Practical Glucosylations and Mannosylations Using Anomeric Benzoyloxy as a Leaving Group Activated by Sulfonium Ion.
ABSTRACT: One obstacle for practical glycosylations is the high cost of promoters and low-temperature equipment. This problem has been at least partially solved by using MeSCH2Cl/KI as a low-cost promoter system. MeSCH2Cl has an estimated cost of <$1/mol compared with $1741/mol for AgOTf and $633/mol for TMSOTf. This new promoter system is capable of activating various leaving groups including anomeric Cl, F, trichloroacetimidate, and acyloxy groups. Stable and easy-to-prepare anomeric benzoloxy carbohydrate donors were investigated in the glycosylations of carbohydrates, aliphatic alcohols, amino acids, steroids, and nucleoside acceptors. Most of these glycosylations were operationally simple with fast reaction rates and moderate yields of 35-79%. In addition, direct glycosylations of nucleosides using less than 2 equiv of anomeric benzoloxy donors and high stereoselective mannosylation have been achieved. From an economic point of view, this glycosylation method should be highly applicable to industrial processes.
Project description:TMSOTf-promoted glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosyl trichloroacetimidates provide excellent alpha-anomeric selectivities when performed at a relatively high reaction temperature in the presence of PhSEt or thiophene. NMR and computation studies have shown that these glycosylations proceed through an equatorial anomeric sulfonium ion, which upon displacement by a sugar alcohol provides an axial glycoside. Computational studies have indicated that steric factors determine the selective formation of the beta-anomeric sulfonium ion.
Project description:Anomeric sulfonium ions are attractive glycosyl donors for the stereoselective installation of 1,2-cis glycosides. Although these donors are receiving increasing attention, their mechanism of glycosylation remains controversial. We have investigated the reaction mechanism of glycosylation of a donor modified at C-2 with a (1S)-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethyl chiral auxiliary. Preactivation of this donor results in the formation of a bicyclic ?-sulfonium ion that after addition of an alcohol undergoes 1,2-cis-glycosylation. To probe the importance of the thiophenyl moiety, analogs were prepared in which this moiety was replaced by an anisoyl or benzyl moiety. Furthermore, the auxiliaries were installed as S- and R-stereoisomers. It was found that the nature of the heteroatom and chirality of the auxiliary greatly influenced the anomeric outcome and only the one containing a thiophenyl moiety and having S-configuration gave consistently ?-anomeric products. The sulfonium ions are sufficiently stable at a temperature at which glycosylations proceed indicating that they are viable glycosylation agents. Time-course NMR experiments with the latter donor showed that the initial rates of glycosylations increase with increases in acceptor concentration and the rate curves could be fitted to a second order rate equation. Collectively, these observations support a mechanism by which a sulfonium ion intermediate is formed as a trans-decalin ring system that can undergo glycosylation through a bimolecular mechanism. DFT calculations have provided further insight into the reaction path of glycosylation and indicate that initially a hydrogen-bonded complex is formed between sulfonium ion and acceptor that undergoes SN2-like glycosylation to give an ?-anomeric product.
Project description:Glycosylations of 4,6-tethered glucosazide donors with a panel of model acceptors revealed the effect of acceptor nucleophilicity on the stereoselectivity of these donors. The differences in reactivity among the donors were evaluated in competitive glycosylation reactions, and their relative reactivities were found to be reflected in the stereoselectivity in glycosylations with a set of fluorinated alcohols as well as carbohydrate acceptors. We found that the 2-azido-2-deoxy moiety is more β-directing than its C-2-O-benzyl counterpart, as a consequence of increased destabilization of anomeric charge development by the electron-withdrawing azide. Additional disarming groups further decreased the α-selectivity of the studied donors, whereas substitution of the 4,6-benzylidene acetal with a 4,6-di-tert-butyl silylidene led to a slight increase in α-selectivity. The C-2-dinitropyridone group was also explored as an alternative for the nonparticipating azide group, but this protecting group significantly increased β-selectivity. All studied donors exhibited the same acceptor-dependent selectivity trend, and good α-selectivity could be obtained with the weakest acceptors and most reactive donors.
Project description:Selenosugars are interesting targets of organic synthesis as they would possess potential biological activities. However, 4-selenotherofuranose derivatives, which have trans configuration for the two dihydroxy substituents at the 2,3-positions and a glycoside bond at the anomeric position, are not available in the current selenosugar library. In this study, racemic 4-selenothreofuranose derivatives were synthesized from <i>trans</i>-3,4-dioxygenated tetrahydroselenophenes in 77-99% yields with the α/β selectivity about 7:3 via oxidation and subsequent seleno-Pummerer rearrangement. The acetoxy group introduced at the anomeric position was then substituted with various nucleophiles, including activated 6-chloropurine, which afforded 4'-selenothreonucleoside derivatives, in the presence of BF<sub>3</sub>·OEt<sub>2</sub> or TMSOTf. The stereochemistry of the selenosugar products was established by <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray analysis. The similar α/β selectivity observed in the latter glycosylation reaction to that in the former seleno-Pummerer rearrangement suggested the mediation of a common selenonium intermediate (-Se<sup>+</sup>=C<). It was also suggested that an unexpected interaction between the ester protecting group at the 3-position of the selenofuranose ring and the anomeric carbon atom decreases the α/β selectivity.
Project description:The bis-<i>ortho</i>-thioether 9,10-bis[(<i>o</i>-methylthio)phenyl]anthracene was synthesized as a <i>syn-</i>atropisomer, as revealed by X-ray diffraction. This alkylaryl thioether ligand (L) formed different macrocyclic complexes by coordination with silver(I) salts depending on the nature of the anion: M<sub>2</sub>L<sub>2</sub> for AgOTf and AgOTFA, M<sub>6</sub>L<sub>4</sub> for AgNO<sub>3</sub>. A discrete M<sub>2</sub>L complex was obtained in the presence of bulky PPh<sub>3</sub>AgOTf. These silver(I) complexes adopted similar structures in solution and in the solid state. As each sulfur atom in the ligand is prochiral, macrocycles L<sub>2</sub>M<sub>2</sub> were obtained as mixtures of diastereoisomers, depending on the configurations of the sulfur atoms coordinated to silver cations. The X-ray structures of the two L<sub>2</sub>·(AgOTf)<sub>2</sub> stereoisomers highlighted their different geometry. The catalytic activity of all silver(I) complexes was effective under homogeneous conditions in two tandem addition/cycloisomerization of alkynes using 0.5-1 mol % of catalytic loading.
Project description:The title dinuclear mercury(II) complex, [Hg<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>4</sub>(C<sub>16</sub>H<sub>19</sub>N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>], synthesized from the pyridine-derived Schiff base (<i>E</i>)-<i>N</i><sup>1</sup>,<i>N</i><sup>1</sup>-diethyl-<i>N</i><sup>4</sup>-[(pyridin-2-yl)methyl-idene]benzene-1,4-di-amine (DPMBD), has inversion symmetry. The five-coordinated Hg<sup>II</sup> atoms have distorted square-pyramidal stereochemistry comprising two N-atom donors from bidentate chelate BPMBD ligands and three Cl-atom donors, two bridging and one monodentate. The dihedral angle between the benzene and the pyridine rings in the BPMBD ligand is 7.55?(4)°. In the crystal, the dinuclear mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag ribbons lying parallel to . Also present in the structure are ?-? inter-actions between benzene and pyridine rings [minimum ring-centroid separation = 3.698?(8)?Å].
Project description:As part of our continuing interest in the chemistry of cationic antimony Lewis acids as ligands for late transition metals, we have now investigated the synthesis of platinum complexes featuring a triarylstibine ligand substituted by an <i>o</i>-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl group referred to as Ar<sup>N</sup>. More specifically, we describe the synthesis of the amino stibine ligand Ph<sub>2</sub>SbAr<sup>N</sup> (<b>L</b>) and its platinum dichloride complex [<b>L</b>PtCl]Cl which exists as a chloride salt and which shows weak coordination of the amino group to the antimony center. We also report the conversion of [<b>L</b>PtCl]Cl into a tricationic complex [<b>L</b>HPt(SMe<sub>2</sub>)]<sup>3+</sup> which has been isolated as a tris-triflate salt after reaction of [<b>L</b>PtCl]Cl with SMe<sub>2</sub>, HOTf and AgOTf. Finally, we show that [<b>L</b>HPt(SMe<sub>2</sub>)][OTf]<sub>3</sub> acts as a catalyst for the cyclization of 2-allyl-2-(2-propynyl)malonate.
Project description:Stereoselective manipulations at the C1 anomeric position of saccharides are one of the central goals of preparative carbohydrate chemistry. Historically, the majority of reactions forming a bond with anomeric carbon has focused on reactions of nucleophiles with saccharide donors equipped with a leaving group. Here, we describe a novel approach to stereoselective synthesis of C-aryl glycosides capitalizing on the highly stereospecific reaction of anomeric nucleophiles. First, methods for the preparation of anomeric stannanes have been developed and optimized to afford both anomers of common saccharides in high anomeric selectivities. We established that oligosaccharide stannanes could be prepared from monosaccharide stannanes via O-glycosylation with Schmidt-type donors, glycal epoxides, or under dehydrative conditions with C1 alcohols. Second, we identified a general set of catalytic conditions with Pd2(dba)3 (2.5 mol%) and a bulky ligand (JackiePhos, 10 mol%) controlling the ?-elimination pathway. We demonstrated that the glycosyl cross-coupling resulted in consistently high anomeric selectivities for both anomers with mono- and oligosaccharides, deoxysugars, saccharides with free hydroxyl groups, pyranose, and furanose substrates. The versatility of the glycosyl cross-coupling reaction was probed in the total synthesis of salmochelins (siderophores) and commercial anti-diabetic drugs (gliflozins). Combined experimental and computational studies revealed that the ?-elimination pathway is suppressed for biphenyl-type ligands due to the shielding of Pd(II) by sterically demanding JackiePhos, whereas smaller ligands, which allow for the formation of a Pd-F complex, predominantly result in a glycal product. Similar steric effects account for the diminished rates of cross-couplings of 1,2-cis C1-stannanes with aryl halides. DFT calculations also revealed that the transmetalation occurs via a cyclic transition state with retention of configuration at the anomeric position. Taken together, facile access to both anomers of various glycoside nucleophiles, a broad reaction scope, and uniformly high transfer of anomeric configuration make the glycosyl cross-coupling reaction a practical tool for the synthesis of bioactive natural products, drug candidates, allowing for late-stage glycodiversification studies with small molecules and biologics.
Project description:The development of selectively protected monosaccharide building blocks that can reliably be glycosylated with a wide variety of acceptors is expected to make oligosaccharide synthesis a more routine operation. In particular, there is an urgent need for the development of modular building blocks that can readily be converted into glycosyl donors for glycosylations that give reliably high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity. We report here that 1,2-oxathiane ethers are stable under acidic, basic, and reductive conditions making it possible to conduct a wide range of protecting group manipulations and install selectively removable protecting groups such as levulinoyl (Lev) ester, fluorenylmethyloxy (Fmoc)- and allyloxy (Alloc)-carbonates, and 2-methyl naphthyl ethers (Nap). The 1,2-oxathiane ethers could easily be converted into bicyclic anomeric sulfonium ions by oxidization to sulfoxides and arylated with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The resulting sulfonium ions gave high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity when glycosylated with a wide variety of glycosyl acceptors including properly protected amino acids, primary and secondary sugar alcohols and partially protected thioglycosides. The selective protected 1,2-oxathianes were successfully employed in the preparation of a branched glucoside derived from a glycogen-like polysaccharide isolated form the fungus Pseudallescheria boydii , which is involved in fungal phagocytosis and activation of innate immune responses. The compound was assembled by a latent-active glycosylation strategy in which an oxathiane was employed as an acceptor in a glycosylation with a sulfoxide donor. The product of such a glycosylation was oxidized to a sulfoxide for a subsequent glycosylation. The use of Nap and Fmoc as temporary protecting groups made it possible to install branching points.
Project description:Two efficient routes for the rapid assembly of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Globo-H hexasaccharide 2 by a preactivation based iterative one-pot strategy are reported. The first method involves the sequential coupling of four glycosyl building blocks, leading to the desired hexasaccharide in 47% overall yield in one-pot synthesis. Although model studies on constructing the challenging Gal-alpha-(1-4)-Gal linkage in Gb3 trisaccharide yielded the desired alpha linkage almost exclusively, a similar approach to assemble the hexasaccharide led to the formation of a significant amount of beta anomer. As an alternative, the second synthesis utilized three components in one pot with the Gal-alpha-(1-4)-Gal linkage preformed, producing the desired hexasaccharide in a similar overall yield as the four component approach. Both methods demonstrate that oligosaccharides containing alpha and beta linkages within the same molecule can be constructed in one pot via a preactivation based approach with higher glyco-assembly efficiencies than the automated solid-phase synthesis strategy. Furthermore, because glycosylations can be carried out independent of anomeric reactivities of donors, it is not necessary to differentiate anomeric reactivities of building blocks through extensive protective group adjustment for chemoselective glycosylation. This confers great flexibilities in the building block design, allowing matching of the donor with the acceptor, leading to improved overall yield.