Immunoglobulin profiling identifies unique signatures in patients with Kawasaki disease during intravenous immunoglobulin treatment.
ABSTRACT: Identifying the causes of high fever syndromes such as Kawasaki disease (KD) remains challenging. To investigate pathogen exposure signatures in suspected pathogen-mediated diseases such as KD, we performed immunoglobulin (Ig) profiling using a next-generation sequencing method. After intravenous Ig (IVIG) treatment, we observed disappearance of clonally expanded IgM clonotypes, which were dominantly observed in acute-phase patients. The complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences of dominant IgM clonotypes in acute-phase patients were commonly observed in other Ig isotypes. In acute-phase KD patients, we identified 32 unique IgM CDR3 clonotypes shared in three or more cases. Furthermore, before the IVIG treatment, the sums of dominant IgM clonotypes in IVIG-resistant KD patients were significantly higher than those of IVIG-sensitive KD patients. Collectively, we demonstrate a novel approach for identifying certain Ig clonotypes for potentially interacting with pathogens involved in KD; this approach could be applied for a wide variety of fever-causing diseases of unknown origin.
Project description:Hypogammaglobulinemia is the most frequently observed immune defect in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although CLL patients usually have low serum levels of all isotypes (IgG, IgM and IgA), standard immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations for replacement therapy administrated to these patients contain more than 95% of IgG. Pentaglobin is an Ig preparation of intravenous application (IVIg) enriched with IgM and IgA (IVIgGMA), with the potential benefit to restore the Ig levels of all isotypes. Because IVIg preparations at high doses have well-documented anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, we aimed to evaluate the capacity of Pentaglobin and a standard IVIg preparation to affect leukemic and T cells from CLL patients. In contrast to standard IVIg, we found that IVIgGMA did not modify T cell activation and had a lower inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation. Regarding the activation of leukemic B cells through BCR, it was similarly reduced by both IVIgGMA and IVIgG. None of these IVIg preparations modified spontaneous apoptosis of T or leukemic B cells. However, the addition of IVIgGMA on in vitro cultures decreased the apoptosis of T cells induced by the BCL-2 inhibitor, venetoclax. Importantly, IVIgGMA did not impair venetoclax-induced apoptosis of leukemic B cells. Overall, our results add new data on the effects of different preparations of IVIg in CLL, and show that the IgM/IgA enriched preparation not only affects relevant mechanisms involved in CLL pathogenesis but also has a particular profile of immunomodulatory effects on T cells that deserves further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis which may be associated with coronary artery aneurysms. A notable risk factor for the development of coronary artery aneurysms is resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which comprises standard treatment for the acute phase of KD. The cause of IVIG resistance in KD is largely unknown; however, the contribution of genetic factors, especially variants in immune-related genes, has been suspected. METHODS:To explore genetic variants related to IVIG-unresponsiveness, we designated KD patients who did not respond to both first and second courses of IVIG therapy as IVIG-unresponsive patients. Using genomic DNA from 30 IVIG-unresponsive KD patients, we performed pooled genome sequencing targeting 39 immune-related cytokine receptor genes. RESULTS:The single nucleotide variant (SNV), rs563535954 (located in the IL4R locus), was concentrated in IVIG-unresponsive KD patients. Individual genotyping showed that the minor allele of rs563535954 was present in 4/33 patients with IVIG-unresponsive KD, compared with 20/1063 individuals in the Japanese genome variation database (odds ratio?=?7.19, 95% confidence interval 2.43-21.47). Furthermore, the minor allele of rs563535954 was absent in 42 KD patients who responded to IVIG treatment (P?=?0.0337), indicating that a low-frequency variant, rs563535954, is associated with IVIG-unresponsiveness in KD patients. Although rs563535954 is located in the 3'-untranslated region of IL4R, there was no alternation in IL4R expression associated with the mior allele of rs563535954. However, IVIG-unresponsive patients that exhibited the minor allele of rs563535954 tended to be classified into the low-risk group (based on previously reported risk scores) for prediction of IVIG-resistance. Therefore, IVIG-unresponsiveness associated with the minor allele of rs563535954 might differ from IVIG-unresponsiveness associated with previous risk factors used to evaluate IVIG-unresponsiveness in KD. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that the SNV rs563535954 could serve as a predictive indicator of IVIG-unresponsiveness, thereby improving the sensitivity of risk scoring systems, and may aid in prevention of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.
Project description:Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistant Kawasaki disease (KD) patients comprise at least 20% of treated patients and are at high risk for coronary artery abnormalities. If identified early in the course of the disease, such patients may benefit from additional anti-inflammatory therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the transcript abundance between IVIG resistant and -responsive KD patients, to identify biomarkers that might differentiate between these two groups and to generate new targets for therapies in IVIG resistant KD patients. We compared the transcript abundance profiles of whole-blood RNA on Agilent arrays from acute and convalescent KD subjects and age-similar, healthy controls. KD subjects were stratified as IVIG resistant or -responsive based on response to initial IVIG therapy. Transcript abundance was higher for IL-1 pathway genes (IL-1 receptor, interleukin receptor associated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase), and MMP-8. These findings point to candidate biomarkers that may predict IVIG resistance in acute KD patients. The results also underscore the importance of the IL-1 pathway as a mediator of inflammation in KD and suggest that IL-1 or its receptor may be reasonable targets for therapy, particularly for IVIG resistant patients.
Project description:Profiling immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor repertoires with specialized assays can be cost-ineffective and time-consuming. Here we report ImReP, a computational method for rapid and accurate profiling of the Ig repertoire, including the complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3), using regular RNA sequencing data such as those from 8,555 samples across 53 tissues types from 544 individuals in the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx v6) project. Using ImReP and GTEx v6 data, we generate a collection of 3.6 million Ig sequences, termed the atlas of immunoglobulin repertoires (TAIR), across a broad range of tissue types that often do not have reported Ig repertoires information. Moreover, the flow of Ig clonotypes and inter-tissue repertoire similarities across immune-related tissues are also evaluated. In summary, TAIR is one of the largest collections of CDR3 sequences and tissue types, and should serve as an important resource for studying immunological diseases.
Project description:Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute systemic vasculitis of early childhood, is of unknown etiology. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an effective treatment, but its molecular target remains elusive. DNA microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) revealed that at least 21 genes are drastically down-regulated after IVIG treatment in most KD patients. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA levels of five of these genes were considerably reduced in almost all KD patients after IVIG treatment. Western blot (Wb) of PBMC extracts revealed that levels of FCN1 (M-ficolin), a protein of the complement system that defends against infectious agents, were reduced after IVIG treatment in many KD patients. In another set of KD patients, Wb confirmed that levels of both FCN1 were greatly reduced after IVIG therapy. Wb revealed that the collagen-like domain of FCN1 directly bound to IgG1 in vitro through a portion of the CH1 and CH3 domains, and synthetic peptides corresponding to these domains of IgG1 efficiently inhibited these associations. These results suggest that FCN1 is a molecular target of intravenous IVIG in KD patients. We propose that these peptides and a humanized monoclonal antibody against FCN1 could be useful in combination therapy with IVIG.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis disorder of unknown etiology in children. Immunologic abnormalities were detected during the acute phase of KD, which reflected that the effect cells of the activated immune system markedly increased cytokine production. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is effective in resolving inflammation from KD and reducing occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities. However, 10%-20% of KD patients have no response to IVIG therapy, who were defined as IVIG resistance. Furthermore, these patients have persistent inflammation and increased risk of developing coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). <i>EIF2AK4</i> is a stress sensor gene and can be activated by pathogen infection. In addition, the polymorphisms of <i>EIF2AK4</i> were associated with various blood vessel disorders. However, it remains unclear whether the <i>EIF2AK4</i> gene polymorphisms were related to IVIG therapy outcome in KD patients. <b>Methods:</b> <i>EIF2AK4/</i>rs4594236 polymorphism was genotyped in 795 IVIG response KD patients and 234 IVIG resistant KD patients through TaqMan, a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of association between <i>EIF2AK4/</i>rs4594236 polymorphism and IVIG therapeutic effects. <b>Results:</b> Our results showed that the <i>EIF2AK4</i>/rs4594236 AG/GG genotype was significantly associated with increased risk to IVIG resistance compared to the AA genotype (AG vs. AA: adjusted ORs = 1.71, 95% CIs = 1.17-2.51, and <i>p</i> = 0.0061; GG vs. AA: adjusted ORs = 2.09, 95% CIs = 1.36-3.23, and <i>p</i> = 0.0009; AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted ORs = 1.82, 95% CIs = 1.27-2.63, and <i>p</i> = 0.0013; and GG vs. AA/AG: adjusted ORs = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04-2.02, and <i>p</i> = 0.0306). Furthermore, the stratified analysis of age and gender in the KD cohort indicated that male patients carrying the rs4594236 AG/GG genotype tends to be more resistant to IVIG therapy than female patients. <b>Conclusion:</b> These results suggested that <i>EIF2AK4/</i>rs4594236 polymorphism might be associated with increased risk of IVIG resistance in southern Chinese KD patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance prediction remains substantial in Kawasaki disease (KD), with limited data on the predictive value of coagulation profile for IVIG resistance, particularly for repeated IVIG resistance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to testify the predictive validity of coagulation profile for both initial IVIG resistance and repeated IVIG resistance in KD.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 385 KD patients were prospectively recruited between April 2015 and May 2019. Coagulation and other profiles were evaluated between the IVIG-responsive and IVIG-resistant groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the association between coagulation profiles and IVIG resistance. ROC curves analysis was further performed to assess the validity of coagulation profiles in predicting both initial IVIG resistance and repeated IVIG resistance.<h4>Results</h4>Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), and D-dimer were significantly increased in the initial IVIG-resistant group with antithrombin III (ATIII) and thrombin time (TT) significantly reduced. Meanwhile, ATIII was declined markedly in repeated IVIG-resistant patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that PT, APTT, D-dimer, and ATIII were independent risk factors for predicting initial IVIG resistance and ATIII for predicting repeated IVIG-resistant patients with KD. PT, APTT, D-dimer, and ATIII cutoff values of 13.95 s, 41.15 s, 1.48 mg/L, and 89.5% yielded sensitivities of 73%, 32%, 71%, and 81%, and specificities of 55%, 88%, 62%, and 51% for predicting initial IVIG resistance, respectively. The cutoff value of ATIII for predicting repeated IVIG resistance was 68.5%, with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 55%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>KD patients who have hypercoagulation during the acute phase might be at higher risk of developing IVIG resistance.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects the coronary arteries. Abnormal immune reactions are thought to contribute to disease pathogenesis. The effect of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype (IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE) on inflammatory data and clinical outcomes of patients with KD was examined.<h4>Methods</h4>Ig levels in 241 patients with KD were measured during the acute, subacute, convalescent, and normal phases of the disease.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with reference Ig values, IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were significantly higher in the subacute phase, while IgE levels were elevated in 73.9% (178/241) of patients with KD in all clinical phases. However, high IgE levels were not associated with clinical outcomes, including intravenous immunoglobulin unresponsiveness and coronary artery lesions (CALs). Significantly more CALs were observed in the high IgA group than in the normal IgA group (44.7% vs. 20.8%, respectively; p<0.01). In addition, IgA levels in the acute phase (p=0.038) were 2.2-fold higher, and those in the subacute phase were 1.7-fold higher (p <0.001), in the CAL group than in the non-CAL group. IgA concentrations increased along with the size of the coronary artery aneurysm (p <0.001). Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between IgA levels and CAL size (r=0.435, p<0.001), with a high odds ratio of 2.58 (p=0.022).<h4>Conclusions</h4>High IgA levels in patients with KD are prognostic for the risk of CALs.
Project description:Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood often complicated by coronary artery lesion that drastically reduces the quality of life. The study aimed to identify a reliable marker for predicting nonresponsiveness to the first course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in KD patients. A total of 63 patients with KD were enrolled in the study (IVIG response, 58; IVIG resistance, 5). Plasma samples were collected before and after IVIG infusion for measurement of biomarkers. Patients' clinical characteristics and laboratory data were also analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to identify a cut-off value for predicting IVIG resistance. Among the biomarkers, the difference in plasma clusterin concentrations before and after IVIG infusion (CLUSTER 12) was significantly related to IVIG resistance (P = 0.040; 95% confidence interval (CI): -25.8% to -6.0%). Using a CLUSTER 12 cut-off value of <8.52 mg/L, the odds ratio for IVIG resistance was 11.467 (95% CI: 1.186 to 110.853). Patients with plasma CLUSTER 12 concentrations >8.52 mg/L had a much higher risk of IVIG resistance than those with CLUSTER 12 concentrations <8.52 mg/L. Plasma clusterin concentration shows promise as a candidate biomarker for predicting IVIG resistance in patients with KD.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-refractory status and prolonged fever are established risk factors for the development of coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) among patients with acute-phase Kawasaki disease (KD). However, whether different risk factors exist for initial unresponsiveness to IVIG and CAA development remains unclear.<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate whether different risk factors exist for initial unresponsiveness to IVIG and CAA development among patients with KD (stratified by age at disease onset).<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This retrospective cohort study included a consecutive sample of 2414 patients from a database of patients with KD from October 1, 1999, to September 30, 2019. The data were based on annual surveys (response rate, 100%) using hospital medical records across Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Data were analyzed from March 6 to March 26, 2022.<h4>Exposures</h4>The patient's age and diagnosis of KD by board-certified pediatricians using the criteria established by the Japan KD Research Committee.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Initial unresponsiveness to IVIG, defined as treatment with optional or advanced therapies, and development of CAAs. Echocardiograms performed 1 month after KD onset using the Japanese Ministry of Health criteria evaluated the presence or absence of CAAs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of patient age at KD onset for unresponsiveness to IVIG and developing CAAs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression models.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 2414 patients (1403 male patients [58.1%]; median age at onset of KD, 25 months [range, 1-212 months]) were included in the study: 550 younger than 12 months, 1342 aged 12 to 47 months, and 522 older than 47 months. A total of 535 patients (22.2%) received optional or advanced treatment and 68 patients (2.8%) developed CAAs 1 month after disease onset. The sex-adjusted OR among patients younger than 12 months for unresponsiveness to IVIG was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.59-0.99) and for development of CAAs was 1.94 (95% CI, 1.07-3.52); among those older than 47 months, the OR for unresponsiveness to IVIG was 1.32 (95% CI, 1.05-1.67) and for development of CAAs was 2.47 (95% CI, 1.39-4.39). After adjusting for IVIG administration, ORs among boys older than 47 months for unresponsiveness to IVIG was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.84-1.56) and for development of CAAs was 2.15 (95% CI, 1.08-4.30); among girls younger than 12 months, the OR for unresponsiveness to IVIG was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.65-1.60) and for development of CAAs was 3.79 (95% CI, 1.21-11.90).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The results of this study suggest that risks of unresponsiveness to IVIG and the development of CAAs differ between infants with KD and older patients with KD. Residual risk factors for KD-related CAAs other than initial unresponsiveness to IVIG should be addressed, particularly in infants.