Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 ameliorates acute rejection of liver transplantation in rat via inducing Kupffer cells M2 polarization.
ABSTRACT: Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2) could ameliorate acute rejection (AR) in rat cardiac transplantation. However, the role of sFGL2 in AR of liver transplantation has not been addressed. In this study, we found that FGL2 was upregulated in rat orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) models of tolerance and positive correlation with the frequency of M2 Kupffer cells (KCs). Gain-of-function experiments in vitro showed that sFGL2 promoted the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-?) and the expression of CD206, and inhibited the activities of STAT1 and NF-?B signaling pathway. Consistently, in vivo assays showed that adeno-associated virus-mediated FGL2 (AAV-FGL2) transfer to recipients could ameliorate AR of rat OLT and induce KCs M2 polarization in allografts. Notably, we found that the recipients receiving transferred KCs from AAV-FGL2-treated allograft showed alleviated AR. Taken together, we revealed that sFGL2 ameliorated AR by inducing KCs M2 polarization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have become a promising candidate for cell-based immune therapy for acute rejection (AR) after heart transplantation due to possessing immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of soluble fibronectin-like protein 2 (sFgl2) overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (sFgl2-MSCs) in inhibiting AR of heart transplantation in mice by regulating immune tolerance through inducing M2 phenotype macrophage polarization. METHODS AND RESULTS:The sFgl2, a novel immunomodulatory factor secreted by regulatory T cells, was transfected into MSCs to enhance their immunosuppressive functions. After being co-cultured for 72?h, the sFgl2-MSCs inhibited M1 polarization whereas promoted M2 of polarization macrophages through STAT1 and NF-?B pathways in vitro. Besides, the sFgl2-MSCs significantly enhanced the migration and phagocytosis ability of macrophages stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, the application potential of sFgl2-MSCs in AR treatment was demonstrated by heterotopic cardiac transplantation in mice. The tissue damage and macrophage infiltration were evaluated by H&E and immunohistochemistry staining, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by ELISA. The results showed that sFgl2-MSCs injected intravenously were able to locate in the graft, promote the M2 polarization of macrophages in vivo, regulate the local and systemic immune response, significantly protect tissues from damaging, and finally prolonged the survival time of mice heart grafts. CONCLUSION:sFgl2-MSCs ameliorate AR of heart transplantation by regulating macrophages, which provides a new idea for the development of anti-AR treatment methods after heart transplantation.
Project description:Fibrinogen-like 2 (FGL2) encompasses a transmembrane (mFGL2) and a soluble (sFGL2) form with differential tertiary structure and biological activities. Typically, mFGL2 functions as prothrombinase that is capable of initiating coagulation in tissue without activation of the blood clotting cascade, whereas sFGL2 largely acts as an immunosuppressor that can repress proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes and maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells. Protein sequences of FGL2 exhibit evolutionary conservation across wide variety of species, especially at the carboxyl terminus that contains fibrinogen related domain (FRED). The FRED of FGL2 confers specificity and complexity in the action of FGL2, including receptor recognition, calcium affiliation, and substrate binding. Constitutive expression of FGL2 during embryogenesis and in mature tissues suggests FGL2 might be physiologically important. However, excessive induction of FGL2 under certain medical conditions (e.g., pathogen invasion) could trigger complement activation, inflammatory response, cellular apoptosis, and immune dysfunctions. On the other hand, complete absence of FGL2 is also detrimental as lack of FGL2 can cause autoimmune glomerulonephritis and acute cellular rejection of xenografts. All these roles involve mFGL2, sFGL2, or their combination. Although it is not clear how mFGL2 is cleaved off its host cells and secreted into the blood, circulating sFGL2 has been found correlated with disease severity and viral loading among patients with human hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection. Further studies are warranted to understand how FGL2 expression is regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. Even more interesting is to determine whether mFGL2 can fulfill an immunoregulatory role through its FRED at carboxyl end of the molecule and, and vice versa, whether sFGL2 is procoagulant upon binding to a target cell. Knowledge in this area should shed light on development of sFGL2 as an alternative immunosuppressive agent for organ transplantation or as a biomarker for predicting disease progression, monitoring therapeutic effects, and targeting FGL2 for repression in ameliorating fulminant viral hepatitis.
Project description:The mechanisms that drive programmed resolution of inflammation remain elusive. Here, we report the temporal regulation of soluble (s) and transmembrane (m) fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl2) during inflammation and show that both sFgl2 and mFgl2 correlate with the outcome. The expression and ectodomain shedding of Fgl2 are respectively promoted by miR-466l and metalloproteinases (ADAM10 and ADAM17) during inflammation resolution. Deficiency of Fgl2 enhances polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration but impairs macrophage (M?) maturation and phagocytosis and inhibits the production of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvin 5 (RvDp5). In contrast, administration of sFgl2 blunts PMN infiltration as well as promotes PMN apoptosis and RvDp5 biosynthesis. By activating ALX/FPR2, RvDp5 enhances sFgl2 secretion via ADAM17 and synergistically accelerates resolution of inflammation. These results uncover a previously unknown endogenous programmed mechanism by which Fgl2 regulates resolution of inflammation and shed new light on clinical sepsis treatments.
Project description:Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl2) is critical for immune regulation in the inflammatory state. Elevated Fgl2 levels are observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but little is known about its functional significance. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of Fgl2 in the development of intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Here, we report that Fgl2 deficiency increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and CAC in a mouse model. During colitis development, the expression of the membrane-bound and secreted forms of Fgl2 (mFgl2 and sFgl2, respectively) in the colon were increased and predominantly expressed by colonic macrophages. In addition, using bone marrow chimeric mice, we determined that Fgl2 function in colitis is strictly related to its expression in the hematopoietic cells. Loss of Fgl2 induced the polarization of M1, but suppressed that of M2 both in vivo and in vitro, independent of intestinal inflammation. Thus, Fgl2 suppresses intestinal inflammation and CAC development through its role in macrophage polarization and may serve as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases, including IBD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2), a secretory protein expressed by regulatory T cells (Tregs) with immunosuppressive activity, is highly expressed in both the peripheral blood and tumor tissue of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, sFGL2 function in HCC remains largely unknown. Here, we elucidated the potential role of sFGL2 in HCC progression. METHODS:T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and related cytokines in the tumor microenvironment were comparatively analyzed in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice bearing transplanted hepatomas harboring Fgl2-knockout or receiving sFGL2-antibody treatment. Additionally, the effects of sFGL2 on DCs and T cells were evaluated in vivo and ex vivo. RESULTS:The growth of both subcutaneously and orthotopically transplanted hepatomas was inhibited in Fgl2-knockout mice and those treated with the sFGL2 antibody, respectively, as compared with controls. Moreover, sFGL2 depletion enhanced the proportion and cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T cells, promoted DC maturation, and improved DC activity to proliferate T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, we detected lower levels of interleukin (IL)-35 in both types of transplanted hepatomas and higher level of IL-6 in orthotopically transplanted hepatomas following sFGL2 depletion. Mechanistically, we found that sFGL2 impaired bone-marrow-derived DC (BMDCs) function by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, nuclear factor-kappaB, cAMP response element binding protein, and p38 and downregulating the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD83 on BMDCs in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that sFGL2 promotes hepatoma growth by attenuating DC activity and subsequent CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, suggesting sFGL2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for HCC treatment.
Project description:Malaria parasites suppress host immune responses to facilitate their survival, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we found that blood-stage malaria parasites predominantly induced CD4+Foxp3+CD25+ regulatory T cells to release soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2), which substantially enhanced the infection. This was attributed to the capacity of sFGL2 to inhibit macrophages from releasing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to sequentially reduce the recruitment of natural killer/natural killer T cells to the spleen and the production of interferon-?. sFGL2 inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in the Toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway of macrophages dependent on Fc?RIIB receptor to release MCP-1. Notably, sFGL2 were markedly elevated in the sera of patients with malaria, and recombinant FGL2 substantially suppressed Plasmodium falciparum from inducing macrophages to release MCP-1. Therefore, we highlight a previously unrecognized immune suppression strategy of malaria parasites and uncover the fundamental mechanism of sFGL2 to suppress host innate immune responses.
Project description:Using a rat orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) model and microarray, we compared the expression profiles of microRNAs in naïve and AR livers at day 7 after OLT obtained from the rats with short-term (<14 days, DA-LEW) or long-term (>60 days, DA-PVG) survival fate. AR-related microRNAs and pro-inflammatory cytokines were validated by using a quantitative real-time PCR. AR-related microRNA-mediated inflammatory responses were evaluated by overexpression of a target microRNA in rat primary hepatocytes. Human liver biopsies from recipients with AR or abnormal liver function were used for clinical verification. The microarray revealed that miR-301a was significantly upregulated in lethal AR livers of DA-LEW, while it was comparable to the naïve livers in DA-PVG, which spontaneously overcomes AR. OLT was carried out following the technique previously described by Kamada et al. in the following combinations: DA donor liver into PVG (DA-PVG; natural tolerance model with long-term (>60 days) and DA donor liver into LEW (DA-LEW; AR model with short-term (<14 days).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Acute rejection (AR) remains a life-threatening complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and there are few available diagnostic biomarkers clinically for AR. This study aims to identify intestinal microbial profile and explore potential application of microbial profile as a biomarker for AR after OLT. METHODS: The OLT models in rats were established. Hepatic graft histology, ultrastructure, function, and intestinal barrier function were tested. Ileocecal contents were collected for intestinal microbial analysis. RESULTS: Hepatic graft suffered from the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury on day 1, initial AR on day 3, and severe AR on day 7 after OLT. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that genus Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Lactobacillus were decreased, whereas Clostridium bolteae was increased during AR. Notably, cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed the 7AR and 3AR groups clustered together with 73.4% similarity, suggesting that intestinal microbiota was more sensitive than hepatic function in responding to AR. Microbial diversity and species richness were decreased during AR. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that most of the decreased key bacteria belonged to phylum Firmicutes, whereas increased key bacteria belonged to phylum Bacteroidetes. Moreover, intestinal microvilli loss and tight junction damage were noted, and intestinal barrier dysfunction during AR presented a decrease of fecal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and increase of blood bacteremia, endotoxin, and tumor necrosis factor-?. CONCLUSION: We dynamically detail intestinal microbial characterization and find a high sensitivity of microbial change during AR after OLT, suggesting that intestinal microbial variation may predict AR in early phase and become an assistant therapeutic target to improve rejection after OLT.
Project description:We previously described that in a rat model of heart transplantation tolerance was dependent on CD8+CD45RClow Tregs that over-expressed fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2)/fibroleukin. Little is known on the immunoregulatory properties of FGL2. Here we analyzed the transplantation tolerance mechanisms that are present in Lewis 1A rats treated with FGL2. Over-expression of FGL2 in vivo through adenovirus associated virus -mediated gene transfer without any further treatment resulted in inhibition of cardiac allograft rejection. Adoptive cell transfer of splenocytes from FGL2-treated rats with long-term graft survival (> 80 days) in animals that were transplanted with cardiac allografts inhibited acute and chronic organ rejection in a donor-specific and transferable tolerance manner, since iterative adoptive transfer up to a sixth consecutive recipient resulted in transplantation tolerance. Adoptive cell transfer also efficiently inhibited anti-donor antibody production. Analysis of all possible cell populations among splenocytes revealed that B lymphocytes were sufficient for this adoptive cell tolerance. These B cells were also capable of inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+ T cells in response to allogeneic stimuli. Moreover, gene transfer of FGL2 in B cell deficient rats did not prolong graft survival. Thus, this is the first description of FGL2 resulting in long-term allograft survival. Furthermore, allograft tolerance was transferable and B cells were the main cells responsible for this effect.
Project description:Patients with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) frequently develop acute gut injury (AGI), and dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been reported to exert a protective effect against AGI. We investigated whether Dex protects against AGI through antioxidative stress effects by the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidative signaling pathway. Rats were randomly allocated into a sham group and six orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT) groups receiving different doses of Dex together with/without ? 2-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockers. Intestinal tissues were collected to visualize the barrier damage and to measure the indexes of oxidative stress. For in vitro studies, rat intestinal recess epithelial cells (IEC-6) underwent hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and the protective role of Dex was evaluated after ? 2A-AR siRNA silencing. OALT resulted in increased oxidative stress, significant intestinal injury, and barrier dysfunction. Dex attenuated OALT-induced oxidative stress and intestinal injury, which was abolished by the pretreatment with the nonspecific ? 2A-AR siRNA blocker atipamezole and the specific ? 2A-AR siRNA blocker BRL-44408, but not by the specific 2B/C-AR siRNA blocker ARC239. Silencing of ? 2A-AR siRNA also attenuated the protective role of Dex on alleviating oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells subjected to H/R. Dex exerted its protective effects by activating Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidative signaling. Collectively, Dex attenuates OALT-induced AGI via ? 2A-AR-dependent suppression of oxidative stress, which might be a novel potential therapeutic target for OALT-induced AGI.