Magnetic Separation of Autophagosomes from Mammalian Cells Using Magnetic-Plasmonic Hybrid Nanobeads.
ABSTRACT: Developments in subcellular fractionation strategies have provided the means to analyze the protein and lipid composition of organelles by proteomics. Here, we developed ultrasmall magnetic-plasmonic hybrid nanobeads and applied them to the isolation of autophagosomes by applying a magnetic field. The beads were chemically synthesized and comprised an Ag/FeCo/Ag core/shell/shell structure with a mean diameter of 15 nm. The Ag core and the FeCo shell conferred imaging and magnetic separation capabilities, respectively. The nanobeads were transfected into mammalian cells by lipofection. Thirty minutes after lipofection, the nanobeads colocalized with Vps26 and subsequently with LC3. Cell lysates were prepared at the appropriate time points and were subjected to magnetic separation. The separated fraction contained LC3-II, transferrin receptor, and LAMP2, but not LC3-I, suggesting that autophagosomes engulfing endosomal origin had been isolated. The magnetic separation process was completed in less than 30 min, providing a rapid method for isolation of autophagosomes. The present organelle isolation technique using the hybrid nanobeads with imaging and magnetic separation capabilities is highly promising for isolation of other types of organelles such as endosomes and endosome-related organelles.
Project description:FeCo/graphitic carbon shell (FeCo/GC) nanocrystals (?4-5 nm in diameter) with ultrahigh magnetization are synthesized, functionalized, and developed into multifunctional biocompatible materials. We demonstrate the ability of this material to serve as an integrated system for combined drug delivery, near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro. We show highly efficient loading of doxorubicin (DOX) by ?-stacking on the graphitic shell to afford FeCo/GC-DOX complexes and pH sensitive DOX release from the particles. We observe enhanced intracellular drug delivery by FeCo/GC-DOX under 20 min of NIR laser (808 nm) induced hyperthermia to 43 °C, resulting in a significant increase of FeCo/GC-DOX toxicity toward breast cancer cells. The synergistic cancer cell killing by FeCo/GC-DOX drug delivery under photothermal heating is due to a ?two-fold enhancement of cancer cell uptake of FeCo/GC-DOX complex and the increased DOX toxicity under the 43 °C hyperthermic condition. The combination of synergistic NIR photothermally enhanced drug delivery and MRI with the FeCo/GC nanocrystals could lead to a powerful multimodal system for biomedical detection and therapy.
Project description:Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process across eukaryotes that degrades cargoes like aggregate-prone proteins, pathogens, damaged organelles and macromolecules via delivery to lysosomes. The process involves the formation of double-membraned autophagosomes that engulf the cargoes destined for degradation, sometimes with the help of autophagy receptors like p62, which are themselves autophagy substrates. LC3-II, a standard marker for autophagosomes, is generated by the conjugation of cytosolic LC3-I to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the surface of nascent autophagosomes. As LC3-II is relatively specifically associated with autophagosomes and autolysosomes (in the absence of conditions stimulating LC3-associated phagocytosis), quantification of LC3-positive puncta is considered as a gold-standard assay for assessing the numbers of autophagosomes in cells. Here we find that the endogenous LC3-positive puncta become larger in cells where autophagosome formation is abrogated, and are prominent even when LC3-II is not formed. This occurs even with transient and incomplete inhibition of autophagosome biogenesis. This phenomenon is due to LC3-I sequestration to p62 aggregates, which accumulate when autophagy is impaired. This observation questions the reliability of LC3-immunofluorescence assays in cells with compromised autophagy.
Project description:Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis by targeting damaged organelles, pathogens or misfolded protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. The autophagic process is initiated by the formation of autophagosomes, which can selectively enclose cargo via autophagy cargo receptors. A machinery of well-characterized autophagy-related proteins orchestrates the biogenesis of autophagosomes; however, the origin of the required membranes is incompletely understood. Here, we have applied sensitized pooled CRISPR screens and identify the uncharacterized transmembrane protein TMEM41B as a novel regulator of autophagy. In the absence of TMEM41B, autophagosome biogenesis is stalled, LC3 accumulates at WIPI2- and DFCP1-positive isolation membranes, and lysosomal flux of autophagy cargo receptors and intracellular bacteria is impaired. In addition to defective autophagy, TMEM41B knockout cells display significantly enlarged lipid droplets and reduced mobilization and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Immunostaining and interaction proteomics data suggest that TMEM41B localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, we propose that TMEM41B is a novel ER-localized regulator of autophagosome biogenesis and lipid mobilization.
Project description:Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis by targeting damaged organelles, pathogens, or misfolded protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. The autophagic process is initiated by the formation of autophagosomes, which can selectively enclose cargo via autophagy cargo receptors. A machinery of well-characterized autophagy-related proteins orchestrates the biogenesis of autophagosomes; however, the origin of the required membranes is incompletely understood. Here, we have applied sensitized pooled CRISPR screens and identify the uncharacterized transmembrane protein TMEM41B as a novel regulator of autophagy. In the absence of TMEM41B, autophagosome biogenesis is stalled, LC3 accumulates at WIPI2- and DFCP1-positive isolation membranes, and lysosomal flux of autophagy cargo receptors and intracellular bacteria is impaired. In addition to defective autophagy, TMEM41B knockout cells display significantly enlarged lipid droplets and reduced mobilization and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Immunostaining and interaction proteomics data suggest that TMEM41B localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, we propose that TMEM41B is a novel ER-localized regulator of autophagosome biogenesis and lipid mobilization.
Project description:Autophagy targets pathogens, damaged organelles and protein aggregates for lysosomal degradation. These ubiquitylated cargoes are recognized by specific autophagy receptors, which recruit LC3-positive membranes to form autophagosomes. Subsequently, autophagosomes fuse with endosomes and lysosomes, thus facilitating degradation of their content; however, the machinery that targets and mediates fusion of these organelles with autophagosomes remains to be established. Here we demonstrate that myosin VI, in concert with its adaptor proteins NDP52, optineurin, T6BP and Tom1, plays a crucial role in autophagy. We identify Tom1 as a myosin VI binding partner on endosomes, and demonstrate that loss of myosin VI and Tom1 reduces autophagosomal delivery of endocytic cargo and causes a block in autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We propose that myosin VI delivers endosomal membranes containing Tom1 to autophagosomes by docking to NDP52, T6BP and optineurin, thereby promoting autophagosome maturation and thus driving fusion with lysosomes.
Project description:MAP1LC3/LC3 (a mammalian ortholog family of yeast Atg8) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is essential for autophagosome formation. LC3 is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine on phagophores and ends up distributed both inside and outside the autophagosome membrane. One of the well-known functions of LC3 is as a binding partner for receptor proteins, which target polyubiquitinated organelles and proteins to the phagophore through direct interaction with LC3 in selective autophagy, and their LC3-binding ability is essential for degradation of the polyubiquitinated substances. Although a number of LC3-binding proteins have been identified, it is unknown whether they are substrates of autophagy or how their interaction with LC3 is regulated. We previously showed that one LC3-binding protein, TBC1D25/OATL1, plays an inhibitory role in the maturation step of autophagosomes and that this function depends on its binding to LC3. Interestingly, TBC1D25 seems not to be a substrate of autophagy, despite being present on the phagophore. In this study we investigated the molecular basis for the escape of TBC1D25 from autophagic degradation by performing a chimeric analysis between TBC1D25 and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1), and the results showed that mutant TBC1D25 with an intact LC3-binding site can become an autophagic substrate when TBC1D25 is forcibly oligomerized. In addition, an ultrastructural analysis showed that TBC1D25 is mainly localized outside autophagosomes, whereas an oligomerized TBC1D25 mutant rather uniformly resides both inside and outside the autophagosomes. Our findings indicate that oligomerization is a key factor in the degradation of LC3-binding proteins and suggest that lack of oligomerization ability of TBC1D25 results in its asymmetric localization at the outer autophagosome membrane.
Project description:We have developed a highly stable and magnetically recyclable yolk-shell nanocatalyst for catalytic reduction of nitroaromatics. This nanocatalyst is composed of a ~13?nm Au nanoparticle encapsulated in a hollow mesoporous carbon (hmC) shell with a diameter of ~120?nm and a thickness of ~15?nm. The hmC shell contains ~6?nm FeCo/graphitic carbon shell (FeCo/GC) nanoparticles. We have synthesized the Au@hmC-FeCo/GC nanocatalyst by thermal decomposition of Fe and Co precursors in silica of a solid core/mesoporous shell structure containing a Au nanoparticle within the core, subsequent ethylene chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and then removal of the silica by treatment with aqueous HF. The Au@hmC-FeCo/GC has superparamagnetism and high saturation magnetization (29.2?emu?g-1) at room temperature. It also shows a type IV sorption isotherm, typical for mesoporous carbon (pore diameter?=?3.5?nm), thereby ensuring ready accessibility to the Au core by substrates. We have shown that the Au@hmC-FeCo/GC catalyses the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and 4-nitrotoluene more efficiently than Au nanoparticles do, can be separated very quickly from the reaction mixture using an magnet, and can be reused for the same reduction reaction at least five times without loss of the initial level of catalytic activity.
Project description:The low magnetic saturation of iron oxide nanoparticles, which are developed primarily as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, limits the sensitivity of their detection using magnetic particle imaging (MPI). Here, we show that FeCo nanoparticles that have a core diameter of 10?nm and bear a graphitic carbon shell decorated with poly(ethylene glycol) provide an MPI signal intensity that is sixfold and fifteenfold higher than the signals from the superparamagnetic iron oxide tracers VivoTrax and Feraheme, respectively, at the same molar concentration of iron. We also show that the nanoparticles have photothermal and magnetothermal properties and can therefore be used for tumour ablation in mice, and that they have high optical absorbance in a broad near-infrared region spectral range (wavelength, 700-1,200?nm), making them suitable as tracers for photoacoustic imaging. As sensitive multifunctional and multimodal imaging tracers, carbon-coated FeCo nanoparticles may confer advantages in cancer imaging and hyperthermia therapy.
Project description:Background: Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is usually caused by mutations in the essential gene, OPA1. This encodes a ubiquitous protein involved in mitochondrial dynamics, hence tissue specificity is not understood. Dysregulated mitophagy (mitochondria recycling) is implicated in ADOA, being increased in OPA1 patient fibroblasts. Furthermore, autophagy may be increased in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the OPA1Q285STOP mouse model. Aims: We developed a mouse model for studying mitochondrial dynamics in order to investigate mitophagy in ADOA. Methods: We crossed the OPA1Q285STOP mouse with our RedMIT/GFP-LC3 mouse, harboring red fluorescent mitochondria and green fluorescent autophagosomes. Colocalization between mitochondria and autophagosomes, the hallmark of mitophagy, was quantified in fluorescently labeled organelles in primary cell cultures, using two high throughput imaging methods Imagestream (Amnis) and IN Cell Analyzer 1000 (GE Healthcare Life Sciences). We studied colocalization between mitochondria and autophagosomes in fixed sections using confocal microscopy. Results: We validated our imaging methods for RedMIT/GFP-LC3 mouse cells, showing that colocalization of red fluorescent mitochondria and green fluorescent autophagosomes is a useful indicator of mitophagy. We showed that colocalization increases when lysosomal processing is impaired. Further, colocalization of mitochondrial fragments and autophagosomes is increased in cultures from the OPA1Q285STOP/RedMIT/GFP-LC3 mice compared to RedMIT/GFP-LC3 control mouse cells that were wild type for OPA1. This was apparent in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using IN Cell 1000 and in splenocytes using ImageStream imaging flow cytometer (Amnis). We confirmed that this represents increased mitophagic flux using lysosomal inhibitors. We also used microscopy to investigate the level of mitophagy in the retina from the OPA1Q285STOP/RedMIT/GFP-LC3 mice and the RedMIT/GFP-LC3 control mice. However, the expression levels of fluorescent proteins and the image signal-to-background ratios precluded the detection of colocalization so we were unable to show any difference in colocalization between these mice. Conclusions: We show that colocalization of fluorescent mitochondria and autophagosomes in cell cultures, but not fixed tissues from the RedMIT/GFP-LC3, can be used to detect mitophagy. We used this model to confirm that mitophagy is increased in a mouse model of ADOA. It will be useful for cell based studies of diseases caused by impaired mitochondrial dynamics.
Project description:Starvation-induced autophagosomes engulf cytosol and/or organelles and deliver them to lysosomes for degradation, thereby resupplying depleted nutrients. Despite advances in understanding the molecular basis of this process, the membrane origin of autophagosomes remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in starved cells, the outer membrane of mitochondria participates in autophagosome biogenesis. The early autophagosomal marker, Atg5, transiently localizes to punctae on mitochondria, followed by the late autophagosomal marker, LC3. The tail-anchor of an outer mitochondrial membrane protein also labels autophagosomes and is sufficient to deliver another outer mitochondrial membrane protein, Fis1, to autophagosomes. The fluorescent lipid NBD-PS (converted to NBD-phosphotidylethanolamine in mitochondria) transfers from mitochondria to autophagosomes. Photobleaching reveals membranes of mitochondria and autophagosomes are transiently shared. Disruption of mitochondria/ER connections by mitofusin2 depletion dramatically impairs starvation-induced autophagy. Mitochondria thus play a central role in starvation-induced autophagy, contributing membrane to autophagosomes.