Development and initial validation of the Morningness-Eveningness Exercise Preference Questionnaire (MEEPQ) in Japanese university students.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to conveniently assess the diurnal preferences of physical activity (PA) in Japanese university students. A total of 219 subjects completed our novel Morningness-eveningness Exercise Preference Questionnaire (MEEPQ). The MEEPQ consisted of 30 items (15 items for the morning and the same 15 items for the evening) rated on a 5-point Likert scale concerning their preference for participating in PA in the morning and evening. The morning score (MS) and evening score (ES) were determined by summing each of the respective 15 items. The internal consistency and construct validity were assessed, and a factor analysis was conducted. To examine the external validity of the MEEPQ, participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days to measure their PA levels objectively. Finally, the test-retest reliability was evaluated at a one-month interval. The MEEPQ showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.896) and construct validity (morning KMO = 0.913, evening KMO = 0.875). A factor analysis showed a three-factor structure involving Physical Wellness (MEEPQ-W), Psychological Well-Being (MEEPQ-P) and Exercise Barrier (MEEPQ-B). The percent of variance was largest for MEEPQ-W in the morning (45.2%) and MEEPQ-P in the evening (40.8%). Test-retest showed that MEEPQ scores had fair repeatability. Significant and positive associations between scores and objectively measured PA levels were found in the MS and 6-9 AM PA and in the ES and 6-9 PM and 9 PM- 0 AM PA (all p<0.05). In summary, the novel MEEPQ showed relatively good agreement and thus can be used for Japanese university student samples. In the MEEPQ, three factors (the physical wellness, psychological well-being and exercise barrier) contributed to a morning or evening PA preference. The summed scores were significantly associated with the objectively measured PA levels in both the morning and evening. Therefore the MEEPQ appears to be a suitable tool for assessing diurnal PA preferences.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Poor dietary choices may underlie known associations between having an evening diurnal preference and cardiometabolic diseases. Assessing causal links between diurnal preference and food intake is now possible in Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to use a 2-sample MR to determine potential causal effects of genetic liability to a morning preference on food intake. We also examined potential causal effects of a morning preference on objectively captured response performances to email-administered 24-h diet recalls.<h4>Methods</h4>We used genetic variants associated with a morning preference from a published genome-wide association meta-analysis. Our outcomes included 61 food items with estimates from a food-frequency questionnaire in the UK Biobank (n = 361,194). For significant findings, we repeated the analysis using intake estimates from modified 24-h diet recalls in a subset of overlapping participants (n = 146,086). In addition, we examined 7 response performance outcomes, including the time and duration of responses to 24-h diet recalls (n = 123,035). MR effects were estimated using an inverse-variance weighted analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Genetic liability to a morning preference was associated with increased intake of 6 food items (fresh fruit, alcohol with meals, bran cereal, cereals, dried fruit, and water), decreased intake of 4 food items (beer plus cider, processed meat, other cereals [e.g., corn or frosted flakes], and full cream milk), increased temperature of hot drinks, and decreased variation in diet (PFalse Discovery Rate < 0.05). There was no evidence for an effect on coffee or tea intake. Findings for fresh fruit, beer plus cider, bran cereal, and cereal were consistent when intakes were estimated by 24-h diet recalls (P < 0.05). We also identified potential causal links between a morning preference with earlier timing and a shorter duration for completing email-administered 24-h diet recalls.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings provide evidence for a potentially causal effect of a morning preference with the increased intake of foods known to constitute a healthy diet, suggesting possible health benefits of adopting a more morning diurnal preference.
Project description:(1) Background: Working night shifts has been associated with altered circadian rhythms, lifestyle habits, and cardiometabolic risks. No information on the potential association of working shift and the presence of atherosclerosis is available. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between different work shifts and the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis objectively measured by imaging. (2) Methods: Analyses were conducted on the baseline data of the Aragon Workers Health Study (AWHS) cohort, including information on 2459 middle-aged men. Categories of shift work included central day shift, rotating morning-evening or morning-evening-night shift, and night shift. The presence of atherosclerotic plaques was assessed by 2D ultrasound in the carotid and femoral vascular territories. Multivariable logistic models and mediation analysis were conducted to characterize and quantify the association between study variables. (3) Results: Participants working night or rotating shifts presented an overall worse cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as more detrimental lifestyle habits. Workers in the most intense (morning-evening-night) rotating shift presented higher odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.27) compared to workers in the central shift, independently of the presence of lifestyle and metabolic risk factors. A considerable (21%) proportion of this association was found to be mediated by smoking, indicating that altered sleep-wake cycles have a direct relationship with the early presence of atherosclerotic lesions. (4) Conclusions: Work shifts should be factored in during workers health examinations, and when developing effective workplace wellness programs.
Project description:Post-exercise hypotension (PEH), calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order): two conducted in the morning (7:30 am) and two in the evening (5 pm). At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak) and a control (sitting rest) session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise)-(post-pre control)] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05). Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure) occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05), while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05). Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05) and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05). In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance.
Project description:Background:Sleep duration and morningness/eveningness (circadian preference) have separately been associated with cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. tobacco use, physical inactivity). Interactive effects are plausible, resulting from combinations of sleep homeostatic and circadian influences. These have not been examined in a population sample. Methods:Multivariable regression models were used to test the associations between combinations of sleep duration (short [?6 h], adequate [7-8 h], long [?9 h]) and morning/evening preference (morning, somewhat morning, somewhat evening, evening) with the cardiovascular risk factors of tobacco use, physical inactivity, high sedentary behaviour, obesity/overweight and eating fewer than 5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables, in a cross-sectional sample of 439 933 adults enrolled in the United Kingdom Biobank project. Results:Participants were 56% female, 95% white and mean age was 56.5 (SD = 8.1) years. Compared with adequate sleep with morning preference (referent group), long sleep with evening preference had a relative odds of 3.23 for tobacco use, a 2.02-fold relative odds of not meeting physical activity recommendations, a 2.19-fold relative odds of high screen-based sedentary behaviour, a 1.47-fold relative odds of being obese/overweight and a 1.62-fold relative odds of <5 fruit and vegetable daily servings. Adequate sleep with either morning or somewhat morning preference was associated with a lower prevalence and odds for all cardiovascular risk behaviours except fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions:Long sleepers with evening preference may be a sleep phenotype at high cardiovascular risk. Further work is needed to examine these relationships longitudinally and to assess the effects of chronotherapeutic interventions on cardiovascular risk behaviours.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The CardioMEMS HF system is used to measure pulmonary artery (PA) pressures of patients with heart failure (HF). The goal of this study was to determine the impact of time in the daily PA pressure measurements, considering variance and influence of circadian rhythms on cardiovascular pathophysiology.<h4>Methods and results</h4>The study included 10 patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (LVEF < 40%; New York Heart Association class III). Individual daily PA pressures were obtained by CardioMEMS sensors, per protocol, measured up to six times throughout the day, for a period of 5 days. Differences between variation of morning versus evening PA pressures were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean PA pressures (mPAP) increased from a morning value of 19.1 ± 2 mm Hg (8 am; mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) to 21.3 ± 2 mm Hg late in the evening (11 pm; mean ± SEM). Over the course of 5 days, evening mPAP exhibited a significantly higher median coefficient of variation than morning mPAP (14.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 7.6-21.0) and 7.0 (IQR 5.0-12.8) respectively; p = 0.01). The same daily pattern of pressure variability was observed in diastolic (p = 0.01) and systolic (p = 0.04) pressures, with diastolic pressures being more variable than systolic at all time points.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Morning PA pressure measurements yield more stable values for observing PA trends. Patients should thus be advised to consistently perform their daily PA pressure measurements early in the morning. This will improve reliability and interpretation of the CardioMEMS management, indicating true alterations in the patient's health status, rather than time-of-day-dependent variations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Physical activity (PA) participation and adherence among cancer survivors is low, despite research indicating numerous physical, psychological and emotional health benefits of exercise. Tailoring exercise programs specific to the PA preferences in cancer survivors has merit for increasing PA participation and adherence to accrue these benefits. This systematic review identifies and differentiates PA programming and counseling preferences of adult cancer survivors across various cancer survivor groups.<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL were electronically searched (inception to Oct 2017) and articles were identified using PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers independently assessed identified articles to determine eligibility and then individually performed a quality assessment on all final studies. Extracted and analyzed data included participant characteristics, interest in exercise counseling and programming, as well as specific exercise and counseling preferences (e.g. location, timing, intensity).<h4>Results</h4>Forty-one articles were included in this systematic review. Most studies assessed mixed cancer survivor groups or breast cancer survivors. Most cancer survivors felt able and interested in participating in a PA program, though starting a PA program after or before treatment was preferred. Walking was the strongest PA modality preference, and most cancer survivors preferred moderate intensity PA. Cancer survivors also indicated preferences for home-based PA that could take place in the morning. Slight preferences were found towards physical activity counseling delivered by a fitness expert from a cancer center. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were found to be of moderate to high quality based on the Appraisal Tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS) and the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ), respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Cancer survivors have an interest in participating in PA programs with walking as the primary modality. Additionally, morning-based PA programs that can be tapered to home-based programs are desirable. However, there was wide variation in other PA preference variables, suggesting multiple program options would be beneficial. Many cancer survivors felt interested and able to participate in PA, and therefore designing PA programs that are tailored to cancer survivors is integral for optimizing recruitment and adherence, as well as enhancing health outcomes in cancer survivors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Success in asthma management hinges on patients' competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom monitoring that can be readily incorporated into daily life. Although visual analogue scale (VAS) has been considered as a simple symptom assessment method, its utility as a daily symptom monitoring tool in adolescents is unknown. This study was to determine the concurrent validity of VAS in capturing diurnal changes in symptoms and to examine the relationships between VAS and asthma control and pulmonary function. METHODS:Forty-two adolescents (12-17 years old) with asthma completed daily assessment of symptoms twice per day, morning and bedtime, for a week using VAS and 6-item symptom diary concurrently. Asthma control was measured at enrollment and 6 month later, and spirometry was conducted at enrollment. Pearson correlations, multilevel modeling and regression were conducted to assess the relationships between VAS and symptom diary, asthma control and FEV1. RESULTS:Morning and evening VAS was positively associated with symptom diary items of each corresponding time frame of the day (r = 0.41-0.58, p < 0.0001). Morning VAS was significantly predicted by morning diary data reflecting nocturnal wakening (? = 2.13, p = 0.033) and morning symptoms (? = 4.09, p = 0.002), accounting for 57% of the total variance of morning VAS. Similarly, changes in four evening diary items, particularly shortness of breath (? = 2.60, p = 0.028), significantly predicted changes in evening VAS, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Average VAS scores correlated with asthma control (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (r = -0.38, p = 0.029), and were predictive of asthma control 6 months later (? = 0.085, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:VAS is a valid tool capturing diurnal changes in symptoms reflected in a multi-item symptom diary. Moreover, VAS is a valid measure predicting concurrent and future asthma control. The findings suggest VAS can be a simple alternative to daily dairies for daily symptom monitoring, which can provide invaluable information about current and future asthma control without substantially increasing self-monitoring burdens for adolescent patients. Clinical Trial Registration NCT01696357. Registered 18 September 2012.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness-eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg) and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg) were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS), before (PRE), after 12 (POST12) and 24 h (POST24) the completion of both morning (08.00 am) and evening (08.00 p.m.) training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI) were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107) while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008). Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002) and after 30 min (P = 0.042) the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times of day that do not correspond to subjects' circadian preference can lead to increased mood disturbances and perceived exertion. Therefore, an athlete's chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling HIIE. Trial registration: ACTRN12617000432314, registered 24 March 2017, "retrospectively registered". Web address of trial: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371862&showOriginal=true&isReview=true.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few actigraphy studies in mood disorders have simultaneously included unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BD) depression or BD mixed states as a separate subgroup from mania. This study compared objectively measured activity in UP, BD depression, mania and mixed states and examined if patterns differed according to time of day and/or diagnostic group. METHODS:Eighty -eight acutely admitted inpatients with mood disorders (52 UP; 18 mania; 12 BD depression; 6 mixed states) underwent 24 hours of actigraphy monitoring. Non-parametric analyses were used to compare median activity level over 24 h (counts per minute), two time series (64-min periods of continuous motor activity) in the morning and evening, and variability in activity across and within groups. RESULTS:There was no between-group difference in 24-h median level of activity, but significant differences emerged between BD depression compared to mania in the active morning period, and between UP and mania and mixed states in the active evening period. Within-group analyses revealed that UP cases showed several significant changes between morning and evening activity, with fewer changes in the BD groups. CONCLUSIONS:Mean activity over 24 hours has limited utility in differentiating UP and BD. In contrast, analysis of non-linear variability measures of activity at different times of day could help objectively distinguish between mood disorder subgroups. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01415323 , first registration July 6, 2011.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Previous work demonstrates the consequences of falling in older adults and the potential of physical activity (PA) to reduce falls, but few studies have used accelerometer-measured PA to compare overall and time-of-day activity patterns of nonfallers, fallers, or subgroups of fallers. METHODS:In 840 participants (mean age, 66.7; s = 13.2; range, 26-97) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging between 2007 and 2014, PA was measured objectively with Actiheart accelerometers and falling status (faller/nonfaller) was assessed during an in-person interview. Differences in daily PA and PA by time-of-day were assessed using multiple linear regression. Differences in PA (multiple linear regression), and functional status (?) were further examined in subgroups of "risky" or "normal" fallers. RESULTS:Overall, fallers and nonfallers exhibited similar daily (? = 22.6, P = 0.48) and time-specific PA; however, those who fell doing risky activities were more active overall (? = 243.8, P = 0.002), during the morning (? = 77.3, P = 0.004), afternoon (? = 78.4, P = 0.001), and late afternoon/evening (? = 56.3, P = 0.006) than those who fell doing normal activities. Risky fallers were significantly higher functioning than normal fallers. CONCLUSIONS:Persons who fell while engaging in normal activities exhibited lower PA overall and throughout most of the day, and were of lower functional status than persons who fell while engaging in risky or unusual activities, suggesting that engagement in risky or unusual PA is associated with higher functional ability and lower falls risk in older persons.