Longitudinal Analysis of Antibody Cross-neutralization Following Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Infection in Asia and the Americas.
ABSTRACT: Background:The 4 dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are related mosquito-borne flaviviruses of major importance globally. While monoclonal antibodies and plasma from DENV-immune donors can neutralize or enhance ZIKV in vitro and in small-animal models, and vice versa, the extent, duration, and significance of cross-reactivity in humans remains unknown, particularly in flavivirus-endemic regions. Methods:We studied neutralizing antibodies to ZIKV and DENV1-4 in longitudinal serologic specimens collected through 3 years after infection from people in Latin America and Asia with laboratory-confirmed DENV infections. We also evaluated neutralizing antibodies to ZIKV and DENV1-4 in patients with Zika through 6 months after infection. Results:In patients with Zika, the highest neutralizing antibody titers were to ZIKV, with low-level cross-reactivity to DENV1-4 that was greater in DENV-immune individuals. We found that, in primary and secondary DENV infections, neutralizing antibody titers to ZIKV were markedly lower than to the infecting DENV and heterologous DENV serotypes. Cross-neutralization was greatest in early convalescence, then ZIKV neutralization decreased, remaining at low levels over time. Conclusions:Patterns of antibody cross-neutralization suggest that ZIKV lies outside the DENV serocomplex. Neutralizing antibody titers can distinguish ZIKV from DENV infections when all viruses are analyzed simultaneously. These findings have implications for understanding natural immunity and vaccines.
Project description:Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have expanded clones of memory B cells that express the same immunoglobulin VH3-23/VK1-5 genes. These recurring antibodies cross-react with DENV1, but not other flaviviruses, neutralize both DENV1 and ZIKV, and protect mice against ZIKV challenge. Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of recognition of the ZEDIII lateral ridge by VH3-23/VK1-5 antibodies. Serologic testing shows that antibodies to this region correlate with serum neutralizing activity to ZIKV. Thus, high neutralizing responses to ZIKV are associated with pre-existing reactivity to DENV1 in humans.
Project description:Studies have demonstrated cross-reactivity of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in human sera against Zika virus (ZIKV), promoting increased ZIKV infection in vitro. However, the correlation between in vitro and in vivo findings is not well characterized. Thus, we evaluated the impact of heterotypic flavivirus immunity on ZIKV titers in biofluids of rhesus macaques. Animals previously infected (?420 days) with DENV2, DENV4, or yellow fever virus were compared to flavivirus-naïve animals following infection with a Brazilian ZIKV strain. Sera from DENV-immune macaques demonstrated cross-reactivity with ZIKV by antibody-binding and neutralization assays prior to ZIKV infection, and promoted increased ZIKV infection in cell culture assays. Despite these findings, no significant differences between flavivirus-naïve and immune animals were observed in viral titers, neutralizing antibody levels, or immune cell kinetics following ZIKV infection. These results indicate that prior infection with heterologous flaviviruses neither conferred protection nor increased observed ZIKV titers in this non-human primate ZIKV infection model.
Project description:The role of neutralizing antibodies in Zika-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has not yet been investigated. We conducted a case-control study using sera from the 2016 Zika epidemic in Colombia to determine the neutralizing antibody activity against Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2). We observed increased neutralizing antibody titers against DENV2 in ZIKV-infected individuals compared with uninfected controls and higher titers to both ZIKV and DENV2 in ZIKV-infected patients diagnosed with GBS compared with non-GBS ZIKV-infected controls. These data suggest that high neutralizing antibody titers to DENV and to ZIKV are associated with GBS during ZIKV infection.
Project description:The viral E proteins of dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are the major viral proteins involved in receptor binding and fusion, and for the induction of protective antibodies against viral infections. DIII of the E proteins is an independent domain and stretches out on the virion surface that can elicit type-specific neutralizing antibodies. For recombinant DIII vaccine development, prime-boost immunizations can provide an advantage of eliciting more type-specific neutralizing antibodies by recalling DIII antigens after DIII booster to improve protection. Methods: The DIII of the E genes of DENV and ZIKV were fused with bacterial fliC gene for the expression of flagellin-DIII (FliC-DIII) fusion proteins. Prime-boost immunization strategies by the second-dose booster of four DENV serotype or ZIKV FliC-DIII fusion proteins were used to investigate the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protection against viral infections. Cross-reactive non-neutralizing antibodies in each group of antisera were also examined using in vitro antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) assay. A series of glycan-masking E antigens were finally constructed for prime-boost immunizations to abolish the elicitation of cross-reactive non-neutralizing antibodies for ADE activity. Results: We showed that inclusion of a bivalent live-attenuated vaccine with a FliC-DIII booster is superior in eliciting neutralization titers and protection in vivo against all four-serotype DENVs. We also demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus vectors encoding four-serotype DENV prMEs with a FliC-DIII prime-boost scheme is capable of eliciting good antibody responses. In contract, recombinant adenovirus vector of ZIKV prME gene priming, followed by ZIKV FliC-DIII booster did not improve vaccine efficacy. The glycan-masking mutation on the ZIKV E protein ij loop (E-248NHT), but not on DENV2 E protein ij loop (E-242NHT), resulted in abolishing the elicitation of cross-reactive antibodies for DENV and ZIKV infection enhancements. Conclusions: Our findings can provide useful information for designing novel immunogens and vaccination strategies in an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious DENV or ZIKV vaccine.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) shares a high degree of homology with dengue virus (DENV), suggesting that preexisting immunity to DENV could affect immune responses to ZIKV. We have tracked the evolution of ZIKV-induced B cell responses in three DENV-experienced donors. The acute antibody (plasmablast) responses were characterized by relatively high somatic hypermutation and a bias toward DENV binding and neutralization, implying the early activation of DENV clones. A DENV-naïve donor in contrast showed a classical primary plasmablast response. Five months after infection, the DENV-experienced donors developed potent type-specific ZIKV neutralizing antibody responses in addition to DENV cross-reactive responses. Because cross-reactive responses were poorly neutralizing and associated with enhanced ZIKV infection in vitro, preexisting DENV immunity could negatively affect protective antibody responses to ZIKV. The observed effects are epitope-dependent, suggesting that a ZIKV vaccine should be carefully designed for DENV-seropositive populations.
Project description:Cross-reactive antibodies elicited by dengue virus (DENV) infection might affect Zika virus infection and confound serologic tests. Recent data demonstrate neutralization of Zika virus by monoclonal antibodies or human serum collected early after DENV infection. Whether this finding is true in late DENV convalescence (>6 months after infection) is unknown. We studied late convalescent serum samples from persons with prior DENV or Zika virus exposure. Despite extensive cross-reactivity in IgG binding, Zika virus neutralization was not observed among primary DENV infections. We observed low-frequency (23%) Zika virus cross-neutralization in repeat DENV infections. DENV-immune persons who had Zika virus as a secondary infection had distinct populations of antibodies that neutralized DENVs and Zika virus, as shown by DENV-reactive antibody depletion experiments. These data suggest that most DENV infections do not induce durable, high-level Zika virus cross-neutralizing antibodies. Zika virus-specific antibody populations develop after Zika virus infection irrespective of prior DENV immunity.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, has quickly spread in many regions around the world where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic. This represents a major health concern, given the high homology between these two viruses, which can result in cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the cross-reacting antibody response of the IgM and IgG classes against the recombinant envelope protein of ZIKV (rE-ZIKV) in sera from patients with acute-phase infection of different clinical forms of dengue, i.e., dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) (before the arrival of ZIKV in Mexico 2010), as well as acute-phase sera of ZIKV patients, together with the implications in neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement. Differences in IgM responses were observed in a number of DF and DHF patients whose sera cross-reacted with the rE-ZIK antigen, with 42% recognition between acute-phase DHF and ZIKV but 27% recognition between DF and ZIKV. Regarding IgG antibodies, 71.5% from the DF group showed cross-reactivity to rE-ZIKV in contrast with 50% and only 25% of DHF and ZIKV serum samples, respectively, which specifically recognized the homologous antigen. The DHF group showed more enhancement of ZIKV infection of FCR?-expressing cells compared to the DF group. Furthermore, the DHF group also showed a higher cross-neutralizing ability than that of DF. This is the first report where DF and DHF serum samples were evaluated for cross-reactivity against Zika protein and ZIKV. Furthermore, DENV serum samples cross-protect against ZIKV through neutralizing antibodies but at the same time mediate antibody-dependent enhancement in the sequential ZIKV infection.
Project description:Dengue viruses (DENV) infect 50 to 100 million people each year. The spread of DENV-associated infections is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide, as there is no widely available vaccine or specific therapeutic for DENV infections. To address this, we developed a novel tetravalent dengue vaccine by utilizing virus-like particles (VLPs). We created recombinant DENV1 to -4 (DENV1-4) VLPs by coexpressing precursor membrane (prM) and envelope (E) proteins, with an F108A mutation in the fusion loop structure of E to increase the production of VLPs in mammalian cells. Immunization with DENV1-4 VLPs as individual, monovalent vaccines elicited strong neutralization activity against each DENV serotype in mice. For use as a tetravalent vaccine, DENV1-4 VLPs elicited high levels of neutralization activity against all four serotypes simultaneously. The neutralization antibody responses induced by the VLPs were significantly higher than those with DNA or recombinant E protein immunization. Moreover, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) was not observed against any serotype at a 1:10 serum dilution. We also demonstrated that the Zika virus (ZIKV) VLP production level was enhanced by introducing the same F108A mutation into the ZIKV envelope protein. Taken together, these results suggest that our strategy for DENV VLP production is applicable to other flavivirus VLP vaccine development, due to the similarity in viral structures, and they describe the promising development of an effective tetravalent vaccine against the prevalent flavivirus.IMPORTANCE Dengue virus poses one of the most serious public health problems worldwide, and the incidence of diseases caused by the virus has increased dramatically. Despite decades of effort, there is no effective treatment against dengue. A safe and potent vaccine against dengue is still needed. We developed a novel tetravalent dengue vaccine by using virus-like particles (VLPs), which are noninfectious because they lack the viral genome. Previous attempts of other groups to use dengue VLPs resulted in generally poor yields. We found that a critical amino acid mutation in the envelope protein enhances the production of VLPs. Our tetravalent vaccine elicited potent neutralizing antibody responses against all four DENV serotypes. Our findings can also be applied to vaccine development against other flaviviruses, such as Zika virus or West Nile virus.
Project description:Little is known about enduring memory B cell (MBC) responses to Zika virus (ZIKV) and their relationship with circulating antibodies. Here we comprehensively assess MBC frequency and specificity alongside serum binding and neutralizing antibody responses to ZIKV ~2 weeks and ~8 months postinfection in 31 pediatric subjects with 0, 1 or >1 prior infections with the related dengue virus (DENV). ZIKV infection elicits a robust type-specific MBC response, and the majority of late convalescent anti-ZIKV serum neutralizing activity is attributable to ZIKV-specific antibodies. The number of prior DENV infections does not influence type-specific or cross-reactive MBC responses, although ZIKV has the highest cross-reactivity with DENV3. DENV cross-reactive MBCs expanded by ZIKV infection decline in number and proportion by late convalescence. Finally, ZIKV induces greater cross-reactivity in the MBC pool than in serum antibodies. Our data suggest immunity to DENV only modestly shapes breadth and magnitude of enduring ZIKV antibody responses.
Project description:Dengue viruses are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that circulate in nature as four distinct serotypes (DENV1-4). These emerging pathogens are responsible for more than 100 million human infections annually. Severe clinical manifestations of disease are predominantly associated with a secondary infection by a heterotypic DENV serotype. The increased risk of severe disease in DENV-sensitized populations significantly complicates vaccine development, as a vaccine must simultaneously confer protection against all four DENV serotypes. Eliciting a protective tetravalent neutralizing antibody response is a major goal of ongoing vaccine development efforts. However, a recent large clinical trial of a candidate live-attenuated DENV vaccine revealed low protective efficacy despite eliciting a neutralizing antibody response, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the humoral immune response against dengue infection. In this study, we sought to identify epitopes recognized by serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies elicited by monovalent DENV1 vaccination. We constructed a panel of over 50 DENV1 structural gene variants containing substitutions at surface-accessible residues of the envelope (E) protein to match the corresponding DENV2 sequence. Amino acids that contribute to recognition by serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were identified as DENV mutants with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by DENV1 immune sera, but not cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies elicited by DENV2 vaccination. We identified two mutations (E126K and E157K) that contribute significantly to type-specific recognition by polyclonal DENV1 immune sera. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of sera from 24 participants of a phase I clinical study revealed a markedly reduced capacity to neutralize a E126K/E157K DENV1 variant. Sera from 77% of subjects recognized the E126K/E157K DENV1 variant and DENV2 equivalently (<3-fold difference). These data indicate the type-specific component of the DENV1 neutralizing antibody response to vaccination is strikingly focused on just two amino acids of the E protein. This study provides an important step towards deconvoluting the functional complexity of DENV serology following vaccination.