Goat pasteurellosis: serological analysis of circulating Pasteurella serotypes in Tanqua Aberegelle and Kola Tembien Districts, Northern Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was employed with the aim to explore the serological status of goats; we evaluated the presence of serum antibodies of the circulating serotypes of the genus Pasteurella. A total of 124 serum samples were collected from randomly selected goats and subsequently serotyped using indirect haemagglutination test.In the current study, the overall prevalence of pasteurellosis in goats was 31.4%. Additionally, a total of eight serotypes of Pasteurella were serotyped. It is evident that 25% out of 124 sampled animals were found infected by four or more circulating serotypes and 6.4% animals were also found positive for all serotypes. Accordingly, the prevalence of Pasteurella multocida serotype A were 16.9%, Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 26.6%, M. haemolytica serotype A2 18.5%, M. haemolytica serotype A7 16.1%, Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T3 20.9%, B. trehalosi serotype T4 21.7%, B. trehalosi serotype T10 27.4%, and B. trehalosi serotype T15 was 25.8%. Therefore, although there has been vaccination campaign with monovalent vaccine P. multocida type A, the diseases still exerts negative impacts through death of goats to smallholder farmers. Therefore, to control the disease the government should provide multivalent vaccine of the above serotypes.
Project description:Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica is the only pathogen that consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. Paradoxically, Bibersteinia (Pasteurella) trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from BHS pneumonic lungs much more frequently than M. haemolytica. These observations suggest that there may be an interaction between these bacteria, and we hypothesized that B. trehalosi overgrows or otherwise inhibits the growth of M. haemolytica. Growth curves (monoculture) demonstrated that B. trehalosi has a shorter doubling time ( approximately 10 min versus approximately 27 min) and consistently achieves 3-log higher cell density (CFU/ml) compared to M. haemolytica. During coculture M. haemolytica growth was inhibited when B. trehalosi entered stationary phase (6 h) resulting in a final cell density for M. haemolytica that was 6 to 9 logs lower than expected with growth in the absence of B. trehalosi. Coculture supernatant failed to inhibit M. haemolytica growth on agar or in broth, indicating no obvious involvement of lytic phages, bacteriocins, or quorum-sensing systems. This observation was confirmed by limited growth inhibition of M. haemolytica when both pathogens were cultured in the same media but separated by a filter (0.4-microm pore size) that limited contact between the two bacterial populations. There was significant growth inhibition of M. haemolytica when the populations were separated by membranes with a pore size of 8 mum that allowed free contact. These observations demonstrate that B. trehalosi can both outgrow and inhibit M. haemolytica growth with the latter related to a proximity- or contact-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Aim:The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize the Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from blood, nasal discharge, and lung tissue of pneumonic goats. Materials and Methods:A total of 14 goats were investigated for pneumonic pasteurellosis. Of 14 goats, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from 10 clinically diseased animals. Moreover, lung tissue and heart blood samples were collected during necropsy of four goats died with pneumonia. All the samples were processed for the isolation of M. haemolytica and P. multocida in the laboratory. Bacterial isolates were identified by cultural and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All the isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using commonly used antimicrobials. M. haemolytica isolates were characterized by PHSSA gene detection. P. multocida isolates were characterized by KMT1 gene detection and capsule typing. Results:On necropsy of dead goats, the pneumonia was characterized as acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Bacterial culture revealed the isolation of M. haemolytica (7) and P. multocida (5) of 10 clinical cases. Moreover, M. haemolytica and P. multocida were coisolated from two of the lung tissues. Furthermore, one of the other two lung tissues showed the isolation of M. haemolytica while the other showed recovery of P. multocida. Bacterial isolates were specifically identified by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Moreover, the PHSSA and KMT1 genes were specifically detected among M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates, respectively. All P. multocida isolates belonged to serogroup A. Conclusion:The present study reported an occurrence of pneumonic pasteurellosis caused by M. haemolytica and P. multocida in a goat flock.
Project description:The tbpBA operon was sequenced in 42 representative isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica (32), Mannheimia glucosida (6) and Bibersteinia trehalosi (4). A total of 27 tbpB and 20 tbpA alleles were identified whilst the tbpBA operon was represented by 28 unique alleles that could be assigned to seven classes. There were 1566 (34.8% variation) polymorphic nucleotide sites and 482 (32.1% variation) variable inferred amino acid positions among the 42 tbpBA sequences. The tbpBA operons of serotype A2 M. haemolytica isolates are, with one exception, substantially more diverse than those of the other M. haemolytica serotypes and most likely have a different ancestral origin. The tbpBA phylogeny has been severely disrupted by numerous small- and large-scale intragenic recombination events. In addition, assortative (entire gene) recombination events, involving either the entire tbpBA operon or the individual tbpB and tbpA genes, have played a major role in shaping tbpBA structure and it's distribution in the three species. Our findings indicate that a common gene pool exists for tbpBA in M. haemolytica, M. glucosida and B. trehalosi. In particular, B. trehalosi, M. glucosida and ovine M. haemolytica isolates share a large portion of the tbpA gene, and this probably reflects selection for a conserved TbpA protein that provides effective iron uptake in sheep. Bovine and ovine serotype A2 lineages have very different tbpBA alleles. Bovine-like tbpBA alleles have been partially, or completely, replaced by ovine-like tbpBA alleles in ovine serotype A2 isolates, suggesting that different transferrin receptors are required by serotype A2 isolates for optimum iron uptake in cattle and sheep. Conversely, the tbpBA alleles of bovine-pathogenic serotype A1 and A6 isolates are very similar to those of closely related ovine isolates, suggesting a recent and common evolutionary origin.
Project description:<i>Pasteurella</i> (<i>P</i>.) <i>multocida</i> and <i>Mannheimia</i> (<i>M.</i>) <i>haemolytica</i> are the most two common pathogenic bacterial agents causing pneumonia in calves. Both bacteria are associated with significant economic losses in the cattle industry due to high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in the case of severe infections. The objectives of the present study were to perform serotyping and genotyping, as well as characterization of the virulence-associated genes in 48 bacterial isolates; 33 <i>P. multocida</i> and 15 <i>M. haemolytica</i>. All strains were isolated from pneumonic cattle calves showing respiratory manifestations such as fever, nasal discharges, and rapid breathing in North Upper Egypt governorates (Beni-Suef and El-Fayoum). PCR was applied as a confirmatory test using a specific universal gene, <i>kmt</i>1, and <i>rpt</i>2 for <i>P. multocida</i> and <i>M. haemolytica</i>, respectively. The results show that 29 (87.9%) <i>P. multocida</i> and 15 (100%) <i>M. haemolytica</i> isolates were positive for the corresponding universal gene. The results of serotyping indicate that 86.2% of <i>P. multocida</i> isolates belonged to serotype B:2, while 13.8% were untyped. Meanwhile, 60% and 40% of <i>M. haemolytica</i> isolates belonged to serotype 2 and serotype 1, respectively. Investigation of virulence-associated genes showed that all the tested <i>P. multocida</i> isolates harbored <i>nan</i>B, <i>omp</i>87, and <i>tox</i>A genes. Four <i>M. haemolytica</i> isolates harbored both <i>gcp</i> and <i>lkt</i>C genes and of these, three isolates harbored the <i>ssa</i> gene. Sequencing of <i>tox</i>A gene of <i>P. multocida</i> and <i>lkt</i>C gene of <i>M. haemolytica</i> in the current strains indicated a great homology with strains uploaded in gene banks from different hosts and localities worldwide.
Project description:An antibody specific for a 16-kDa outer membrane protein of a rabbit strain of Pasteurella multocida was used to probe representatives of all 16 somatic serotypes of P. multocida, as well as the vaccine strains CU and M9, and all were shown to express the protein. The gene encoding this protein was cloned and sequenced and found to have extensive sequence homology with the gene encoding the P6 protein of Haemophilus influenzae. The protein in P. multocida has been designated P6-like. The gene encoding the P6-like protein was used to probe members of the family Pasteurellaceae and other gram-negative bacteria. Representatives of all 16 somatic serotypes (as well as the vaccine strains CU and M9) of P. multocida hybridized with the P6-like gene under conditions of high stringency. The DNA from H. influenzae hybridized weakly with the P6-like gene under these conditions, but Pasteurella haemolytica (representatives of A and T biotypes), Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. avium, Actinobacillus suis, A. suis-like, A. lignieresii, A. ureae, A. rossii, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. equuli, and various members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium) did not hybridize detectably. Under conditions of lower stringency, the P6-like gene also hybridized strongly with DNA from P. multocida, H. influenzae, and A. rossii but weakly with DNA from P. haemolytica and members of the genus Actinobacillus. These results suggest that the P6-like protein of P. multocida might be useful as an immunizing product to protect poultry from avian cholera. This suggestion stems from (i) our finding that the P6-like protein in P. multocida is widely distributed among all the somatic serotypes and (ii) the previous work of others demonstrating that the P6 protein of H. influenzae elicits a protective immune response in animal models of human disease.
Project description:Pasteurella multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2 are the main causative agents of ruminant hemorrhagic septicemia in Asia and Africa, respectively. Pasteurella multocida strain PMTB was isolated from a buffalo with hemorrhagic septicemia and has been determined to be serotype B:2. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain PMTB.
Project description:The molecular evolution of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica was investigated by nucleotide sequence comparison of lktA in 31 bovine and ovine strains representing the various evolutionary lineages and serotypes of the species. Eight major allelic variants (1.4 to 15.7% nucleotide divergence) were identified; these have mosaic structures of varying degrees of complexity reflecting a history of horizontal gene transfer and extensive intragenic recombination. The presence of identical alleles in strains of different genetic backgrounds suggests that assortative (entire gene) recombination has also contributed to strain diversification in M. haemolytica. Five allelic variants occur only in ovine strains and consist of recombinant segments derived from as many as four different sources. Four of these alleles consist of DNA (52.8 to 96.7%) derived from the lktA gene of the two related species Mannheimia glucosida and Pasteurella trehalosi, and four contain recombinant segments derived from an allele that is associated exclusively with bovine or bovine-like serotype A2 strains. The two major lineages of ovine serotype A2 strains possess lktA alleles that have very different evolutionary histories and encode divergent leukotoxins (5.3% amino acid divergence), but both contain segments derived from the bovine allele. Homologous segments of donor and recipient alleles are identical or nearly identical, indicating that the recombination events are relatively recent and probably postdate the domestication of cattle and sheep. Our findings suggest that host switching of bovine strains from cattle to sheep, together with inter- and intraspecies recombinational exchanges, has played an important role in generating leukotoxin diversity in ovine strains. In contrast, there is limited allelic diversity of lktA in bovine strains, suggesting that transmission of strains from sheep to cattle has been less important in leukotoxin evolution.
Project description:The mosaic structure and molecular evolution of the leukotoxin operon (lktCABD) was investigated by nucleotide sequence comparison of the lktC, lktB, and lktD genes in 23 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 6 Mannheimia glucosida, and 4 Pasteurella trehalosi strains. Sequence variation in the lktA gene has been described previously (R. L. Davies et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:1394-1404, 2001). The leukotoxin operon of M. haemolytica has a complex mosaic structure and has been derived by extensive inter- and intraspecies horizontal DNA transfer and intragenic recombination events. However, the pattern of recombination varies throughout the operon and among the different evolutionary lineages of M. haemolytica. The lktA and lktB genes have the most complex mosaic structures with segments derived from up to four different sources, including M. glucosida and P. trehalosi. In contrast, the lktD gene is highly conserved in M. haemolytica. The lktC, lktA, and lktB genes of strains representing the major ovine lineages contain recombinant segments derived from bovine or bovine-like serotype A2 strains. These findings support the previous conclusion that host switching of bovine A2 strains from cattle to sheep has played a major role in the evolution of the leukotoxin operon in ovine strains of M. haemolytica. Homologous segments of donor and recipient alleles are identical, or nearly identical, indicating that the recombinational exchanges occurred relatively recent in evolutionary terms. The 5' and 3' ends of the operon are highly conserved in M. haemolytica, which suggests that multiple horizontal exchanges of the complete operon have occurred by a common mechanism such as transduction. Although the lktA and lktB genes both have complex mosaic structures and high nucleotide substitution rates, the amino acid diversity of LktB is significantly lower than that of LktA due to a higher degree of evolutionary constraint against amino acid replacement. The recombinational exchanges within the leukotoxin operon have had greatest effect on LktA and probably provide an adaptive advantage against the host antibody response by generating novel antigenic variation at surface-exposed sites.
Project description:The OmpA (or heat-modifiable) protein is a major structural component of the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. The protein contains eight membrane-traversing beta-strands and four surface-exposed loops. The genetic diversity and molecular evolution of OmpA were investigated in 31 Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, 6 Mannheimia glucosida, and 4 Pasteurella trehalosi strains by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis. The OmpA proteins of M. haemolytica and M. glucosida contain four hypervariable domains located at the distal ends of the surface-exposed loops. The hypervariable domains of OmpA proteins from bovine and ovine M. haemolytica isolates are very different but are highly conserved among strains from each of these two host species. Fourteen different alleles representing four distinct phylogenetic classes, classes I to IV, were identified in M. haemolytica and M. glucosida. Class I, II, and IV alleles were associated with bovine M. haemolytica, ovine M. haemolytica, and M. glucosida strains, respectively, whereas class III alleles were present in certain M. haemolytica and M. glucosida isolates. Class I and II alleles were associated with divergent lineages of bovine and ovine M. haemolytica strains, respectively, indicating a history of horizontal DNA transfer and assortative (entire gene) recombination. Class III alleles have mosaic structures and were derived by horizontal DNA transfer and intragenic recombination. Our findings suggest that OmpA is under strong selective pressure from the host species and that it plays an important role in host adaptation. It is proposed that the OmpA protein of M. haemolytica acts as a ligand and is involved in binding to specific host cell receptor molecules in cattle and sheep. P. trehalosi expresses two OmpA homologs that are encoded by different tandemly arranged ompA genes. The P. trehalosi ompA genes are highly diverged from those of M. haemolytica and M. glucosida, and evidence is presented to suggest that at least one of these genes was acquired by horizontal DNA transfer.
Project description:Background and Aim:Respiratory infection due to Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are responsible for huge economic losses in livestock sector globally and it is poorly understood in ovine population. The study aimed to investigate and characterize M. haemolytica and P. multocida from infected and healthy sheep to rule out the involvement of these bacteria in the disease. Materials and Methods:A total of 374 healthy and infected sheep samples were processed for isolation, direct detection by multiplex PCR (mPCR), and antibiotic susceptibility testing by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results:Overall, 55 Pasteurella isolates (27 [7.2%] M. haemolytica and 28 [7.4%] P. multocida) were recovered and identified by bacteriological tests and species-specific PCR assays. Significant correlation between the detection of M. haemolytica (66.6%) with disease condition and P. multocida (19.1%) exclusively from infected sheep was recorded by mPCR. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of 55 isolates revealed higher multidrug resistance in M. haemolytica (25.9%) than P. multocida (7.1%) isolates. Descending resistance towards penicillin (63.6%), oxytetracycline (23.6%), streptomycin (14.5%), and gentamicin (12.7%) and absolute sensitivity towards chloramphenicol were observed in both the pathogens. The antibiotic resistance genes such as strA (32.7%) and sul2 (32.7%) associated with streptomycin and sulfonamide resistance, respectively, were detected in the isolates. Conclusion:The study revealed the significant involvement of M. haemolytica together with P. multocida in ovine respiratory infection and is probably responsible for frequent disease outbreaks even after vaccination against hemorrhagic septicemia in sheep population of Karnataka, southern province of India.