Addressable electron spin resonance using donors and donor molecules in silicon.
ABSTRACT: Phosphorus donor impurities in silicon are a promising candidate for solid-state quantum computing due to their exceptionally long coherence times and high fidelities. However, individual addressability of exchange coupled donors with separations ~15 nm is challenging. We show that by using atomic precision lithography, we can place a single P donor next to a 2P molecule 16 ± 1 nm apart and use their distinctive hyperfine coupling strengths to address qubits at vastly different resonance frequencies. In particular, the single donor yields two hyperfine peaks separated by 97 ± 2.5 MHz, in contrast to the donor molecule that exhibits three peaks separated by 262 ± 10 MHz. Atomistic tight-binding simulations confirm the large hyperfine interaction strength in the 2P molecule with an interdonor separation of ~0.7 nm, consistent with lithographic scanning tunneling microscopy images of the 2P site during device fabrication. We discuss the viability of using donor molecules for built-in addressability of electron spin qubits in silicon.
Project description:Substitutional donor atoms in silicon are promising qubits for quantum computation with extremely long relaxation and dephasing times demonstrated. One of the critical challenges of scaling these systems is determining inter-donor distances to achieve controllable wavefunction overlap while at the same time performing high fidelity spin readout on each qubit. Here we achieve such a device by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy lithography. We measure anti-correlated spin states between two donor-based spin qubits in silicon separated by 16?±?1?nm. By utilising an asymmetric system with two phosphorus donors at one qubit site and one on the other (2P-1P), we demonstrate that the exchange interaction can be turned on and off via electrical control of two in-plane phosphorus doped detuning gates. We determine the tunnel coupling between the 2P-1P system to be 200?MHz and provide a roadmap for the observation of two-electron coherent exchange oscillations.
Project description:Silicon nanoelectronic devices can host single-qubit quantum logic operations with fidelity better than 99.9%. For the spins of an electron bound to a single-donor atom, introduced in the silicon by ion implantation, the quantum information can be stored for nearly 1 second. However, manufacturing a scalable quantum processor with this method is considered challenging, because of the exponential sensitivity of the exchange interaction that mediates the coupling between the qubits. Here we demonstrate the conditional, coherent control of an electron spin qubit in an exchange-coupled pair of <sup>31</sup>P donors implanted in silicon. The coupling strength, J = 32.06 ± 0.06 MHz, is measured spectroscopically with high precision. Since the coupling is weaker than the electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling A ? 90 MHz which detunes the two electrons, a native two-qubit controlled-rotation gate can be obtained via a simple electron spin resonance pulse. This scheme is insensitive to the precise value of J, which makes it suitable for the scale-up of donor-based quantum computers in silicon that exploit the metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication protocols commonly used in the classical electronics industry.
Project description:Individual donors in silicon chips are used as quantum bits with extremely low error rates. However, physical realizations have been limited to one donor because their atomic size causes fabrication challenges. Quantum dot qubits, in contrast, are highly adjustable using electrical gate voltages. This adjustability could be leveraged to deterministically couple donors to quantum dots in arrays of qubits. In this work, we demonstrate the coherent interaction of a 31P donor electron with the electron of a metal-oxide-semiconductor quantum dot. We form a logical qubit encoded in the spin singlet and triplet states of the two-electron system. We show that the donor nuclear spin drives coherent rotations between the electronic qubit states through the contact hyperfine interaction. This provides every key element for compact two-electron spin qubits requiring only a single dot and no additional magnetic field gradients, as well as a means to interact with the nuclear spin qubit.
Project description:Quantum dots patterned by atomically precise placement of phosphorus donors in single crystal silicon have long spin lifetimes, advantages in addressability, large exchange tunability, and are readily available few-electron systems. To be utilized as quantum bits, it is important to non-invasively characterise these donor quantum dots post fabrication and extract the number of bound electron and nuclear spins as well as their locations. Here, we propose a metrology technique based on electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements with the on-chip circuitry already needed for qubit manipulation to obtain atomic scale information about donor quantum dots and their spin configurations. Using atomistic tight-binding technique and Hartree self-consistent field approximation, we show that the ESR transition frequencies are directly related to the number of donors, electrons, and their locations through the electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction.
Project description:Fault-tolerant quantum computing requires high-fidelity qubits. This has been achieved in various solid-state systems, including isotopically purified silicon, but is yet to be accomplished in industry-standard natural (unpurified) silicon, mainly as a result of the dephasing caused by residual nuclear spins. This high fidelity can be achieved by speeding up the qubit operation and/or prolonging the dephasing time, that is, increasing the Rabi oscillation quality factor Q (the Rabi oscillation decay time divided by the ? rotation time). In isotopically purified silicon quantum dots, only the second approach has been used, leaving the qubit operation slow. We apply the first approach to demonstrate an addressable fault-tolerant qubit using a natural silicon double quantum dot with a micromagnet that is optimally designed for fast spin control. This optimized design allows access to Rabi frequencies up to 35 MHz, which is two orders of magnitude greater than that achieved in previous studies. We find the optimum Q = 140 in such high-frequency range at a Rabi frequency of 10 MHz. This leads to a qubit fidelity of 99.6% measured via randomized benchmarking, which is the highest reported for natural silicon qubits and comparable to that obtained in isotopically purified silicon quantum dot-based qubits. This result can inspire contributions to quantum computing from industrial communities.
Project description:Donor spins in silicon are highly competitive qubits for upcoming quantum technologies, offering complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility, coherence (T2) times of minutes to hours, and simultaneous initialization, manipulation, and readout fidelities near ~99.9%. This allows for many quantum error correction protocols, which will be essential for scale-up. However, a proven method of reliably coupling spatially separated donor qubits has yet to be identified. We present a scalable silicon-based platform using the unique optical properties of "deep" chalcogen donors. For the prototypical 77Se+ donor, we measure lower bounds on the transition dipole moment and excited-state lifetime, enabling access to the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics using known silicon photonic resonator technology and integrated silicon photonics. We also report relatively strong photon emission from this same transition. These results unlock clear pathways for silicon-based quantum computing, spin-to-photon conversion, photonic memories, integrated single-photon sources, and all-optical switches.
Project description:CW EPR spectra of reduced [2Fe-2S](Cys)(3)(His)(1) clusters of mammalian mitoNEET soluble domain appear to produce features resulting from the interaction of the electron spins of the two adjacent clusters, which can be explained by employing the local spin model. This model favors the reduction of the outermost iron with His87 and Cys83 ligands, which is supported by orientation-selected hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) characterization of the uniformly (15)N-labeled mitoNEET showing one strongly coupled nitrogen from the His87 N(delta) ligand with hyperfine coupling (15)a = 8 MHz. The (14)N and (15)N HYSCORE spectra also exhibit at least two different cross-peaks located near diagonal in the (++) quadrant, with frequencies approximately 2.8 and 2.4 MHz (N2), and the other approximately 4.0 and 3.5 MHz (N1), but did not show any of the larger splitting approximately 1.1-1.4 MHz previously seen with Rieske proteins. Further analysis with partially (15)N(3)-His-labeled protein indicates that His87 N(epsilon) cross-peaks produce resolved features (N2) in the (14)N spectrum but contribute much less than weakly coupled peptide nitrogen species to the (++) quadrant in the (15)N spectrum. It is suggested that these quantitative data may be used in future functional and theoretical studies on the mammalian mitoNEET [2Fe-2S] cluster system.
Project description:Silicon nanocrystals of the average diameter of 5 nm, functionalized with 4,7-di(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole chromophores (TBT) and dodecyl chains, exhibit near-infrared emission upon one-photon (1P) excitation at 515 nm and two-photon (2P) excitation at 960 nm. By using TBT chromophores as an antenna we were able to enhance both 1P and 2P absorption cross-sections of the silicon nanocrystals to more efficiently excite their long-lived luminescence. These results chart a path to two-photon-excitable imaging probes with long-lived oxygen-independent luminescence - a rare combination of properties that should allow for a substantial increase in imaging contrast.
Project description:Nuclear spins of phosphorus [P] donor atoms in crystalline silicon are among the most coherent qubits found in nature. For their utilization in scalable quantum computers, distinct donor electron wavefunctions must be controlled and probed through electrical coupling by application of either highly localized electric fields or spin-selective currents. Due to the strong modulation of the P-donor wavefunction by the silicon lattice, such electrical coupling requires atomic spatial accuracy. Here, the spatially controlled application of electrical current through individual pairs of phosphorus donor electron states in crystalline silicon and silicon dangling bond states at the crystalline silicon (100) surface is demonstrated using a high-resolution scanning probe microscope operated under ultra-high vacuum and at a temperature of 4.3 K. The observed pairs of electron states display qualitatively reproducible current-voltage characteristics with a monotonous increase and intermediate current plateaus.
Project description:The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si.