Evolution and expression analyses of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica napus.
ABSTRACT: MADS-box transcription factors are important for plant growth and development, and hundreds of MADS-box genes have been functionally characterized in plants. However, less is known about the functions of these genes in the economically important allopolyploid oil crop, Brassica napus. We identified 307 potential MADS-box genes (BnMADSs) in the B. napus genome and categorized them into type I (Mα, Mβ, and Mγ) and type II (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and C-terminal domain [MIKC]c and MIKC*) based on phylogeny, protein motif structure, and exon-intron organization. We identified one conserved intron pattern in the MADS-box domain and seven conserved intron patterns in the K-box domain of the MIKCc genes that were previously ignored and may be associated with function. Chromosome distribution and synteny analysis revealed that hybridization between Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, segmental duplication, and homologous exchange (HE) in B. napus were the main BnMADSs expansion mechanisms. Promoter cis-element analyses indicated that BnMADSs may respond to various stressors (drought, heat, hormones) and light. Expression analyses showed that homologous genes in a given subfamily or sister pair are highly conserved, indicating widespread functional conservation and redundancy. Analyses of BnMADSs provide a basis for understanding their functional roles in plant development.
Project description:MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that participate in various plant growth and development processes, particularly floral organogenesis. To date, MADS-box genes have been reported in many species, the completion of the sequence of the willow genome provides us with the opportunity to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the willow MADS-box gene family. Here, we identified 60 willow MADS-box genes using bioinformatics-based methods and classified them into 22 M-type (11 Mα, seven Mβ and four Mγ) and 38 MIKC-type (32 MIKCc and six MIKC*) genes based on a phylogenetic analysis. Fifty-six of the 60 SsMADS genes were randomly distributed on 19 putative willow chromosomes. By combining gene structure analysis with evolutionary analysis, we found that the MIKC-type genes were more conserved and played a more important role in willow growth. Further study showed that the MIKC* type was a transition between the M-type and MIKC-type. Additionally, the number of MADS-box genes in gymnosperms was notably lower than that in angiosperms. Finally, the expression profiles of these willow MADS-box genes were analysed in five different tissues (root, stem, leave, bud and bark) and validated by RT-qPCR experiments. This study is the first genome-wide analysis of the willow MADS-box gene family, and the results establish a basis for further functional studies of willow MADS-box genes and serve as a reference for related studies of other woody plants.
Project description:The MADS-box family gene is a class of transcription factors that have been extensively studied and involved in several plant growth and development processes, especially in floral organ specificity, flowering time and initiation and fruit development. In this study, we identified 69 candidate MADS-box genes and clustered these genes into five subgroups (Mα: 11; Mβ: 2; Mγ: 14; Mδ: 9; MIKC: 32) based on their phylogenetical relationships with <i>Arabidopsis</i>. Most <i>TcMADS</i> genes within the same subgroup showed a similar gene structure and highly conserved motifs. Chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that all the <i>TcMADS</i> genes were evenly distributed in 10 chromosomes. Additionally, the cis-acting elements of promoter, physicochemical properties and subcellular localization were also analyzed. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes in <i>Theobroma cacao</i> and lays the foundation for further functional research.
Project description:The MADS-box gene family is one of the largest families in plants and plays an important roles in floral development. The MADS-box family includes the SRF-like domain and K-box domain. It is considered that the MADS-box gene family encodes a DNA-binding domain that is generally related to transcription factors, and plays important roles in regulating floral development. Our study identified 211 MADS-box protein sequences in the <i>Zea mays</i> proteome and renamed all the genes based on the gene annotations. All the 211 MADS-box protein sequences were coded by 98 expressed genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the MADS-box genes showed that all the family members were categorized into five subfamilies: MIKC-type, Mα, Mβ, Mγ, and Mδ. Gene duplications are regarded as products of several types of errors during the period of DNA replication and reconstruction; in our study all the 98 MADS-box genes contained 22 pairs of segmentally duplicated events which were distributed on 10 chromosomes. We compared expression data in different tissues from the female spikelet, silk, pericarp aleurone, ear primordium, leaf zone, vegetative meristem, internode, endosperm crown, mature pollen, embryo, root cortex, secondary root, germination kernels, primary root, root elongation zone, and root meristem. According to analysis of gene ontology pathways, we found a total of 41 pathways in which MADS-box genes in maize are involved. All the studies we conducted provided an overview of MADS-box gene family members in maize and showed multiple functions as transcription factors. The related research of MADS-box domains has provided the theoretical basis of MADS-box domains for agricultural applications.
Project description:The MADS-box gene family encodes a number of transcription factors that play key roles in various plant growth and development processes from response to environmental cues to cell differentiation and organ identity, especially the floral organogenesis, as in the prominent ABCDE model of flower development. Recently, the genome of American beautyberry (<i>Callicarpa americana</i>) has been sequenced. It is a shrub native to the southern region of United States with edible purple-colored berries; it is a member of the <i>Lamiaceae</i> family, a family of medical and agricultural importance. Seventy-eight MADS-box genes were identified from 17 chromosomes of the <i>C. americana</i> assembled genome. Peptide sequences blast and analysis of phylogenetic relationships with MADS-box genes of <i>Sesame indicum</i>, <i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>, <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>, and <i>Amborella trichopoda</i> were performed. Genes were separated into 32 type I and 46 type II MADS-box genes. <i>C. americana</i> MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: MIKC<sup>C</sup>, MIKC*, Mα-type, and Mγ-type, while the Mβ-type group was absent. Analysis of the gene structure revealed that from 1 to 15 exons exist in <i>C. americana</i> MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes (5-15) greatly exceeded the number in type I genes (1-9). The motif distribution analysis of the two types of MADS-box genes showed that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that <i>C. americana</i> MADS-box genes type II had more complex structures and might have more diverse functions. The role of MIKC-type MADS-box genes in flower and fruit development was highlighted when the expression profile was analyzed in different organs transcriptomes. This study is the first genome-wide analysis of the <i>C. americana</i> MADS-box gene family, and the results will further support any functional and evolutionary studies of <i>C. americana</i> MADS-box genes and serve as a reference for related studies of other plants in the medically important <i>Lamiaceae</i> family.
Project description:Sugarcane is the most important sugar and biofuel crop. MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in developmental control and signal transduction in plants. Systematic analyses of MADS-box genes have been reported in many plant species, but its identification and characterization were not possible until a reference genome of autotetraploid wild type sugarcane specie, Saccharum spontaneum is available recently. We identified 182 MADS-box sequences in the S. spontaneum genome, which were annotated into 63 genes, including 6 (9.5%) genes with four alleles, 21 (33.3%) with three, 29 (46%) with two, 7 (11.1%) with one allele. Paralogs (tandem duplication and disperse duplicated) were also identified and characterized. These MADS-box genes were divided into two groups; Type-I (21 Mα, 4 Mβ, 4 Mγ) and Type-II (32 MIKCc, 2 MIKC*) through phylogenetic analysis with orthologs in Arabidopsis and sorghum. Structural diversity and distribution of motifs were studied in detail. Chromosomal localizations revealed that S. spontaneum MADS-box genes were randomly distributed across eight homologous chromosome groups. The expression profiles of these MADS-box genes were analyzed in leaves, roots, stem sections and after hormones treatment. Important alleles based on promoter analysis and expression variations were dissected. qRT-PCR analysis was performed to verify the expression pattern of pivotal S. spontaneum MADS-box genes and suggested that flower timing genes (SOC1 and SVP) may regulate vegetative development.
Project description:MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are present in nearly all major eukaryotic groups. They are divided into Type I and Type II that differ in domain structure, functional roles, and rates of evolution. In flowering plants, major evolutionary innovations like flowers, ovules, and fruits have been closely connected to Type II MADS-box TFs. The role of Type I MADS-box TFs in angiosperm evolution remains to be identified. Here, we show that the formation of angiosperm-specific Type I MADS-box clades of Mγ and Mγ-interacting Mα genes (Mα*) can be tracked back to the ancestor of all angiosperms. Angiosperm-specific Mγ and Mα* genes were preferentially expressed in the endosperm, consistent with their proposed function as heterodimers in the angiosperm-specific embryo nourishing endosperm tissue. We propose that duplication and diversification of Type I MADS genes underpin the evolution of the endosperm, a developmental innovation closely connected to the origin and success of angiosperms.
Project description:In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKC(C) and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I); vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKC(C)); and male gametophytes (MIKC*), but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKC(C), and 3 MIKC*). Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKC(C) genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKC(C) genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKC(C) genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MADS-box genes play important roles in vegetative growth and reproductive development and are essential for the correct development of plants (particularly inflorescences, flowers, and fruits). However, this gene family has not been identified nor their functions analyzed in Brassica oleracea. RESULTS:In this study, we performed a whole-genome survey of the complete set of MADS-box genes in B. oleracea. In total, 91 MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) were identified and categorized as type I (M?, M?, M?) and type II (MIKCC, MIKC*) groups according to the phylogeny and gene structure analysis. Among these genes, 59 were randomly distributed on 9 chromosomes, while the other 23 were assigned to 19 scaffolds and 9 genes from NCBI had no location information. Both RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time-PCR analysis suggested that MIKC genes had more active and complex expression patterns than M type genes and most type II genes showed high flowering-related expression profiles. Additional quantitative real-time-PCR analysis of pedicel and four flower whorls revealed that the structure of the B.oleracea MIKC genes was conserved, but their homologues showed variable expression patterns compared to those in Arabidopsis thaliana. CONCLUSION:This paper gives a detailed overview of the BolMADS genes and their expression patterns. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for understanding the molecular regulation of flower development and further functional characterization of MADS-box genes in B. oleracea.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alfalfa, the "queen of forage", is the most extensively cultivated forage legume in the world. The development and yield of alfalfa are seriously limited by abiotic stress. MADS-box transcription factors are one of the largest gene families and play a pivotal role in plant development and abiotic stress. However, little is known regarding the MADS-box transcription factors in autotetraploid cultivated alfalfa.<h4>Results</h4>In the present study, we identified 120 MsMADS-box genes in the alfalfa genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 75 type-I MsMADS-box genes were classified into the Mα, Mβ, and Mγ subgroups, and 45 type-II MsMADS-box genes were classified into 11 subgroups. The promoter region of MsMADS-box genes containing several hormone and stress related elements. Chromosomal location analysis revealed that 117 MsMADS-box genes were unevenly distributed on 32 chromosomes, and the remaining three genes were located on unmapped scaffolds. A total of nine pairs of segmental duplications and four groups of tandem duplications were found. Expression analysis showed that MsMADS-box genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and under abiotic stresses. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression profiles of eight selected MsMADS-box genes were distinct under various stresses.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this study, MsMADS-box genes were identified in the cultivated alfalfa genome based on autotetraploid level, and further confirmed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, phylogenetic analysis, sequence features and expression analysis. Taken together, these findings will provide clues for further study of MsMADS-box functions and alfalfa molecular breeding. Our study is the first to systematically identify and characterize the MADS-box transcription factors in autotetraploid cultivated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and eight MsMADS-box genes were significantly involved in response to various stresses.
Project description:Plant life critically depends on the function of MADS-box genes encoding MADS-domain transcription factors, which are present to a limited extent in nearly all major eukaryotic groups, but constitute a large gene family in land plants. There are two types of MADS-box genes, termed type I and type II, and in plants these groups are distinguished by exon-intron and domain structure, rates of evolution, developmental function and degree of functional redundancy. The type I genes are further subdivided into three groups - M alpha, M beta and M gamma - while the type II genes are subdivided into the MIKCC and MIKC* groups. The functional diversification of MIKCC genes is closely linked to the origin of developmental and morphological novelties in the sporophytic (usually diploid) generation of seed plants, most spectacularly the floral organs and fruits of angiosperms. Functional studies suggest different specializations for the different classes of genes; whereas type I genes may preferentially contribute to female gametophyte, embryo and seed development and MIKC*-group genes to male gametophyte development, the MIKCC-group genes became essential for diverse aspects of sporophyte development. Beyond the usual transcriptional regulation, including feedback and feed-forward loops, various specialized mechanisms have evolved to control the expression of MADS-box genes, such as epigenetic control and regulation by small RNAs. In future, more data from genome projects and reverse genetic studies will allow us to understand the birth, functional diversification and death of members of this dynamic and important family of transcription factors in much more detail.