Hawaiian Philodoria (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Ornixolinae) leaf mining moths on Myrsine (Primulaceae): two new species and biological data.
ABSTRACT: This paper provides new taxonomic and biological data on a complex of gracillariid moths in the endemic genus Philodoria Walsingham, 1907 that are associated with Myrsine (Primulaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands, United States. Two new species, Philodoria kauaulaensis Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara, sp. n. (host: Myrsine lanaiensis, M. lessertiana, and M. sandwicensis) and P. kolea Kobayashi, Johns & Kawahara, sp. n. (host: M. lessertiana) are described. Biological data are provided for two previously described species that also feed on Myrsine: P. auromagnifica Walsingham, 1907 and P. succedanea Walsingham, 1907. For the first time we detail and illustrate genital structures, immature stages, biology, and host plants of P. auromagnifica and P. succedanea. Philodoria kolea, P. auromagnifica, and P. succedanea occur in sympatry on the island of Hawaii (Big Island), but each species differs in behavioral characters: P. kolea utilizes leaves of seedlings and forms a serpentine mine, whereas the latter two utilize leaves of larger plants, and form linear or serpentine to blotch mines. More broadly, leaf mine forms and diagnostic characteristics of the Myrsine-feeding species complex of Philodoria (as currently known) are reviewed and illustrated.
Project description:This paper provides taxonomic and biological data on one new and one newly recorded species of Coptotriche Walsingham and one new and one newly recorded species of Tischeria Zeller from Japan. Coptotriche symplocosella Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Symplocos lucida, Symplocaceae), and Tischeria kumatai Sato, Kobayashi & Hirowatari, sp. n. (host Tilia japonica, Malvaceae) are described. The pupal morphology of Coptotriche symplocosella is illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. Coptotriche minuta Diškus & Stonis, 2014 and Tischeria relictana Ermolaev, 1986 are newly recorded from Japan. The female, hostplants (Carpinus, Corylus, and Ostrya species), and immature stages of Coptotriche minuta and the adult features, female, and hostplants (Betula species) of Tischeria relictana are described with photographs and drawings for the first time. Mine types and characters of Japanese Tischeriidae are reviewed with photographs.
Project description:Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae.
Project description:We discuss 45 Costa Rican species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819, including 23 previously described: Ethmiadelliella (Fernald), Ethmiabittenella (Busck), Ethmiafestiva Busck, Ethmiascythropa Walsingham, Ethmiaperpulchra Walsingham, Ethmiaterpnota Walsingham, Ethmiaelutella Busck, Ethmiajanzeni Powell, Ethmiaungulatella Busck, Ethmiaexornata (Zeller), Ethmiaphylacis Walsingham, Ethmiamnesicosma Meyrick, Ethmiachemsaki Powell, Ethmiabaliostola Walsingham, Ethmiaduckworthi Powell, Ethmiasandra Powell, Ethmianigritaenia Powell, Ethmiacatapeltica Meyrick, Ethmialichyi Powell, Ethmiatransversella Busck, Ethmiasimilatella Busck, Ethmiahammella Busck, Ethmialinda Busck, and 22 new species: Ethmiablaineorum, Ethmiamillerorum, Ethmiadianemillerae, Ethmiaadrianforsythi, Ethmiastephenrumseyi, Ethmiaberndkerni, Ethmiadimauraorum, Ethmiabillalleni, Ethmiaehakernae, Ethmiahelenmillerae, Ethmiajohnpringlei, Ethmialaphamorum, Ethmiapetersterlingi, Ethmialesliesaulae, Ethmiaturnerorum, Ethmianormgershenzi, Ethmianicholsonorum, Ethmiahendersonorum, Ethmiarandyjonesi, Ethmiarandycurtisi, Ethmiamiriamschulmanae and Ethmiatilneyorum. We illustrate all species and their male and female genitalia, along with distribution maps of Costa Rican localities. Immature stages are illustrated for 11 species, and food plants are listed when known. Gesneriaceae is added as a new food plant family record for Ethmia. CO1 nucleotide sequences ("DNA barcodes") were obtained for 41 of the species.
Project description:The indigenous North American micropterigid genus Epimartyria Walsingham,1898 is revised. Three species are recognized, including Epimartyria auricrinella Walsingham, 1898 which occurs widely over much of the northeastern United States and Canada, a new species, Epimartyria bimaculella Davis & Landry from northwestern United States and Canada, and Epimartyria pardella (Walsingham, 1880) from northern California to northern Oregon. The larva of Epimartyria auricrinella is described in detail, supplemented with illustrations of the external structure of the larval integument. The larval plastron is described and illustrated for Epimartyria, and this is compared with the plastrons of Neomicropteryx Issiki, 1931 and Micropterix Hübner, 1825. COI barcode sequences show that the three species are genetically distinct, congruent with morphological differences. Marked haplotype divergence within some Epimartyria auricrinella populations appears to be unrelated to morphology, geography or phenology.
Project description:The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuusp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawaosp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantalasp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.
Project description:During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems.
Project description:Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.
Project description:Shifts in species' traits across contrasting environments have the potential to influence ecosystem functioning. Plant communities on unusually harsh soils may have unique responses to environmental change, through the mediating role of functional plant traits. We conducted a field study comparing eight functional leaf traits of seventeen common species located on both serpentine and non-serpentine environments on Lesbos Island, in the eastern Mediterranean. We focused on species' adaptive strategies across the two contrasting environments and investigated the effect of trait variation on the robustness of core 'leaf economic' relationships across local environmental variability. Our results showed that the same species followed a conservative strategy on serpentine substrates and an exploitative strategy on non-serpentine ones, consistent with the leaf economic spectrum predictions. Although considerable species-specific trait variability emerged, the single-trait responses across contrasting environments were generally consistent. However, multivariate-trait responses were diverse. Finally, we found that the strength of relationships between core 'leaf economic' traits altered across local environmental variability. Our results highlight the divergent trait evolution on serpentine and non-serpentine communities and reinforce other findings presenting species-specific responses to environmental variation.
Project description:Background:Bombycoidea is an ecologically diverse and speciose superfamily of Lepidoptera. The superfamily includes many model organisms, but the taxonomy and classification of the superfamily has remained largely in disarray. Here we present a global checklist of Bombycoidea. Following Zwick (2008) and Zwick et al. (2011), ten families are recognized: Anthelidae, Apatelodidae, Bombycidae, Brahmaeidae, Carthaeidae, Endromidae, Eupterotidae, Phiditiidae, Saturniidae and Sphingidae. The former families Lemoniidae and Mirinidae are included within Brahmaeidae and Endromidae respectively. The former bombycid subfamilies Oberthueriinae and Prismostictinae are also treated as synonyms of Endromidae, and the former bombycine subfamilies Apatelodinae and Phitditiinae are treated as families. New information:This checklist represents the first effort to synthesize the current taxonomic treatment of the entire superfamily. It includes 12,159 names and references to their authors, and it accounts for the recent burst in species and subspecies descriptions within family Saturniidae (ca. 1,500 within the past 10 years) and to a lesser extent in Sphingidae (ca. 250 species over the same period). The changes to the higher classification of Saturniidae proposed by Nässig et al. (2015) are rejected as premature and unnecessary. The new tribes, subtribes and genera described by Cooper (2002) are here treated as junior synonyms. We also present a new higher classification of Sphingidae, based on Kawahara et al. (2009), Barber and Kawahara (2013) and a more recent phylogenomic study by Breinholt et al. (2017), as well as a reviewed genus and species level classification, as documented by Kitching (2018).
Project description:The Alps are a hotspot of biodiversity in Europe with many Lepidoptera species still to be discovered. Here we describe a new gracillariid genus and species, Mercantouria neli gen. n. and sp. n. The morphology of the male genitalia is highly differentiated with unique features. DNA barcodes show that its nearest neighbor is the North American species 'Caloptilia' scutellariella (Braun, 1923). Mercantouria neli is known from four adults (two males and two females) collected at two localities in the French Alps. Its host plant and life cycle remain unknown.