A Sporadic Four-Year Hospital Outbreak of a ST97-IVa MRSA With Half of the Patients First Identified in the Community.
ABSTRACT: This study describes a sporadically occurring 4-year outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originating from a surgical ward. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) identified the outbreak clone as spa type t267, sequence type ST97, and SCCmec IVa. Prompted by the finding of four patients within 6 months in the same ward with this unusual MRSA type, an outbreak was suspected. Subsequent MRSA screening in the ward in February 2017 identified three-additional patients and two health care workers (HCWs) with t267/ST97-IVa. WGS linked these 9 isolates to 16 previous isolates in our WGS database and the outbreak thus included 23 patients and two HCWs. Twenty-one patients had a connection to the surgery ward during the period 2013-2017, but half of them had MRSA diagnosed in the community long after discharge. The community debut of several patients MRSA infections weeks to months after hospital discharge made the identification of a hospital source difficult and it was the SNP relatedness of the isolates that led us to identify the common denominator of hospitalization. An index patient was not identified, but our hypothesis is that HCWs with unrecognized long-term MRSA colonization could have caused sporadic nosocomial transmission due to intermittent breaches in infection prevention and control practice.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been sparse in low- and middle-income countries, therefore, its population structure is unknown for many regions. We conducted a pilot surveillance of MRSA in the maternity ward of a teaching hospital in Armenia, to characterize the genotypes of circulating MRSA clones. In total, 10 MRSA isolates from a hospital environment (n = 4) and patients (n = 6) were recovered between March and May 2015 and April and May 2016, respectively. WGS analysis showed that the isolates belonged to two clonal complexes (CCs): CC8 (n = 8) and CC30 (n = 2). MRSA CC30 isolates carried staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IVa, whereas MRSA CC8 revealed a type-VT-related SCCmec, which contained a CRISPR/Cas array and showed a high similarity to SCCmec found in coagulase-negative staphylococci. All but one MRSA CC8 isolates carried a plasmid identical to the pSK67 and four also carried a pathogenicity island similar to SaPI5. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MRSA CC8 isolates formed a monophyletic cluster, which emerged around 1995 and was distinct from representatives of globally-distributed MRSA CC8 lineages. WGS characterization of MRSA in countries with no previous S. aureus genomic surveillance can therefore reveal an unrecognized diversity of MRSA lineages.
Project description:From 2009 to 2011 [transmission period (TP) 1] and 2014 to 2017 (TP2), two outbreaks involving community-associated clonal complex (CC) 88-MRSA spa types t186 and t786, respectively, occurred in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of an Irish hospital (H1). This study investigated the relatedness of these isolates, their relationship to other CC88 MRSA from Ireland and their likely geographic origin, using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). All 28 CC88-MRSA isolates identified at the Irish National MRSA Reference Laboratory between 2009 and 2017 were investigated including 20 H1 patient isolates, two H1 isolates recovered from a single healthcare worker (HCW) 2 years apart, three patient isolates from a second hospital (H2) and one patient isolate from each of three different hospitals (H3, H4, and H5). All isolates underwent DNA microarray profiling. Thirteen international isolates with similar microarray profiles to at least one Irish isolate were selected from an extensive global database. All isolates underwent Illumina MiSeq WGS. The majority of Irish isolates (25/28; all H1 isolates, two H2 isolates and the H3 isolate) were identified as ST78-MRSA-IVa and formed a large cluster, exhibiting 1-71 pairwise allelic differences, in a whole-genome MLST-based minimum spanning tree (MST) involving all Irish isolates. A H1/H2, H1/H3, and H1 HCW/patient isolate pair each exhibited one allelic difference. The TP2 isolates were characterised by a different spa type and the loss of hsdS. The three remaining Irish isolates (from H2, H4, and H5) were identified as ST88-MRSA-IVa and dispersed at the opposite end of the MST, exhibiting 81-211 pairwise allelic differences. Core-genome MLST and sequence-based plasmid analysis revealed the recent shared ancestry of Irish and Australian ST78-MRSA-IVa, and of Irish and French/Egyptian ST88-MRSA-IVa. This study revealed the homogeneity of isolates recovered during two NICU outbreaks (despite spa type and hsdS carriage variances), HCW involvement in the outbreak transmission chain and the strain's spread to two other Irish hospitals. The outbreak strain, CC88/ST78-MRSA-IVa, was likely imported from Australia, where it is prevalent. CC88/ST88-MRSA-IVa was also identified in Irish hospitals and was likely imported from Africa, where it is predominant, and/or a country with a large population of African descent.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-and now USA300 MRSA-is a significant intensive care unit (ICU) pathogen; healthcare worker (HCW) contamination may lead to patient cross-transmission.<h4>Methods</h4>From September 2015 to February 2016, to study the spread of MRSA, we enrolled HCWs in 4 adult ICUs caring for patients on MRSA contact precautions. Samples were collected from patient body sites and high-touch surfaces in patient rooms. HCW hands, gloves, and personal protective equipment were sampled pre/post-patient encounter. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to compare isolates from patients, HCWs, and environment.<h4>Results</h4>There were 413 MRSA isolates sequenced (38% USA300, 52% USA100) from 66 patient encounters. Six of 66 HCWs were contaminated with MRSA prior to room entry. Isolates from a single patient encounter were typically either USA100 or USA300; in 8 (12%) encounters both USA300 and USA100 were isolated. WGS demonstrated that isolates from patients, HCWs, and environment often were genetically similar, although there was substantial between-encounter diversity. Strikingly, there were 5 USA100 and 1 USA300 clusters that contained similar strains (<22 single-nucleotide variants [SNVs], with most <10 SNVs) within the cluster despite coming from different encounters, suggesting intra- and inter-ICU spread of strains, that is, 4 of these genomic clusters were from encounters in the same ICU; 5 of 6 clusters occurred within 1 week.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrated frequent spread of MRSA USA300 and USA100 strains among patients, environment, and HCWs. WGS identified possible spread within and even between ICUs. Future analysis with detailed contact tracing in conjunction with genomic data may further elucidate pathways of MRSA spread and points for intervention.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are key for protecting patients from nosocomial infections and require knowledge of transmission mechanisms in different settings. We performed a detailed outbreak analysis of the transmission and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a geriatric ward by combining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) with epidemiological data.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Tertiary-care hospital.<h4>Participants</h4>Patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) from the ward with a nasopharyngeal sample (NPS) positive for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA during the outbreak period.<h4>Methods</h4>Patient data regarding clinical characteristics, exposure and outcome were collected retrospectively from medical records. Stored NPSs from 32 patients and 15 HCWs were selected for WGS and phylogenetic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The median patient age was 84 years and 17 (53%) of 32 were male. Also, 14 patients (44%) died within 30 days of sampling. Viral loads were significantly higher among the deceased. WGS was successful in 28 (88%) of 32 patient samples and 14 (93%) of 15 HCW samples. Moreover, 3 separate viral clades were identified: 1 clade and 2 subclades among both patient and HCW samples. Integrated epidemiological and genetic analyses revealed 6 probable transmission events between patients and supported hospital-acquired COVID-19 among 25 of 32 patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>WGS provided an insight into the outbreak dynamics and true extent of nosocomial COVID-19. The extensive transmission between patients and HCWs indicated that current IPC measures were insufficient. We recommend increased use of WGS in outbreak investigations to identify otherwise unknown transmission links and to evaluate IPC measures.
Project description:In May 2016, an unusual outbreak with the Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive human variant of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 occurred among mothers and infants in the maternity unit of a Danish hospital. MRSA sharing genotypic and phenotypic characteristics was confirmed in 36 cases, including 26 patients, nine household members and a healthcare worker (HCW) who had contact with all the patients. The national MRSA database contained 37 seemingly unlinked MRSA cases whose isolates shared the same genotypic and phenotypic characteristics as the outbreak strain. Whole genome sequencing showed that three of these isolates clustered together with the 36 outbreak isolates, suggesting spread outside the hospital. The HCW and 21 of 37 cases from the national MRSA database had links to south-eastern Asia, where the outbreak strain is endemic. These findings suggest that the HCW acquired the outbreak strain while travelling in south-eastern Asia and then introduced it into the hospital; from there, it spread within the patients' households and into the community. Screening of travellers returning from countries with high levels of MRSA could be an important intervention to prevent spread of these bacteria into hospitals via patients or HCWs.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a globally disseminated drug-resistant bacterial species. It remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection, primarily among immunocompromised patients. In 2012, the Affiliated People's Hospital of Jiangsu University experienced a putative outbreak of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that affected 12 patients in the Neurosurgery Department. In this study, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to gain insight into the epidemiology of the outbreak caused by MRSA, and traditional bacterial genotyping approaches were also applied to provide supportive evidence for WGS. We sequenced the DNA from 6 isolates associated with the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis was constructed by comparing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the core genome of 6 isolates in the present study and another 3 referenced isolates from GenBank. Of the 6 MRSA sequences in the current study, 5 belonged to the same group, clustering with T0131, while the other one clustered closely with TW20. All of the isolates were identified as ST239-SCCmecIII clones. Whole-genome analysis revealed that four of the outbreak isolates were more tightly clustered into a group and SA13002 together with SA13009 were distinct from the outbreak strains, which were considered non-outbreak strains. Based on the sequencing results, the antibiotic-resistance gene status (present or absent) was almost perfectly concordant with the results of phenotypic susceptibility testing. Various toxin genes were also analyzed successfully. Our analysis demonstrates that using traditional molecular methods and WGS can facilitate the identification of outbreaks and help to control nosocomial transmission.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 41 patient and environmental sequence type 22 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV) isolates recovered over 6 weeks in one acute hospital ward in Dublin, Ireland, where ST22-MRSA IV is endemic, revealed 228 pairwise combinations differing by <40 single nucleotide variants corresponding to potential cross-transmission events (CTEs). In contrast, 15 pairwise combinations of isolates representing five CTEs were previously identified by conventional molecular epidemiological typing. WGS enhanced ST22-MRSA-IV tracking and highlighted potential transmission of MRSA via the hospital environment.
Project description:Limited information is available on antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal distribution of Staphylococcus aureus in the Caribbean region. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among S. aureus isolates and to reveal the frequency and population structure of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in St. Kitts and Nevis, a small island country in the West Indies. A total of 152 S. aureus isolates were collected from consecutive samples submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory of the main referral hospital from March 2017 to January 2018. Samples came from all units in the hospital and a small number came from external submissions, and comprised a total of 119 clinical specimens and 33 nasal swabs collected from staff and patients. All S. aureus isolates were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of clinically relevant antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution, and diversity of MRSA isolates was assessed by whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis. MRSA accounted for 45% (69/152) of the isolates. The highest rates of resistance to non-?-lactam agents were observed for erythromycin (55%), moxifloxacin (41%), and levofloxacin (40%), whereas resistance to the other drugs tested was ?6%. All isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline, linezolid, teicoplanin, telavancin, and vancomycin. WGS-based multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that approximately 88% of the MRSA isolates belonged to ST8. Phylogenetic analysis on 801 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified among the MRSA ST8 isolates indicates a large degree of genetic diversity. However, all ST8 strains clustered within the distinct clade that defines the USA300 North American Epidemic lineage (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) +, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) +, Staphylococcal cassettes chromosome mec IVa (SCCmec IVa)). Our data show high levels of methicillin, macrolide, and fluoroquinolone resistance among S. aureus on St. Kitts and Nevis. The USA300 North American epidemic lineage is responsible for the vast majority of MRSA infections on this Caribbean island.
Project description:We observed an increase in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections at a Dutch neonatal intensive care unit. Weekly neonatal MSSA carriage surveillance and cross-sectional screenings of health care workers (HCWs) were available for outbreak tracing. Traditional clustering of MSSA isolates by spa typing and Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) suggested that nosocomial transmission had contributed to the infections. We investigated whether whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of MSSA surveillance would provide additional evidence for transmission. MSSA isolates from neonatal infections, carriage surveillance, and HCWs were subjected to WGS and bioinformatic analysis for identification and localization of high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms, and in-depth analysis of subsets of isolates. By measuring the genetic diversity in background surveillance, we defined transmission-level relatedness and identified isolates that had been unjustly assigned to clusters based on MLVA, while spa typing was concordant but of insufficient resolution. Detailing particular subsets of isolates provided evidence that HCWs were involved in multiple outbreaks, yet it alleviated concerns about one particular HCW. The improved resolution and accuracy of genomic outbreak analyses substantially altered the view on outbreaks, along with apposite measures. Therefore, inclusion of the circulating background population has the potential to overcome current issues in genomic outbreak inference.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has typically been used to confirm or refute hospital/ward outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) identified through routine practice. However, appropriately targeted WGS strategies that identify routinely "undetectable" transmission remain the ultimate aim.WGS of MRSA isolates sent to a regional microbiological laboratory was performed as part of a 12-month prospective observational study. Phylogenetic analyses identified a genetically related cluster of E-MRSA15 isolated from patients registered to the same general practice (GP) surgery. This led to an investigation to identify epidemiological links, find additional cases, and determine potential for ongoing transmission.We identified 15 MRSA-positive individuals with 27 highly related MRSA isolates who were linked to the GP surgery, 2 of whom died with MRSA bacteremia. Of the 13 cases that were further investigated, 11 had attended a leg ulcer/podiatry clinic. Cases lacked epidemiological links to hospitals, suggesting that transmission occurred elsewhere. Environmental and staff screening at the GP surgery did not identify an ongoing source of infection.Surveillance in the United Kingdom shows that the proportion of MRSA bacteremias apportioned to hospitals is decreasing, suggesting the need for greater focus on the detection of MRSA outbreaks and transmission in the community. This case study confirms that the typically nosocomial lineage (E-MRSA15) can transmit within community settings. Our study exemplifies the continued importance of WGS in detecting outbreaks, including those which may be missed by routine practice, and suggests that universal WGS of bacteremia isolates may help detect outbreaks in low-surveillance settings.