectively, from the organic extracts of a Verongida sponge belonging to the Hexadella genus and from a two-sponge association (Jaspis sp. and Bubaris sp.), both collected off the coast of Indonesia. The planar structure of 1 and 2 was determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by high-resolution mass spectrometry, while their absolute stereochemistry was assigned by comparison with optical rotation values of known bromotyrosines and by chemical degradation. Both compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of different cancer cell lines. Their cytotoxic activity is facilitated through the induction of apoptosis, which is mediated neither by the generation of reactive oxygen species nor by the inhibition of histone deacetylases in these cell lines.
Project description:Two new bromotyrosine alkaloids, ceratinadins E (1) and F (2), were isolated from an Okinawan marine sponge Pseudoceratina sp. as well as a known bromotyrosine alkaloid, psammaplysin F (3). The gross structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by comparison of the NMR and ECD data with those of a known related bromotyrosine alkaloid, psammaplysin A (4). Ceratinadins E (1) and F (2) are new bromotyrosine alkaloids possessing an 8,10-dibromo-9-methoxy-1,6-dioxa-2-azaspiro[4.6]undeca-2,7,9-trien-4-ol unit with two or three 11-N-methylmoloka'iamine units connected by carbonyl groups, respectively. Ceratinadin E (1) exhibited antimalarial activities against a drug-resistant and a drug-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum (K1 and FCR3 strains, respectively).
Project description:Seven new bromotyrosine-derived metabolites, purpuramine M-N (1-2), araplysillin VII-XI (3-7) and six known compounds (8-13) were isolated from an Indonesian sponge belonging to the family Aplysinellidae (Order Verongiida). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR experiments and mass spectrometric measurements. These compounds were screened against BACE1 and five cancer cell lines.
Project description:Three new bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids 14-debromo-11-deoxyfistularin-3 (1), aplysinin A (2), and aplysinin B (3), together with 15 known compounds (4-18) were isolated from the sponge Aplysina lacunosa collected from Stirrup Cay, Bahamas. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data analysis. The (13)C NMR assignment of spirocyclohexadienylisoxazoline moieties of 1 and 2 were confirmed by an 1,1-ADEQUATE experiment. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a mild to moderate cytotoxic activities against KB-31 and FS4-LTM cell lines. Only aplysinin A (2) exhibited cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells.
Project description:Seven pairs of new oxygenated aplysinopsin-type enantiomers, (+)- and (-)-oxoaplysinopsins A‒G (1‒7), two new bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids, subereamollines C and D (18 and 19), together with ten known compounds (8‒17) were isolated from the Xisha Islands sponge Fascaplysinopsis reticulata. The planar structures were determined by extensive NMR and MS spectroscopic data. Each of the optically pure enantiomers was achieved by chiral HPLC separation. The absolute configurations were assigned by the quantum chemical calculation methods. Compound 19 showed cytotoxicity against Jurkat cell lines with IC50 value of 0.88 μM. Compounds 2, 16 and 17 showed tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition activity with IC50 value ranging from 7.67 to 26.5 μM, stronger than the positive control of acarbose and 1-deoxynojirimycin. A structural activity relationship for the aplysinopsin-type enantiomers were observed in PTP1B inhibition activity of 2 and cytotoxicity of 3 that the dextrorotary (+)-2 and (+)-3 showed stronger activity than the levorotary (-)-2 and (-)-3.
Project description:Four new brominated tyrosine metabolites, aplyzanzines C-F (1-4), were isolated from the French Polynesian sponge Pseudoceratina n. sp., along with the two known 2-aminoimidazolic derivatives, purealidin A (5) and 6, previously isolated, respectively, from the sponges Psammaplysilla purpurea and Verongula sp. Their structures were assigned based on the interpretation of their NMR and HRMS data. The compounds exhibited quorum sensing inhibition (QSi) and antifouling activities against several strains of bacteria and microalgae. To our knowledge, the QSi activity of this type of bromotyrosine metabolite is described here for the first time.
Project description:Demosponges possess a skeleton made of a composite material with various organic constituents and/or siliceous spicules. Chitin is an integral part of the skeleton of different sponges of the order Verongida. Moreover, sponges of the order Verongida, such as Aplysina cavernicola or Ianthella basta, are well-known for the biosynthesis of brominated tyrosine derivates, characteristic bioactive natural products. It has been unknown so far whether these compounds are exclusively present in the cellular matrix or whether they may also be incorporated into the chitin-based skeletons. In the present study, we therefore examined the skeletons of A. cavernicola and I. basta with respect to the presence of bromotyrosine metabolites. The chitin-based-skeletons isolated from these sponges indeed contain significant amounts of brominated compounds, which are not easily extractable from the skeletons by common solvents, such as MeOH, as shown by HPLC analyses in combination with NMR and IR spectroscopic measurements. Quantitative potentiometric analyses confirm that the skeleton-associated bromine mainly withstands the MeOH-based extraction. This observation suggests that the respective, but yet unidentified, brominated compounds are strongly bound to the sponge skeletons, possibly by covalent bonding. Moreover, gene fragments of halogenases suggested to be responsible for the incorporation of bromine into organic molecules could be amplified from DNA isolated from sponge samples enriched for sponge-associated bacteria.
Project description:Herein, we describe the isolation and spectroscopic identification of eight new tetrabrominated tyrosine alkaloids 2?9 from the Polynesian sponge Suberea ianthelliformis, along with known major compound psammaplysene D (1), N,N-dimethyldibromotyramine, 5-hydroxy xanthenuric acid, and xanthenuric acid. Cytotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities were evaluated for some of the isolated metabolites. They exhibited moderate antiproliferative activity against KB cancer cell lines, but psammaplysene D (1) displayed substantial cytotoxicity as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibition with IC50 values of 0.7 μM and 1.3 μM, respectively.
Project description:Brominated indole alkaloids are a common class of metabolites reported from sponges of the order Verongida. Herein we report the isolation, structure determination, and activity of metabolites from three Florida sponges, namely, Verongula rigida (order Verongida, family Aplysinidae), Smenospongia aurea, and S. cerebriformis (order Dictyoceratida, family Thorectidae). All three species were investigated chemically, revealing similarities in secondary metabolites. Brominated compounds, as well as sesquiterpene quinones and hydroquinones, were identified from both V. rigida and S. aurea despite their apparent taxonomic differences at the ordinal level. Similar metabolites found in these distinct sponge species of two different genera provide evidence for a microbial origin of the metabolites. Isolated compounds were evaluated in the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) and the chick anxiety-depression continuum model. Among the isolated compounds, 5,6-dibromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 1) exhibited significant antidepressant-like action in the rodent FST model, while 5-bromo- N,N-dimethyltryptamine ( 2) caused significant reduction of locomotor activity indicative of a potential sedative action. The current study provides ample evidence that marine natural products with the diversity of brominated marine alkaloids will provide potential leads for antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs.
Project description:Marine sponges remain representative of a unique source of renewable biological materials. The demosponges of the family Ianthellidae possess chitin-based skeletons with high biomimetic potential. These three-dimensional (3D) constructs can potentially be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we focus our attention, for the first time, on the marine sponge Ianthella labyrinthus Bergquist & Kelly-Borges, 1995 (Demospongiae: Verongida: Ianthellidae) as a novel potential source of naturally prestructured bandage-like 3D scaffolds which can be isolated simultaneously with biologically active bromotyrosines. Specifically, translucent and elastic flat chitinous scaffolds have been obtained after bromotyrosine extraction and chemical treatments of the sponge skeleton with alternate alkaline and acidic solutions. For the first time, cardiomyocytes differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) have been used to test the suitability of I. labyrinthus chitinous skeleton as ready-to-use scaffold for their cell culture. Results reveal a comparable attachment and growth on isolated chitin-skeleton, compared to scaffolds coated with extracellular matrix mimetic Geltrex®. Thus, the natural, unmodified I. labyrinthus cleaned sponge skeleton can be used to culture iPSC-CMs and 3D tissue engineering. In addition, I. labyrinthus chitin-based scaffolds demonstrate strong and efficient capability to absorb blood deep into the microtubes due to their excellent capillary effect. These findings are suggestive of the future development of new sponge chitin-based absorbable hemostats as alternatives to already well recognized cellulose-based fabrics.
Project description:The first total synthesis of the marine bromotyrosine purpurealidin I (1) using trifluoroacetoxy protection group and its dimethylated analog (29) is reported along with 16 simplified bromotyrosine derivatives lacking the tyramine moiety. Their cytotoxicity was evaluated against the human malignant melanoma cell line (A-375) and normal skin fibroblast cells (Hs27) together with 33 purpurealidin-inspired simplified amides, and the structure?activity relationships were investigated. The synthesized simplified analogs without the tyramine part retained the cytotoxic activity. Purpurealidin I (1) showed no selectivity but its simplified pyridin-2-yl derivative (36) had the best improvement in selectivity (Selectivity index 4.1). This shows that the marine bromotyrosines are promising scaffolds for developing cytotoxic agents and the full understanding of the elements of their SAR and improving the selectivity requires further optimization of simplified bromotyrosine derivatives.