Candida albicans-Induced NETosis Is Independent of Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4.
ABSTRACT: Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells and the first line of defense against many pathogenic microbes, including the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Among the neutrophils' arsenal of effector functions, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are thought to be of particular importance for trapping and killing the large fungal filaments by means of their web-like structures that consist of chromatin fibers decorated with proteolytic enzymes and host defense proteins. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-mediated citrullination of histones in activated neutrophils correlates with chromatin decondensation and extrusion and is widely accepted to act as an integral process of NET induction (NETosis). However, the requirement of PAD4-mediated histone citrullination for NET release during C. albicans infection remains unclear. In this study, we show that although PAD4-dependent neutrophil histone citrullination is readily induced by C. albicans, PAD4 is dispensable for NETosis in response to the fungus and other common NET-inducing stimuli. Moreover, PAD4 is not required for antifungal immunity during mucosal and systemic C. albicans infection. Our results demonstrate that PAD4 is dispensable for C. albicans-induced NETosis, and they highlight the limitations of using histone citrullination as a marker for NETs and PAD4-/- mice as a model of NET-deficiency.
Project description:Candida albicans is one of the top leading causes of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are known to capture and kill pathogens. It is reported that opsonized C. albicans-triggered NETosis is NADPH oxidase-dependent. We discovered a NADPH oxidase-independent NETosis pathway in neutrophil response to unopsonized C. albicans. While CR3 engagement with opsonized C. albicans triggered NET, dectin-2 recognized unopsonized C. albicans and mediated NET formation. Engagement of dectin-2 activated the downstream Syk-Ca2+-PKC?-protein arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) signaling pathway which modulated nuclear translocation of neutrophil elastase (NE), histone citrullination and NETosis. In a C. albicans peritonitis model we observed Ki67+Ly6G+ NETotic cells in the peritoneal exudate and mesenteric tissues within 3 h of infection. Treatment with PAD4 inhibitor GSK484 or dectin-2 deficiency reduced % Ki67+Ly6G+ cells and the intensity of Ki67 in peritoneal neutrophils. Employing DNA digestion enzyme micrococcal nuclease, GSK484 as well as dectin-2-deficient mice, we further showed that dectin-2-mediated PAD4-dependent NET formation in vivo restrained the spread of C. albicans from the peritoneal cavity to kidney. Taken together, this study reveals that unopsonized C. albicans evokes NADPH oxidase-independent NETosis through dectin-2 and its downstream signaling pathway and dectin-2-mediated NET helps restrain fungal dissemination.
Project description:Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) exaggerates inflammation and tissue injury in sepsis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released by activated neutrophils during sepsis. NETs contribute to pathogen clearance, but excessive NET formation (NETosis) causes inflammation and tissue damage. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is associated with NETosis by increasing histone citrullination and chromatin decondensation. We hypothesized that CIRP induces NETosis in the lungs during sepsis via upregulating PAD4 expression. Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). After 20?h of CLP induction, NETs in the lungs of WT and CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice were quantified by flow cytometry by staining the single cell suspensions with MPO and CitH3 Abs. PAD4 expression in the lungs of WT and CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice after sepsis was assessed by Western blotting. In vitro effects of recombinant mouse (rm) CIRP for NETosis and PAD4 expression in the bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDN) were assessed by flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. After 20?h of CLP, NETosis in the lungs was significantly decreased in CIRP<sup>-/-</sup> mice compared to WT mice, which also correlated with the decreased PAD4 expression. Intratracheal administration of rmCIRP into WT mice significantly increased NETosis and PAD4 expression in the lungs compared to vehicle-injected mice. In vitro culture of BMDN with rmCIRP significantly increased NETosis and PAD4 expression compared to PBS-treated control. Fluorescence microscopy revealed typical web-like structures consistent with NETs in rmCIRP-treated BMDN. Thus, CIRP serves as a novel inducer of NETosis via PAD4 during sepsis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated in a number of autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the underlying signaling pathways triggering enhanced NETosis in RA and ascertained whether the products of NETosis had diagnostic implications or usefulness. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from RA patients with active disease and from controls. Spontaneous NET formation from RA and control neutrophils was assessed in vitro with microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NETosis-derived products. The analysis of the signal-transduction cascade included reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), and citrullinated histone 3 (citH3). NET formation was studied in response to serum and synovial fluid and immunoglobulin G (IgG) depleted and reconstituted serum. Serum was analyzed for NETosis-derived products, for which receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. RESULTS: Neutrophils from RA cases exhibited increased spontaneous NET formation in vitro, associated with elevated ROS production, enhanced NE and MPO expression, nuclear translocation of PAD4, PAD4-mediated citrullination of H3, and altered nuclear morphology. NET formation in both anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA)-positive and -negative RA was abolished by IgG depletion, but restored only with ACPA-positive IgG. NETosis-derived products in RA serum demonstrated diagnostic potential, the ROC area under the curve for cell-free nucleosomes being >97%, with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 92%. No significant difference was observed between ACPA-positive and -negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: Signaling elements associated with the extrusion of NETs are significantly enhanced to promote NETosis in RA compared with healthy controls. NETosis depended on the presence of ACPA in ACPA-positive RA serum. The quantitation of NETosis-derived products, such as cell-free nucleosomes in serum, may be a useful complementary tool to discriminate between healthy controls and RA cases.
Project description:Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation requires chromatin decondensation before nuclear swelling and eventual extracellular release of DNA, which occurs together with nuclear and cytoplasmic antimicrobial proteins. A key mediator of chromatin decondensation is protein deiminase 4 (PAD4), which catalyzes histone citrullination. In the current study, we examined the role of PAD4 and NETosis following activation of neutrophils by A. fumigatus hyphal extract or cell wall ?-glucan (curdlan) and found that both induced NET release by human and murine neutrophils. Also, using blocking antibodies to CR3 and Dectin-1 together with CR3-deficient CD18-/- and Dectin-1-/- murine neutrophils, we found that the ?-glucan receptor CR3, but not Dectin-1, was required for NET formation. NETosis was also dependent on NADPH oxidase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using an antibody to citrullinated histone 3 (H3Cit) as an indicator of PAD4 activity, we show that ?-glucan stimulated NETosis occurs in neutrophils from C57BL/6, but not PAD4-/- mice. Similarly, a small molecule PAD4 inhibitor (GSK484) blocked NET formation by human neutrophils. Despite these observations, the ability of PAD4-/- neutrophils to release calprotectin and kill A. fumigatus hyphae was not significantly different from C57BL/6 neutrophils, whereas CD18-/- neutrophils exhibited an impaired ability to perform both functions. We also detected H3Cit in A. fumigatus infected C57BL/6, but not PAD4-/- corneas; however, we found no difference between C57BL/6 and PAD4-/- mice in either corneal disease or hyphal killing. Taken together, these findings lead us to conclude that although PAD4 together with CR3-mediated ROS production is required for NET formation in response to A. fumigatus, PAD4-dependent NETosis is not required for A. fumigatus killing either in vitro or during infection.
Project description:Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like DNA structures decorated with histones and cytotoxic proteins that are released by activated neutrophils to trap and neutralize pathogens during the innate immune response, but also form in and exacerbate sterile inflammation. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) citrullinates histones and is required for NET formation (NETosis) in mouse neutrophils. While the in vivo impact of NETs is accumulating, the cellular events driving NETosis and the role of PAD4 in these events are unclear. We performed high-resolution time-lapse microscopy of mouse and human neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 neutrophil-like cells (dHL-60) labeled with fluorescent markers of organelles and stimulated with bacterial toxins or Candida albicans to induce NETosis. Upon stimulation, cells exhibited rapid disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton, followed by shedding of plasma membrane microvesicles, disassembly and remodeling of the microtubule and vimentin cytoskeletons, ER vesiculation, chromatin decondensation and nuclear rounding, progressive plasma membrane and nuclear envelope (NE) permeabilization, nuclear lamin meshwork and then NE rupture to release DNA into the cytoplasm, and finally plasma membrane rupture and discharge of extracellular DNA. Inhibition of actin disassembly blocked NET release. Mouse and dHL-60 cells bearing genetic alteration of PAD4 showed that chromatin decondensation, lamin meshwork and NE rupture and extracellular DNA release required the enzymatic and nuclear localization activities of PAD4. Thus, NETosis proceeds by a stepwise sequence of cellular events culminating in the PAD4-mediated expulsion of DNA.
Project description:In rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune inflammatory arthritis, citrullinated proteins are targeted by autoantibodies and thus thought to drive disease. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a source of citrullinated proteins and are increased in rheumatoid arthritis and therefore also implicated in disease pathogenesis. However, not all NETs are citrullinated. One theory aiming to clarify the intersection of citrullination, NETs, and rheumatoid arthritis suggests that specific stimuli induce different types of NETs defined by citrullination status. However, most studies do not evaluate uncitrullinated NETs, only citrullinated or total NETs. Further, the requirement for peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) 2 and 4, two important citrullinating enzymes in neutrophils and rheumatoid arthritis, in the formation of different NETs has not been clearly defined. To determine if specific stimulants induce citrullinated or uncitrullinated NETs and if those structures require PAD2 or PAD4, human and murine neutrophils, including from PAD4<sup>-/-</sup> and PAD2<sup>-/-</sup> mice, were stimulated <i>in vitro</i> and NETs imaged and quantified. In humans, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), ionomycin, monosodium urate (MSU), and <i>Candida albicans</i> induced NETs with MSU and <i>C. albicans</i> inducing primarily citrullinated, PMA primarily uncitrullinated, and ionomycin a mix of NETs. Only ionomycin and <i>C. albicans</i> were strong inducers of NETs in mice with ionomycin-induced NETs mostly citrullinated and <i>C. albicans</i>-induced NETs a mix of citrullinated and uncitrullinated. Interestingly, no stimulus induced exclusively citrullinated or uncitrullinated NETs. Further, PAD4 was required for citrullinated NETs only, whereas PAD2 was not required for either NET in mice. Therefore, specific stimuli induce varying proportions of both citrullinated and uncitrullinated NETs with different requirements for PAD4. These findings highlight the complexity of NET formation and the need to further define the mechanisms by which different NETs form and their implications for autoimmune disease.
Project description:Immune cell death caused by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), referred to as NETosis, can contribute to the pathogenesis of endotoxemia and organ damage. Although the mechanisms by which infection induces NETosis and how that leads to organ dysfunction remain largely unknown, NET formation is often found following citrullination of histone H3 (CitH3) by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD). We hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of PAD and subsequent CitH3-mediated NET formation increases endothelial permeability and pulmonary dysfunction and, therefore, that inhibition of PAD can mitigate damage and improve survival in lethal endotoxemia. Here, we showed that treatment with YW3-56, a PAD2/PAD4 inhibitor, significantly diminished PAD activation, blocked LPS-induced pulmonary vascular leakage, alleviated acute lung injury, and improved survival in a mouse model of lethal LPS-induced endotoxemia. We found CitH3 in the bloodstream 30?min after intraperitoneal injection of LPS (35?mg/kg) into mice. Additionally, CitH3 production was induced in cultured neutrophils exposed to LPS, and NETs derived from these LPS-treated neutrophils increased the permeability of endothelial cells. However, YW3-56 reduced CitH3 production and NET formation by neutrophils following LPS exposure. Moreover, treatment with YW3-56 decreased the levels of circulating CitH3 and abolished neutrophil activation and NET formation in the lungs of mice with endotoxemia. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which PAD-NET-CitH3 can play a pivotal role in pulmonary vascular dysfunction and the pathogenesis of lethal endotoxemia.
Project description:pH is highly variable in different tissues and affects many enzymatic reactions in neutrophils. In response to calcium ionophores such as A23187 and ionomycin, neutrophils undergo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-independent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (NETosis). However, how pH influences calcium-dependent Nox-independent NET formation is not well understood. We hypothesized that increasing pH promotes Nox-independent NET formation by promoting calcium influx, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generation, histone citrullination, and histone cleavage. Here, we show that stimulating human neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood with calcium ionophore A23187 or ionomycin in the media with increasing extracellular pH (6.6, 6.8, 7.0, 7.2, 7.4, 7.8) drastically increases intracellular pH within in 10-20?min. These intracellular pH values are much higher compared to unstimulated cells placed in the media with corresponding pH values. Raising pH slightly drastically increases intracellular calcium concentration in resting and stimulated neutrophils, respectively. Like calcium, mROS generation also increases with increasing pH. An mROS scavenger, MitoTempo, significantly suppresses calcium ionophore-mediated NET formation with a greater effect at higher pH, indicating that mROS production is at least partly responsible for pH-dependent suppression of Nox-independent NETosis. In addition, raising pH increases PAD4 activity as determined by the citrullination of histone (CitH3) and histone cleavage determined by Western blots. The pH-dependent histone cleavage is reproducibly very high during ionomycin-induced NETosis compared to A23187-induced NETosis. Little or no histone cleavage was noted in unstimulated cells, at any pH. Both CitH3 and cleavage of histones facilitate DNA decondensation. Therefore, alkaline pH promotes intracellular calcium influx, mROS generation, PAD4-mediated CitH3 formation, histone 4 cleavage and eventually NET formation. Calcium-mediated NET formation and CitH3 formation are often related to sterile inflammation. Hence, understanding these important mechanistic steps helps to explain how pH regulates NOX-independent NET formation, and modifying pH may help to regulate NET formation during sterile inflammation or potential damage caused by compounds such as ionomycin, secreted by Streptomyces, a group of Gram-positive bacteria well known for producing antibiotics.
Project description:Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis, wherein, MPO-ANCA plays a critical role in the pathogenesis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released from activated neutrophils are composed of extracellular web-like DNA and antimicrobial proteins, including MPO. Diverse stimuli, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ligands of toll-like receptors (TLR), induce NETs. Although TLR-mediated NET formation can occur with preservation of living neutrophilic functions (called vital NETosis), PMA-stimulated neutrophils undergo cell death with NET formation (called suicidal NETosis). In the process of suicidal NETosis, histones are citrullinated by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Since this step is necessary for decondensation of DNA, PAD4 plays a pivotal role in suicidal NETosis. Although NETs are essential for elimination of microorganisms, excessive formation of NETs has been suggested to be implicated in MPO-ANCA production. This study aimed to determine if pan-PAD inhibitors could suppress MPO-ANCA production in vivo. At first, NETs were induced in peripheral blood neutrophils derived from healthy donors (1?×?10(6)/ml) by stimulation with 20?nM PMA with or without 20??M propylthiouracil (PTU), an anti-thyroid drug. We then determined that the in vitro NET formation was inhibited completely by 200??M Cl-amidine, a pan-PAD inhibitor. Next, we established mouse models with MPO-ANCA production. BALB/c mice were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of PMA (50?ng at days 0 and 7) and oral PTU (2.5?mg/day) for 2?weeks. These mice were divided into two groups; the first group was given daily i.p. injection of PBS (200??l/day) (n?=?13) and the other group with daily i.p. injection of Cl-amidine (0.3?mg/200??l PBS/day) (n?=?7). Two weeks later, citrullination as an indicator of NET formation in the peritoneum and serum MPO-ANCA titer was compared between the two groups. Results demonstrated that citrullination in the peritoneum was significantly reduced in the Cl-amidine-treated mice compared with the vehicle-injected control mice (38% reduction). Additionally, the serum MPO-ANCA titer of the Cl-amidine-treated mice (32.3?±?31.0?ng/ml) was significantly lower than that in the vehicle-injected mice (132.1?±?41.6?ng/ml). The collective findings indicate that excessive formation of NETs may be implicated in MPO-ANCA production in vivo.
Project description:Neutrophils respond to various stimuli by decondensing and releasing nuclear chromatin characterized by citrullinated histones as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). This achieves pathogen immobilization or initiation of thrombosis, yet the molecular mechanisms of NET formation remain elusive. Peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) achieves protein citrullination and has been intricately linked to NET formation. Here we show that citrullination represents a major regulator of proteolysis in the course of NET formation. Elevated cytosolic calcium levels trigger both peptidylarginine deiminase-4 (PAD4) and calpain activity in neutrophils resulting in nuclear decondensation typical of NETs. Interestingly, PAD4 relies on proteolysis by calpain to achieve efficient nuclear lamina breakdown and chromatin decondensation. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of PAD4 and calpain strongly inhibit chromatin decondensation of human and murine neutrophils in response to calcium ionophores as well as the proteolysis of nuclear proteins like lamin B1 and high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1). Taken together, the concerted action of PAD4 and calpain induces nuclear decondensation in the course of calcium-mediated NET formation.