Loss of NAMPT in aging retinal pigment epithelium reduces NAD+ availability and promotes cellular senescence.
ABSTRACT: Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs numerous functions critical to retinal health and visual function. RPE senescence is a hallmark of aging and degenerative retinal disease development. Here, we evaluated the temporal expression of key nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-biosynthetic genes and associated levels of NAD+, a principal regulator of energy metabolism and cellular fate, in mouse RPE. NAD+ levels declined with age and correlated directly with decreased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) expression, increased expression of senescence markers (p16INK4a, p21Waf/Cip1, ApoJ, CTGF and ?-galactosidase) and significant reductions in SIRT1 expression and activity. We simulated in vitro the age-dependent decline in NAD+ and the related increase in RPE senescence in human (ARPE-19) and mouse primary RPE using the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 and demonstrated the positive impact of NAD+-enhancing therapies on RPE cell viability. This, we confirmed in vivo in the RPE of mice injected sub-retinally with FK866 in the presence or absence of nicotinamide mononucleotide. Our data confirm the importance of NAD+ to RPE cell biology normally and in aging and demonstrate the potential utility of therapies targeting NAMPT and NAD+ biosynthesis to prevent or alleviate consequences of RPE senescence in aging and/or degenerative retinal diseases in which RPE dysfunction is a crucial element.
Project description:In vitro replicative senescence affects MSC characteristics and functionality, thus severely restricting their application in regenerative medicine and MSC-based therapies. Previously, we found that MSC natural senescence is accompanied by altered intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolism, in which Nampt plays a key role. However, whether Nampt influences MSC replicative senescence is still unclear. Our study showed that Nampt expression is down-regulated during MSC replicative senescence. Nampt depletion via a specific Nampt inhibitor FK866 or Nampt knockdown in early passage MSCs led to enhanced senescence as indicated by senescence-like morphology, reduced proliferation, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and increased senescence-associated-?-galactosidase activity and the expression of the senescence-associated factor p16INK4a. Conversely, Nampt overexpression ameliorated senescence-associated phenotypic features in late passage MSCs. Further, Nampt inhibition resulted in reduced intracellular NAD+ content, NAD+/NADH ratio, and Sirt1 activity, whereas overexpression had the opposite effects. Exogenous intermediates involved in NAD+ biosynthesis not only rescued replicative senescent MSCs but also alleviated FK866-induced MSC senescence. Thus, Nampt suppresses MSC senescence via mediating NAD+-Sirt1 signaling. This study provides novel mechanistic insights into MSC replicative senescence and a promising strategy for the severe shortage of cells for MSC-based therapies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels are crucial for liver function. The saturated fatty acid palmitate and the unsaturated fatty acid oleate are the main free fatty acids in adipose tissue and human diet. We asked how these fatty acids affect cell survival, NAMPT and NAD levels in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes.<h4>Methods</h4>HepG2 cells were stimulated with palmitate (0.5mM), oleate (1mM) or a combination of both (0.5mM/1mM) as well as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) (0.5 mM) or the specific NAMPT inhibitor FK866 (10nM). Cell survival was measured by WST-1 assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. NAD levels were determined by NAD/NADH Assay or HPLC. Protein and mRNA levels were analysed by Western blot analyses and qPCR, respectively. NAMPT enzyme activity was measured using radiolabelled <sup>14</sup>C-nicotinamide. Lipids were stained by Oil red O staining.<h4>Results</h4>Palmitate significantly reduced cell survival and induced apoptosis at physiological doses. NAMPT activity and NAD levels significantly declined after 48h of palmitate. In addition, NAMPT mRNA expression was enhanced which was associated with increased NAMPT release into the supernatant, while intracellular NAMPT protein levels remained stable. Oleate alone did not influence cell viability and NAMPT activity but ameliorated the negative impact of palmitate on cell survival, NAMPT activity and NAD levels, as well as the increased NAMPT mRNA expression and secretion. NMN was able to normalize intracellular NAD levels but did not ameliorate cell viability after co-stimulation with palmitate. FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor did not influence lipid accumulation after oleate-treatment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Palmitate targets NAMPT activity with a consequent cellular depletion of NAD. Oleate protects from palmitate-induced apoptosis and variation of NAMPT and NAD levels. Palmitate-induced cell stress leads to an increase of NAMPT mRNA and accumulation in the supernatant. However, the proapoptotic action of palmitate seems not to be mediated by decreased NAD levels.
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal of gynecologic malignancies. The standard-of-care treatment for EOC is platinum-based chemotherapy such as cisplatin. Platinum-based chemotherapy induces cellular senescence. Notably, therapy-induced senescence contributes to chemoresistance by inducing cancer stem-like cells (CSC). However, therapeutic approaches targeting senescence-associated CSCs remain to be explored. Here, we show that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibition suppresses senescence-associated CSCs induced by platinum-based chemotherapy in EOC. Clinically applicable NAMPT inhibitors suppressed the outgrowth of cisplatin-treated EOC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a combination of the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 and cisplatin improved the survival of EOC-bearing mice. These phenotypes correlated with inhibition of the CSCs signature, which consists of elevated expression of ALDH1A1 and stem-related genes, high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and CD133 positivity. Mechanistically, NAMPT regulates EOC CSCs in a paracrine manner through the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Our results suggest that targeting NAMPT using clinically applicable NAMPT inhibitors, such as FK866, in conjunction with platinum-based chemotherapy represents a promising therapeutic strategy by suppressing therapy-induced senescence-associated CSCs. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in the production of cisplatin-induced senescence-associated cancer stem cells, as well as tumor relapse after cisplatin treatment.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a key enzyme for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis, and can be found either intracellularly (iNAMPT) or extracellularly (eNAMPT). Studies have shown that both iNAMPT and eNAMPT are implicated in aging and age-related diseases/disorders in the peripheral system. However, their functional roles in aged brain remain to be established. Here we showed that upon aging, NAMPT level increased in serum but decreased in brain, decreased in cortex and hippocampus but remained unchanged in cerebellum and striatum in brain, and increased in microglia but likely decreased in neuron. Accordingly, total NAD (tNAD) level significantly decreased in hippocampus, cerebellum and striatum in aged brain. Application of recombinant NAMPT, mimicking the elevated serum NAMPT level, enhanced the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to ischemic injury, while inhibition of iNAMPT by FK866, a specific inhibitor, reduced intracellular NAD level and induced neuronal death. Taken together, we have revealed a region- and cell-specific change of NAMPT level in brain and serum upon aging, deduced its potential consequences, which suggests that NAMPT is a regulatory factor in aging and age-related brain diseases.
Project description:Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) exists in an oxidized form (NAD<sup>+</sup> ) and a reduced form (NADH). NAD<sup>+</sup> plays crucial roles in cancer metabolism, including in cellular signaling, energy production and redox regulation. However, it remains unclear whether NAD(H) pool size (NAD<sup>+</sup> and NADH) could be used as biomarker for colon cancer progression. Here, we showed that the NAD(H) pool size and NAD<sup>+</sup> /NADH ratio both increased during colorectal cancer (CRC) progression due to activation of the NAD<sup>+</sup> salvage pathway mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). The NAMPT expression was upregulated in adenoma and adenocarcinoma tissues from CRC patients. The NADH fluorescence intensity measured by two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy was consistently increased in CRC cell lines, azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS)-induced CRC tissues and tumor tissues from CRC patients. The increases in the NAD(H) pool inhibited the accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and FK866, a specific inhibitor of NAMPT, treatment decreased the CRC nodule size by increasing ROS levels in AOM/DSS mice. Collectively, our results suggest that NAMPT-mediated upregulation of the NAD(H) pool protects cancer cells against detrimental oxidative stress and that detecting NADH fluorescence by TPEF microscopy could be a potential method for monitoring CRC progression.
Project description:Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation and self-renewal, as well as insult-induced differentiation, decrease markedly with age, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these declines remain unclear. Here we show that levels of NAD+ and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis, decrease with age in the hippocampus. Ablation of Nampt in adult NSPCs reduced their pool and proliferation in vivo. The decrease in the NSPC pool during aging can be rescued by enhancing hippocampal NAD+ levels. Nampt is the main source of NSPC NAD+ levels and required for G1/S progression of the NSPC cell cycle. Nampt is also critical for oligodendrocytic lineage fate decisions through a mechanism mediated redundantly by Sirt1 and Sirt2. Ablation of Nampt in the adult NSPCs in vivo reduced NSPC-mediated oligodendrogenesis upon injury. These phenotypes recapitulate defects in NSPCs during aging, implicating Nampt-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis as a mediator of these age-associated functional declines. Total RNA obtained from neurospheres derived from postnatal hippocampi subjected to 48 hours in vitro of incubation with Nampt-specific inhibitor FK866 (10 nM, 4 samples) or vehicle (DMSO, 1:1000, 4 samples).
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine whether nicotinamide administration could improve remyelination after stroke and reveal the underlying mechanism.<h4>Methods</h4>Adult male C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered with nicotinamide (200?mg/kg, daily) or saline after stroke induced by photothrombotic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. FK866 (3?mg/kg, daily, <i>bis in die</i>), an inhibitor of NAMPT, and ANA-12 (0.5?mg/kg, daily), an antagonist of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), were administered intraperitoneally 1?h before nicotinamide administration. Functional recovery, MRI, and histological assessment were performed after stroke at different time points.<h4>Results</h4>The nicotinamide-treated mice showed significantly lower infarct area 7?d after stroke induction and significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in the ipsilesional internal capsule (IC) 14?d after stroke induction than the other groups. Higher levels of NAD<sup>+</sup>, BDNF, and remyelination markers were observed in the nicotinamide-treated group. FK866 administration reduced NAD<sup>+</sup> and BDNF levels in the nicotinamide-treated group. ANA-12 administration impaired the recovery from stroke with no effect on NAD<sup>+</sup> and BDNF levels. Furthermore, lesser functional deficits were observed in the nicotinamide-treated group than in the control group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Nicotinamide administration improves remyelination after stroke via the NAD<sup>+</sup>/BDNF/TrkB pathway.
Project description:Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a crucial enzyme in the biosynthesis of intracellular NAD+. NAMPT inhibitors have potent anticancer activity in several preclinical models by depleting NAD+ and ATP levels. Recently, we demonstrated that CD73 enables the utilization of extracellular NAD+/nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) by converting them to Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which can cross the plasmamembrane and fuel intracellular NAD+ biosynthesis in human cells. These processes are herein confirmed to also occur in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line (OVCAR-3), by means of CD73 or NRK1 specific silencing. Next, we investigated the anti-tumor activity of the simultaneous inhibition of NAMPT (with FK866) and CD73 (with ?, ?-methylene adenosine 5'-diphosphate, APCP), in an in vivo human ovarian carcinoma model. Interestingly, the combined therapy was found to significantly decrease intratumor NAD+, NMN and ATP levels, compared with single treatments. In addition, the concentration of these nucleotides in ascitic exudates was more remarkably reduced in animals treated with both FK866 and APCP compared with single treatments. Importantly, tumors treated with FK866 in combination with APCP contained a statistically significant lower proportion of Ki67 positive proliferating cells and a higher percentage of necrotic area. Finally, a slight but significant increase in animal survival in response to the combined therapy, compared to the single agents, could be demonstrated. Our results indicate that the pharmacological inhibition of CD73 enzymatic activity could be considered as a means to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of NAMPT inhibitors.
Project description:Background:Inhibitors of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in NAD+ biosynthesis from nicotinamide, exhibit anticancer effects in preclinical models. However, continuous exposure to NAMPT inhibitors, such as FK866, can induce acquired resistance. Methods:We developed FK866-resistant CCRF-CEM (T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and MDA MB231 (breast cancer) models, and by exploiting an integrated approach based on genetic, biochemical, and genome wide analyses, we annotated the drug resistance mechanisms. Results:Acquired resistance to FK866 was independent of NAMPT mutations but rather was based on a shift towards a glycolytic metabolism and on lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity. In addition, resistant CCRF-CEM cells, which exhibit high quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) activity, also exploited amino acid catabolism as an alternative source for NAD+ production, becoming addicted to tryptophan and glutamine and sensitive to treatment with the amino acid transport inhibitor JPH203 and with l-asparaginase, which affects glutamine exploitation. Vice versa, in line with their low QPRT expression, FK866-resistant MDA MB231 did not rely on amino acids for their resistance phenotype. Conclusions:Our study identifies novel mechanisms of resistance to NAMPT inhibition, which may be useful to design more rational strategies for targeting cancer metabolism.
Project description:Malignant cells have a higher nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) turnover rate than normal cells, making this biosynthetic pathway an attractive target for cancer treatment. Here we investigated the biologic role of a rate-limiting enzyme involved in NAD(+) synthesis, Nampt, in multiple myeloma (MM). Nampt-specific chemical inhibitor FK866 triggered cytotoxicity in MM cell lines and patient MM cells, but not normal donor as well as MM patients PBMCs. Importantly, FK866 in a dose-dependent fashion triggered cytotoxicity in MM cells resistant to conventional and novel anti-MM therapies and overcomes the protective effects of cytokines (IL-6, IGF-1) and bone marrow stromal cells. Nampt knockdown by RNAi confirmed its pivotal role in maintenance of both MM cell viability and intracellular NAD(+) stores. Interestingly, cytotoxicity of FK866 triggered autophagy, but not apoptosis. A transcriptional-dependent (TFEB) and independent (PI3K/mTORC1) activation of autophagy mediated FK866 MM cytotoxicity. Finally, FK866 demonstrated significant anti-MM activity in a xenograft-murine MM model, associated with down-regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of LC3 in tumor cells. Our data therefore define a key role of Nampt in MM biology, providing the basis for a novel targeted therapeutic approach.