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3D skeletal muscle fascicle engineering is improved with TGF-?1 treatment of myogenic cells and their co-culture with myofibroblasts.


ABSTRACT: Background:Skeletal muscle wound healing is dependent on complex interactions between fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, myogenic cells, and cytokines, such as TGF-?1. This study sought to clarify the impact of TGF-?1 signaling on skeletal muscle cells and discern between the individual contributions of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts to myogenesis when in co-culture with myogenic cells. 3D tissue-engineered models were compared to equivalent 2D culture conditions to assess the efficacy of each culture model to predictively recapitulate the in vivo muscle environment. Methods:TGF-?1 treatment and mono-/co-cultures containing human dermal fibroblasts or myofibroblasts and C2C12 mouse myoblasts were assessed in 2D and 3D environments. Three culture systems were compared: cell monolayers grown on 2D dishes and 3D tissues prepared via a self-assembly method or collagen 1-based hydrogel biofabrication. qPCR identified gene expression changes during fibroblast to myofibroblast and myoblast differentiation between culture conditions. Changes to cell phenotype and tissue morphology were characterized via immunostaining for myosin heavy chain, procollagen, and ?-smooth muscle actin. Tissue elastic moduli were measured with parallel plate compression and atomic force microscopy systems, and a slack test was employed to quantify differences in tissue architecture and integrity. Results:TGF-?1 treatment improved myogenesis in 3D mono- and co-cultures containing muscle cells, but not in 2D. The 3D TGF-?1-treated co-culture containing myoblasts and myofibroblasts expressed the highest levels of myogenin and collagen 1, demonstrating a greater capacity to drive myogenesis than fibroblasts or TGF-?1-treatment in monocultures containing only myoblasts. These constructs possessed the greatest tissue stability, integrity, and muscle fiber organization, as demonstrated by their rapid and sustained shortening velocity during slack tests, and the highest Young's modulus of 6.55 kPA, approximate half the stiffness of in situ muscle. Both self-assembled and hydrogel-based tissues yielded the most multinucleated, elongated, and aligned muscle fiber histology. In contrast, the equivalent 2D co-culture model treated with TGF-?1 completely lacked myotube formation through suppression of myogenin gene expression. Discussion:These results show skeletal muscle regeneration can be promoted by treating myogenic cells with TGF-?1, and myofibroblasts are superior enhancers of myogenesis than fibroblasts. Critically, both TGF-?1 treatment and co-culturing skeletal muscle cells with myofibroblasts can serve as myogenesis accelerators across multiple tissue engineering platforms. Equivalent 2D culture systems cannot replicate these affects, however, highlighting a need to continually improve in vitro models for skeletal muscle development, discovery of therapeutics for muscle regeneration, and research and development of in vitro meat products.

SUBMITTER: Krieger J 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6045923 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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