The spread of Injectate after ultrasound-guided lateral elbow injection - a cadaveric study.
ABSTRACT: Injections into the tendinous portion of the common extensor origin are a common intervention in the treatment of Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy (LET). Clinical trials report a heterogeneous selection of injectate volumes and delivery techniques, with systematic reviews finding no clear consensus. The aim of this study was to assess the intratendinous distribution and surrounding tissue contamination of ultrasound-guided injections into the Common Extensor Tendon (CET) of the elbow.Twenty cadaveric elbows were injected by a Consultant Radiologist under Ultrasound guidance. Elbows were randomised to equal groups of 1 or 3 mls of methylene blue injection, delivered using single shot or fenestrated techniques. Following injection, each cadaver underwent a dry arthroscopy and dissection of superficial tissues. The CET was excised, set and divided into 1 mm sections using microtome. Each slice was photographed and analysed to assess spread and pixel density of injectate in four colour graduations. The cross-sectional area of distribution was calculated and compared between groups.In all 20 cadaveric samples, contamination of the joint was noted on arthroscopy and dissection. Injectate spread through over 97% of the cross-sectional area. No differences were found in intratendinous spread of injectate between differing volumes or techniques.This study found that commonly used injection volumes and techniques distribute widely throughout cadaveric CETs. There was no improvement when the volume was increased from 1 to 3 mls or between single shot of fenestrated injection techniques. It should be noted that joint contamination using these techniques and volumes may be inevitable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Development of new analgesic drugs or gene therapy vectors for spinal delivery will be facilitated by "hyperlocal" targeting of small therapeutic injectate volumes if spine imaging technology can be used that is ready for future clinical translation. NEW METHOD:This study provides methods for MRI-guided drug delivery to the periganglionic epidural space and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the Yucatan swine. RESULTS:Phantom studies showed artifact-corrected needle localization with frequency encoding parallel to the needle shaft, while maximizing bandwidth (125 KHz) minimized needle artifact. A custom constructed 8-12 element surface coil (phased array) wrapped over the spine in conjunction with lateral recumbent positioning achieved diagnostic quality signal to noise ratio at the depth of the DRG and afforded transforaminal access via anterolateral or posterolateral vectors, as well as interlaminar access. Swine epidural anatomy was homologous with human anatomy. Injectate containing 2% gadolinium allowed imaging of injectate volumes in increments as small as 10 microliters and discrimination of epidural flow from intraparenchymal injectate delivery into a DRG. All technical and technological elements of the procedure appear clinically translatable. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS:Computed tomographic or fluoroscopic guidance cannot directly visualize drug delivery into the DRG due to contrast medium toxicity, nor reliably identify epidural injection volumes of < 50 microliters. CONCLUSIONS:MRI-guided hyperlocal delivery in swine provides a translatable and faithful model of future human spinal novel drug- or gene therapy vector delivery.
Project description:Hyaluronate (HA) is therapeutic for tendinopathy, but an intratendinous HA injection is usually painful; thus, it is not suggested for clinical practice. However, there are no studies on the histopathological changes after an intratendinous HA injection. We hypothesized that an HA injection would induce more-acute inflammation than that induced by an injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into 4 post-injection groups (n = 8): day 3, day 7, day 28, and day 42. HA (0.1 c.c.) was, using ultrasound guidance, intratendinously injected into each left Achilles tendon, and PBS (0.1 c.c.) into each right one. For each group, both Achilles tendons of 3 control-group rats (n = 6) were given only needle punctures. The histopathological score, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophage densities, interleukin (IL)-1? expression, and the extent of neovascularization were evaluated. In both experimental groups, each Achilles tendon showed significant histopathological changes and inflammation compatible with acute tendon injury until day 42. The HA group showed more-significant (p < 0.05) histopathological changes, higher ED1+ and ED2+ macrophage density, and higher IL-1? expression than did the PBS group. The neovascularization area was also significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the HA group, except on day 3. Both HA and PBS induced acute tendon injury and inflammation, sequential histopathological changes, ED1+ and ED2+ macrophage accumulation, IL-1? expression, and neovascularization until post-injection day 42.HA induced more-severe injury than did PBS. Therefore, an intratendinous HA injection should be avoided.
Project description:PURPOSE:To systematically review available literature comparing location and safety of 2 common anteromedial portals with nearby neurovascular structures in cadaveric models and to determine the correct positioning and preparation of the joint before elbow arthroscopy. METHODS:The review was devised in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted of original, cadaveric studies performed by experienced surgeons on male or female elbows evaluating anteromedial portal placement with regard to proximity of the arthroscope to neurovascular structures. Exclusion criteria consisted of case reports, clinical series, non-English language studies, and noncadaveric studies. Statistical analysis was done to measure reviewer reliability after scoring of each study. RESULTS:During screening, 2,596 studies were identified, and 10 studies met final inclusion as original, cadaveric investigations of anteromedial portal proximity to neurovascular structures. The difference in distance between proximal and distal portals was <1 mm for the brachial artery and <1.5 mm for the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, whereas the ulnar nerve was 4.17 mm further from the distal portal and the median nerve was 5.07 mm further from the proximal portal. Joint distension increased the distances of neurovascular structures to portal sites, with the exception of the ulnar nerve in distal portals. Elbow flexion to 90° increased distances of all neurovascular structures to portal sites. CONCLUSION:The results show that the proximal anteromedial portal puts fewer structures at risk compared with the distal portal. Elbows in 90° flexion with joint distension carry a lower risk for neurovascular injury during portal placement. These findings suggest the proximal anteromedial portal to be the safer technique in anteromedial arthroscopy of the elbow. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Discrepancies in placement of portals have existed in the literature, indicating differing safety margins regarding surrounding neurovascular anatomy. The present study aims to link together the literature-based evidence to describe the safest anteromedial portal variation.
Project description:To describe the minimally invasive technique for cement augmentation of cannulated and fenestrated screws using an injection cannula as well as to report its safety and efficacy.A total of 157 cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws had been cement-augmented during minimally invasive posterior screw-rod spondylodesis in 35 patients from January to December 2012. Retrospective evaluation of cement extravasation and screw loosening was carried out in postoperative plain radiographs and thin-sliced triplanar computed tomography scans.Twenty-seven, largely prevertebral cement extravasations were detected in 157 screws (17.2%). None of the cement extravasations was causing a clinical sequela like a new neurological deficit. One screw loosening was noted (0.6%) after a mean follow-up of 12.8 months. We observed no cementation-associated complication like pulmonary embolism or hemodynamic insufficiency.The presented minimally invasive cement augmentation technique using an injection cannula facilitates convenient and safe cement delivery through polyaxial cannulated and fenestrated screws during minimally invasive screw-rod spondylodesis. Nevertheless, the optimal injection technique and design of fenestrated screws have yet to be identified. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials DRKS00006726.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective analysis of lumbar computed tomographic epidurograms. Objective To evaluate the dispersal pattern of injectate after interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections. Summary Prior studies have evaluated the dispersal patterns of injectate after lumbar epidural steroid injections using fluoroscopy with varying results. To date, there have been no studies evaluating the dispersal pattern utilizing computerized tomography. Methods Ten epidurograms were analyzed after lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection. The epidurograms were examined, evaluating the dispersal pattern in longitudinal flow as well as circumferential flow. In addition, pain values were assessed with the visual analogue scale. Results Mean diffusion in the rostral direction was 9.8 cm (standard deviation 4.0 cm, range 4.0 to 15.0 cm). Mean diffusion in the caudal direction was 5.4 cm (standard deviation 1.4 cm, range 3.0 to 8.0 cm). Both rostral and caudal flow had a p value < 0.001. The circumferential flow was 360 degrees in 9 of 10 cases. In addition, there was significant (p = 0.006) reduction in pain. Conclusion Interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections are an effective treatment modality for various spine-related conditions. The injectate diffuses throughout the epidural space with nearly uniform circumferential flow as well as significant rostral and caudal flow.
Project description:To localize susceptibility genes for alterations in brain structure associated with risk of stroke and dementia. We conducted genomewide linkage analyses for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain atrophy, ventricular, and subcortical white matter hyperintensity (leukoaraiosis) in 689 non-Hispanic white (673 sibling pairs; median age, 61 years) and 544 non-Hispanic black participants (503 sibling pairs; median age, 64 years) from sibships with at least 2 members with essential hypertension.We determined brain, ventricular, and leukoaraiosis volumes from axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI; we calculated brain atrophy as the difference between total intracranial and brain volumes. Microsatellite markers (n = 451) distributed across the 22 autosomes were genotyped, and we used variance components methods to estimate heritability and assess evidence of genetic linkage for each MRI measure.Brain atrophy ventricular volume, and leukoaraiosis determined from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI.In both races, the heritability of each MRI measure was statistically greater than 0 (P < .001), ranging in magnitude from 0.42 (for ventricular volume in blacks) to 0.69 (for brain atrophy in blacks). Based on multipoint logarithm of odds scores (MLS), the strongest evidence of genetic linkage was observed for brain atrophy on chromosomes 1 (MLS, 3.49 at 161 cM; P < .001) and 17 (MLS, 3.08 at 18 cM; P < .001) in whites; for ventricular volume on chromosome 12 (MLS, 3.67 at 49 cM; P < .001) in blacks and chromosome 10 (MLS, 2.47 at 110 cM; P < .001) in whites; and for leukoaraiosis on chromosome 11 (MLS, 2.21 at 118 cM; P < .001) in whites and chromosome 22 (MLS, 2.02 at 36 cM; P = .001) in blacks.The MRI measures of structural brain injury are heritable in non-Hispanic black and white sibships ascertained through hypertensive sibling pairs. The susceptibility loci for brain atrophy, ventricular volume, and leukoaraiosis identified by linkage analyses differ among MRI measures and between races.
Project description:Juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAA) account for approximately 15% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) and chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (CH-EVAR) are both effective methods to treat JAAs, but the comparative effectiveness of these treatment modalities is unclear. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify English language articles published between January 2005 and September 2013 on management of JAA with fenestrated and chimney techniques to conduct a systematic review to compare outcomes of patients with juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JAA) treated with the two techniques. We compared nine F-EVAR cohort studies including 542 JAA patients and 8 CH-EVAR cohorts with 158 JAA patients regarding techniques success rates, 30-day mortality, late mortality, endoleak events and secondary intervention rates. The results of this systematic review indicate that both fenestrated and chimney techniques are attractive options for JAAs treatment with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes.
Project description:A small proportion of simple elbow dislocations are grossly unstable and joint congruence is not maintained after reduction. In this rare situation operative treatment is indicated. We describe a new intra articular reconstruction that utilises a slip of triceps tendon to provide immediate stability to the elbow.We assessed 20 cadaveric elbows, measuring the length of triceps tendon available and required to complete the reconstruction. We then sequentially sectioned the ligamentous stabilisers of an elbow before performing the new technique. We measured the displacement and angulation possible at the elbow before and after the reconstruction.All 20 elbows had sufficient triceps tendon length to complete the new technique. Prior to the reconstruction greater than 30 mm of joint distraction and 90 degrees varus or valgus angulation was possible. Following the reconstruction it was not possible to re-dislocate the elbow. Only 2 mm of joint distraction and 10 degrees of varus or valgus angulation were possible with the triceps graft fixed in position.This novel technique elegantly avoids many of the problems associated with current methods. We have demonstrated that it is technically feasible and easy to perform with minimal equipment requirements or costs.
Project description:Cryo-electron tomography (CET) is a well-established technique for imaging cellular and molecular structures at sub-nanometer resolution. As the method is limited to samples that are thinner than 500 nm, suitable sample preparation is required to attain CET data from larger cell volumes. Recently, cryo-focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) milling of plunge-frozen biological material has been shown to reproducibly yield large, homogeneously thin, distortion-free vitreous cross-sections for state-of-the-art CET. All eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells that can be plunge-frozen can be thinned with the cryo-FIB technique. Together with advances in low-dose microscopy, this has shifted the frontiers of in situ structural biology. In this protocol we describe the typical steps of the cryo-FIB technique, starting with fully grown cell cultures. Three recently investigated biological samples are given as examples.