Identification and characterization of the bZIP transcription factor family and its expression in response to abiotic stresses in sesame.
ABSTRACT: Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) gene family is one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and members of this family play important roles in multiple biological processes such as light signaling, seed maturation, flower development as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses. Nonetheless, genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the bZIP family is lacking in the important oil crop sesame. In the present study, 63 bZIP genes distributed on 14 linkage groups were identified in sesame, and denominated as SibZIP01-SibZIP63. Besides, all members of SibZIP family were divided into nine groups based on the phylogenetic relationship of Arabidopsis bZIPs, which was further supported by the analysis of their conserved motifs and gene structures. Promoter analysis showed that all SibZIP genes harbor cis-elements related to stress responsiveness in their promoter regions. Expression analyses of SibZIP genes based on transcriptome data showed that these genes have different expression patterns in different tissues. Additionally, we showed that a majority of SibZIPs (85.71%) exhibited significant transcriptional changes in responses to abiotic stresses, including drought, waterlogging, osmotic, salt, and cold, suggesting that SibZIPs may play a cardinal role in the regulation of stress responses in sesame. Together, these results provide new insights into stress-responsive SibZIP genes and pave the way for future studies of SibZIPs-mediated abiotic stress response in sesame.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plant basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play crucial roles in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. However, systematic investigation and analyses of the bZIP gene family in peanut are lacking in spite of the availability of the peanut genome sequence. RESULTS:In this study, we identified 50 and 45 bZIP genes from Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Arachis bZIP genes were classified into nine groups, and these clusters were supported by several group-specific features, including exon/intron structure, intron phases, MEME motifs, and predicted binding site structure. We also identified possible variations in DNA-binding-site specificity and dimerization properties among different Arachis bZIPs by inspecting the amino acid residues at some key sites. Our analysis of the evolutionary history analysis indicated that segmental duplication, rather than tandem duplication, contributed greatly to the expansion of this gene family, and that most Arachis bZIPs underwent strong purifying selection. Through RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses, the co-expressed, differentially expressed and several well-studied homologous bZIPs were identified during seed development stages in peanut. We also used qRT-PCR to explore changes in bZIP gene expression in response to salt-treatment, and many candidate bZIPs in groups A, B, and S were proven to be associated with the salt-stress response. CONCLUSIONS:This study have conducted a genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of bZIP genes in Arachis genomes. Our results provide insights into the evolutionary history of the bZIP gene family in peanut and the funcntion of Arachis bZIP genes during seed development and in response to salt stress.
Project description:Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salt, are major environmental stresses, affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Plant bZIP transcription factors (bZIPs) confer stress resistances in harsh environments and play important roles in each phase of plant growth processes. In this research, 15 soybean bZIP family members were identified from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of soybean, which were unevenly distributed across 12 soybean chromosomes. Promoter analysis showed that these 15 genes were rich in ABRE, MYB and MYC cis-acting elements which were reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that 15 GmbZIP genes could be induced by drought and salt stress. GmbZIP2 was significantly upregulated under stress conditions and thus was selected for further study. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the GmbZIP2 protein was located in the cell nucleus. qRT-PCR results show that GmbZIP2 can be induced by multiple stresses. The overexpression of GmbZIP2 in Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots could improve plant resistance to drought and salt stresses. The result of differential expression gene analysis shows that the overexpression of GmbZIP2 in soybean hairy roots could enhance the expression of the stress responsive genes GmMYB48, GmWD40, GmDHN15, GmGST1 and GmLEA. These results indicate that soybean bZIPs played pivotal roles in plant resistance to abiotic stresses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family control important processes in all eukaryotes. In plants, bZIPs are regulators of many central developmental and physiological processes including photomorphogenesis, leaf and seed formation, energy homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of bZIP genes from algae, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 13 groups of bZIP homologues in angiosperms, three more than known before, that represent 34 Possible Groups of Orthologues (PoGOs). The 34 PoGOs may correspond to the complete set of ancestral angiosperm bZIP genes that participated in the diversification of flowering plants. Homologous genes dedicated to seed-related processes and ABA-mediated stress responses originated in the common ancestor of seed plants, and three groups of homologues emerged in the angiosperm lineage, of which one group plays a role in optimizing the use of energy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that the ancestor of green plants possessed four bZIP genes functionally involved in oxidative stress and unfolded protein responses that are bZIP-mediated processes in all eukaryotes, but also in light-dependent regulations. The four founder genes amplified and diverged significantly, generating traits that benefited the colonization of new environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: bZIPs are transcription factors that are found throughout the eukarya from fungi to flowering plants and mammals. They contain highly conserved basic region (BR) and leucine zipper (LZ) domains and often function as environmental sensors. Specifically, bZIPs frequently have a role in mediating the response to oxidative stress, a crucial environmental signal that needs to be transduced to the gene regulatory network. RESULTS: Based on sequence comparisons and experimental data on a number of important bZIP transcription factors, we predict which bZIPs are under redox control and which are regulated via protein phosphorylation. By integrating genomic, phylogenetic and functional data from the literature, we then propose a link between oxidative stress and the choice of interaction partners for the bZIP proteins. CONCLUSION: This integration permits the bZIP dimerization network to be interpreted in functional terms, especially in the context of the role of bZIP proteins in the response to environmental stress. This analysis demonstrates the importance of abiotic factors in shaping regulatory networks.
Project description:Plant basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are one of the largest and most diverse gene families and play key roles in regulating diverse stress processes. Brachypodium distachyon is emerging as a widely recognized model plant for the temperate grass family and the herbaceous energy crops, however there is no comprehensive analysis of bZIPs in B. distachyon, especially those involved in stress tolerances.In this study, 96 bZIP genes (BdbZIPs) were identified distributing unevenly on each chromosome of B. distachyon, and most of them were scattered in the low CpG content regions. Gene duplications were widespread throughout B. distachyon genome. Evolutionary comparisons suggested B. distachyon and rice's bZIPs had the similar evolutionary patterns. The exon splicing in BdbZIP motifs were more complex and diverse than those in other plant species. We further revealed the potential close relationships between BdbZIP gene expressions and items including gene structure, exon splicing pattern and dimerization features. In addition, multiple stresses expression profile demonstrated that BdbZIPs exhibited significant expression patterns responding to 14 stresses, and those responding to heavy metal treatments showed opposite expression pattern comparing to the treatments of environmental factors and phytohormones. We also screened certain up- and down-regulated BdbZIP genes with fold changes ?2, which were more sensitive to abiotic stress conditions.BdbZIP genes behaved diverse functional characters and showed discrepant and some regular expression patterns in response to abiotic stresses. Comprehensive analysis indicated these BdbZIPs' expressions were associated not only with gene structure, exon splicing pattern and dimerization feature, but also with abiotic stress treatments. It is possible that our findings are crucial for revealing the potentialities of utilizing these candidate BdbZIPs to improve productivity of grass plants and cereal crops.
Project description:Transcription factors of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family control development and stress responses in eukaryotes. To date, only one bZIP has been described in any oomycete; oomycetes are members of the stramenopile kingdom. In this study, we describe the identification of 38 bZIPs from the Phytophthora infestans genome. Half contain novel substitutions in the DNA-binding domain at a site that in other eukaryotes is reported to always be Asn. Interspecific comparisons indicated that the novel substitutions (usually Cys, but also Val and Tyr) arose after oomycetes diverged from other stramenopiles. About two-thirds of P. infestans bZIPs show dynamic changes in mRNA levels during the life cycle, with many of the genes being upregulated in sporangia, zoospores, or germinated zoospore cysts. One bZIP with the novel Cys substitution was shown to reside in the nucleus throughout growth and development. Using stable gene silencing, the functions of eight bZIPs with the Cys substitution were tested. All but one were found to play roles in protecting P. infestans from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury, and it is proposed that the novel Cys substitution serves as a redox sensor. A ninth bZIP lacking the novel Asn-to-Cys substitution, but having Cys nearby, was also shown through silencing to contribute to defense against peroxide. Little effect on asexual development, plant pathogenesis, or resistance to osmotic stress was observed in transformants silenced for any of the nine bZIPs.
Project description:Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oilseed crop. However, multiple abiotic stresses severely affect sesame growth and production. Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), such as raffinose and stachyose, play an important role in desiccation tolerance of plants and developing seeds. In the present study, three types of key enzymes, galactinol synthase (GolS), raffinose synthase (RafS) and stachyose synthase (StaS), responsible for the biosynthesis of RFOs were identified at the genome-wide scale in sesame. A total of 7 SiGolS and 15 SiRS genes were identified in the sesame genome. Transcriptome analyses showed that SiGolS and SiRS genes exhibited distinct expression profiles in different tissues and seed developmental stages. Comparative expression analyses under various abiotic stresses indicated that most of SiGolS and SiRS genes were significantly regulated by drought, osmotic, salt, and waterlogging stresses, but slightly affected by cold stress. The up-regulation of several SiGolS and SiRS genes by multiple abiotic stresses suggested their active implication in sesame abiotic stress responses. Taken together, these results shed light on the RFOs-mediated abiotic stress resistance in sesame and provide a useful framework for improving abiotic stress resistance of sesame through genetic engineering.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) gene family is one of the plant-specific transcription factor families, involved in plant development, growth, and in the response to diverse stresses. However, comprehensive analysis of the HD-Zip genes, especially those involved in response to drought and salinity stresses is lacking in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), an important oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. RESULTS:In this study, 45 HD-Zip genes were identified in sesame, and denominated as SiHDZ01-SiHDZ45. Members of SiHDZ family were classified into four groups (HD-Zip I-IV) based on the phylogenetic relationship of Arabidopsis HD-Zip proteins, which was further supported by the analysis of their conserved motifs and gene structures. Expression analyses of SiHDZ genes based on transcriptome data showed that the expression patterns of these genes were varied in different tissues. Additionally, we showed that at least 75% of the SiHDZ genes were differentially expressed in responses to drought and salinity treatments, and highlighted the important role of HD-Zip I and II genes in stress responses in sesame. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides important information for functional characterization of stress-responsive HD-Zip genes and may contribute to the better understanding of the molecular basis of stress tolerance in sesame.
Project description:The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC) family constitutes a large family of plant-specific transcription factors, involved in many aspects of physiological processes and a variety of abiotic stresses. There is little information concerning the NAC family in Sesamum indicum. In this study, 87 sesame NAC genes were identified and phylogenetically clustered into 12 groups with Arabidopsis NAC genes. A total of 83 SiNAC genes were distributed non-randomly on the 16 linkage groups in sesame. Four and 49 SiNACs were found to be tandemly and segmentally duplicated, respectively. Expression profiles of SiNAC genes in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower, seed, and capsule) and in response to drought and waterlogging stresses by using RNA-seq data demonstrated that 23 genes were highly expressed in all tissues, 18 and 31 SiNACs respond strongly to drought and waterlogging stresses, respectively. In addition, the expression of 30 SiNAC genes distributed in different subgroups was analyzed with quantitative real-time RT-PCR under cold, osmotic, and salt stresses, revealed that their expression patterns vary in response to abiotic stresses. SiNAC genes displayed diverse expression patterns among the different tissues and stress treatments, suggested that their contribution to plant growth and development in sesame and multiple stress resistance in sesame. In this study, NAC transcription factors were analyzed in sesame and some specific candidate SiNAC genes in response to abiotic stress for functional study were identified. This study provides valuable information to deepen our understanding of the abiotic stress responses by NAC transcription factors in sesame.
Project description:The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors (TFs) regulate diverse phenomena during plant growth and development and are involved in stress responses and hormone signaling. However, only a few bZIPs have been functionally characterized. In this paper, 54 maize bZIP genes were screened from previously published drought and rewatering transcriptomes. These genes were divided into nine groups in a phylogenetic analysis, supported by motif and intron/exon analyses. The 54 genes were unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes and contained 18 segmental duplications, suggesting that segmental duplication events have contributed to the expansion of the maize bZIP family. Spatio-temporal expression analyses showed that bZIP genes are widely expressed during maize development. We identified 10 core ZmbZIPs involved in protein transport, transcriptional regulation, and cellular metabolism by principal component analysis, gene co-expression network analysis, and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. In addition, 15 potential stress-responsive ZmbZIPs were identified by expression analyses. Localization analyses showed that ZmbZIP17, -33, -42, and -45 are nuclear proteins. These results provide the basis for future functional genomic studies on bZIP TFs in maize and identify candidate genes with potential applications in breeding/genetic engineering for increased stress resistance. These data represent a high-quality molecular resource for selecting resistant breeding materials.