Higher Serum Immunoglobulin G3 Levels May Predict the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Individuals With Clinically Isolated Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is a first episode of neurological symptoms that may precede a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, studying individuals with CIS may lead to breakthroughs in understanding the development and pathogenesis of MS. In this study, serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, and IgG1-4 were measured in 20 people with CIS and compared with those in 10 healthy controls (HC) and 8 people with MS. Serum Ig levels in individuals with CIS were compared with (a) the time to their conversion from CIS to MS, (b) serum levels of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, (c) frequencies of T regulatory (Treg), T follicular regulatory (Tfr), and B cell subsets, and (d) Treg/Tfr expression of Helios. Serum IgG, IgM, and IgG2 levels were significantly lower in people with CIS than HC, and IgG, IgM, and IgG1 levels were significantly lower in people with CIS than MS. After adjusting for age, sex, and serum 25(OH) vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels, CIS was associated with lower serum levels of IgG and IgG2 compared with HC (p?=?0.001 and p?
Project description:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the serological hallmark of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies raised against circulating blood proteins. Of these proteins, the phospholipid-binding b2-glycoprotein I (?2GPI) is considered to be the main autoantigen in APS. Indeed, IgG antibodies targeting b2GPI (ab2GPI) directly cause both thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in several mouse models. While antibodies raised against all five domains of b2GPI have been reported, a subgroup of IgG ab2GPI raised against the first domain (DI) of b2GPI (aDI), strongly correlate with thrombotic APS, and drive thrombosis and pregnancy loss in vivo. Few studies have focused on determining the type of IgG subclass(es) for aPL. The subclass of an antibody is important as this dictates the potential activity of an antibody; for example, IgG1 and IgG3 can fix complement better and are able to cross the placenta compared to IgG2 and IgG4. It is unknown what subclass IgG aDI are, and whether they are the same as ab2GPI. To determine IgG subclass distribution for ab2GPI and aDI, we purified total IgG from the serum of 19 APS patients with known ab2GPI and aDI activity. Using subclass-specific conjugated antibodies, we modified our established in-house ab2GPI and aDI ELISAs to individually measure IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. We found that while IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 ab2GPI levels were similar, a marked difference was seen in IgG subclass aDI levels. Specifically, significantly higher levels of IgG3 aDI were detected compared to IgG1, IgG2, or IgG4 (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Correlation analysis of subclass-specific ab2GPI vs. aDI demonstrated that IgG3 showed the weakest correlation (r = 0.45, p = 0.0023) compared to IgG1 (r = 0.61, p = 0.0001) and IgG2 (r = 0.81, p = 0.0001). Importantly, total subclass levels in IgG purified from APS and healthy serum (n = 10 HC n = 12 APS) did not differ, suggesting that the increased IgG3 aDI signal seen in APS-derived IgG is antigen-specific. To conclude, our data suggests that aDI show a different IgG subclass distribution to ab2GPI. Our results highlight the importance of aDI testing for patient stratification and may point toward differential underlying aPL-driven pathogenic processes that may be subclass restricted.
Project description:Preclinical studies suggested that IgG2c isotype may specifically impair skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in mice. In this study we investigated the association between serum levels of the four IgG subclasses and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic individuals. Total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were measured in 262 subjects. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. IgG2 levels were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, 2-h post-load glucose levels and complement C3. Serum IgG2, but not IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were negatively correlated with whole-body insulin sensitivity (r?=?-0.17; P?=?0.003) and muscle insulin sensitivity index (r?=?-0.16; P?=?0.03) after adjustment for age and gender. No significant correlation was found between IgG2 levels and hepatic insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR and liver IR index. In a multivariable regression analysis including variables known to affect insulin sensitivity such as age, gender, BMI, smoking, lipids, inflammatory markers, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, IgG2 levels were independently associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (??=?-0.115, 95% CI: -0.541 to -0.024; P?=?0.03). These data demonstrate the independent association between higher levels of IgG2 and decreased whole-body insulin sensitivity, thus confirming in humans the animal-based evidence indicating the pathogenic role of IgG2 in insulin resistance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Factors associated with IgG levels in adults with IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are incompletely understood. We studied adults with IgGSD with subnormal IgG1 only, subnormal IgG1/IgG3, or subnormal IgG3 only without other subnormal IgG subclasses, IgA, or IgM. We compiled: age; sex; autoimmune condition(s) (AC); atopy; IgG, IgG subclasses, IgA, IgM; IgGsum (IgG1 + IgG2 + IgG3 + IgG4); and D (percentage difference between IgGsum and IgG). We compared attributes of patients with/without subnormal IgG (< 7.00 g/L; subnormal IgG1 subclass groups only) and analyzed IgGsum and IgG relationships. We performed backward stepwise regressions on IgG using independent variables IgG subclasses, age, and sex and on D using independent variables age and sex.<h4>Results</h4>There were 39 patients with subnormal IgG1 only (89.7% women), 53 with subnormal IgG1/IgG3 (88.7% women), and 115 with subnormal IgG3 only (91.3% women). Fifteen patients (38.5%) and 32 patients (60.4%) in the respective subnormal IgG1 subclass groups had subnormal IgG. Attributes of patients with/without IgG < 7.00 g/L were similar, except that AC prevalence was lower in patients with subnormal IgG1 only and IgG < 7.00 g/L than ≥ 7.00 g/L (p = 0.0484). Mean/median IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly lower in patients with IgG < 7.00 g/L in both subnormal IgG1 subclass groups (p < 0.0001, all comparisons). Regressions on IgG in three subclass groups revealed positive associations with IgG1 and IgG2 (p < 0.0001 each association). Regressions on D revealed no significant association. IgG1 percentages of IgGsum were lower and IgG2 percentages were higher in patients with subnormal IgG1 subclass levels than subnormal IgG3 only (p < 0.0001 all comparisons).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We conclude that both IgG1 and IgG2 are major determinants of IgG in patients with subnormal IgG1, combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3, or subnormal IgG3 and that in patients with subnormal IgG1 or combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3, median IgG2 levels are significantly lower in those with IgG < 7.00 g/L than those with IgG ≥ 7.00 g/L.
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously shown to be associated with glycosylation changes of total serum and total IgG proteins. However, as a majority of previous studies analyzed released glycan profiles, still little is known about IgG subclass-specific alterations in ovarian cancer. Hence, in this study, we investigated EOC-related glycosylation changes of the three most abundant IgG subclasses, namely, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 isolated from sera of 87 EOC patients and 74 age-matched healthy controls. In order to separate IgG2 and IgG3, we performed a two-step affinity purification employing Protein A and Protein G Sepharose. After tryptic digestion, IgG glycopeptides were enriched and measured by MALDI-TOF-MS. Finally, EOC-related glycosylation changes were monitored at the level of total agalactosylation, monogalactosylation, digalactosylation, sialylation, bisection and fucosylation, which were calculated separately for each IgG subclass. Interestingly, aside from an EOC-related increase in agalactosylation/decrease in monogalactosylation and digalactosylation observed in all IgG subclasses, some subclass-specific trends were detected. Glycosylation of IgG1 was found to be most strongly affected in EOC, as it exhibited the highest number of significant differences between healthy controls and EOC patients. Specifically, IgG1 was the only subclass that showed a significant decrease in sialylation and a significant increase in fucosylation in EOC patients. Interestingly, IgG2 and IgG3 that were often investigated collectively in previous studies, were found to have distinct glycosylation patterns. IgG3 displayed stronger EOC-related increase in agalactosylation/decrease in digalactosylation and was characterized by notably higher sialylation, which consequently decreased in EOC patients. In conclusion, our study indicates that IgG subclasses exhibit subtly distinct glycosylation patterns of EOC-related alterations and that IgG1 and IgG3 agalactosylation show the strongest association with CA125, the routine diagnostic marker. Additionally, our results show that simultaneous analyses of IgG2 and IgG3 might lead to wrong conclusions as these two subclasses exhibit noticeably different glycosylation phenotypes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A close association between narcolepsy and the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQB1*0602 allele suggests the involvement of the immune system, or possibly an autoimmune process. We investigated serum IgG levels in narcolepsy.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We measured the serum total IgG levels in 159 Japanese narcolepsy-cataplexy patients positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele, 28 idiopathic hypersomnia patients with long sleep time, and 123 healthy controls (the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele present in 45 subjects). The serum levels of each IgG subclass were subsequently measured. The distribution of serum IgG was significantly different among healthy controls negative for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.66+/-3.55 mg/ml), healthy controls positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.45+/-3.43), narcolepsy patients (9.67+/-3.38), and idiopathic hypersomnia patients (13.81+/-3.80). None of the following clinical variables, age, disease duration, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, smoking habit and BMI at the time of blood sampling, were associated with IgG levels in narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia. Furthermore we found the decrease in IgG1 and IgG2 levels, stable expression of IgG3, and the increase in the proportion of IgG4 in narcolepsy patients with abnormally low IgG levels. The increase in the proportion of IgG4 levels was also found in narcolepsy patients with normal serum total IgG levels. Idiopathic hypersomnia patients showed a different pattern of IgG subclass distribution with high IgG3 and IgG4 level, low IgG2 level, and IgG1/IgG2 imbalance.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our study is the first to determine IgG abnormalities in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia by measuring the serum IgG levels in a large number of hypersomnia patients. The observed IgG abnormalities indicate humoral immune alterations in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Different IgG profiles suggest immunological differences between narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adults with IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD) with subnormal IgG2 are inadequately characterized. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed observations in unrelated adults with IgGSD evaluated in a single hematology clinic (1991-2019) and selected those with subnormal serum IgG2 (<117 mg/dL (<1.2 g/L)) without corticosteroid therapy to describe: age; prevalence of women; upper/lower respiratory infection; autoimmune condition(s); atopy; other allergy; frequent or severe respiratory tract infection in first-degree relatives; IgG, IgG subclasses, IgA, and IgM; blood lymphocyte subpopulations; human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B types and haplotypes; and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) responses. We determined the prevalence of subnormal IgG2 among unrelated adults with IgGSD without corticosteroid therapy and compared general characteristics of those with and without subnormal IgG2. RESULTS:There were 18 patients (94.4% women) with subnormal IgG2. Mean age was 52 ± 11 y. Upper/lower respiratory infection occurred in 94.4%/74.8%, respectively. Autoimmune condition(s), atopy, other allergy, and frequent or severe respiratory infection in first-degree relatives occurred in 44.4%, 44.4%, 61.1%, and 22.2%, respectively. Median IgG2 was 105 mg/dL (83, 116). Subnormal IgG, IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, and IgM was observed in 66.7%, 50.0%, 100.0%, 5.6%, 33.3%, and 0%, respectively. Lymphocyte subpopulations were normal in most patients. HLA frequencies were similar in patients and controls. Three of 4 patients had no protective S. pneumoniae serotype-specific IgG levels before or after PPSV23. These 18 patients represent 7.6% of 236 adults with IgGSD. Prevalence of subnormal IgG, subnormal IgG3, and subnormal IgA was significantly greater in 18 adults with subnormal IgG2 than 218 adults without subnormal IgG2. Prevalence of subnormal IgM was significantly lower in patients with subnormal IgG2. CONCLUSIONS:Characteristics of adults with IgGSD with subnormal IgG2 include female predominance, other immunologic abnormalities, subnormal IgG3 and/or IgG1, lack of HLA-A and -B association, and suboptimal PPSV23 response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The literature is scarce regarding the prevalence and clinical impact of IgG subclass deficiency in COPD. We investigated the prevalence of IgG subclass deficiencies and their association with exacerbations and hospitalizations using subjects from two COPD cohorts. METHODS:We measured IgG subclass levels using immunonephelometry in serum samples from participants enrolled in two previous COPD trials: Macrolide Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD (MACRO; n?=?976) and Simvastatin for the Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD (STATCOPE; n?=?653). All samples were collected from clinically stable participants upon entry into both studies. IgG subclass deficiency was diagnosed when IgG subclass levels were below their respective lower limit of normal: IgG1?<?2.8 g/L; IgG2?<?1.15 g/L; IgG3?<?0.24 g/L; and IgG4?<?0.052 g/L. To investigate the impact of IgG subclass levels on time to first exacerbation or hospitalization, we log-transformed IgG levels and performed Cox regression models, with adjustments for confounders. RESULTS:One or more IgG subclass deficiencies were found in 173 (17.7%) and 133 (20.4%) participants in MACRO and STATCOPE, respectively. Lower IgG1 or IgG2 levels resulted in increased risk of exacerbations with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.10-1.54, p?<?0.01) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.05-1.35, p?<?0.01), respectively in the MACRO study, with STATCOPE yielding similar results. Reduced IgG1 or IgG2 levels were also associated with increased risk of hospitalizations: the adjusted HR for IgG1 and IgG2 was 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15-2.02, p?<?0.01) and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.64, p?<?0.01), respectively for the MACRO study; in STATCOPE, only IgG2 was an independent predictor of hospitalization. In our multivariate Cox models, IgG3 and IgG4 levels did not result in significant associations for both outcomes in either MACRO or STATCOPE cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately 1 in 5 COPD patients had one or more IgG subclass deficiencies. Reduced IgG subclass levels were independent risk factors for both COPD exacerbations (IgG1 and IgG2) and hospitalizations (IgG2) in two COPD cohorts. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study used serum samples from participants of the MACRO ( NCT00325897 ) and STATCOPE ( NCT01061671 ) trials.
Project description:Donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) are the main risk factor for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) and graft loss but could have variable pathogenicity according to their IgG subclass composition. Luminex-based test might lack sensitivity for the detection of IgG subclasses and this test does not allow quantifying the relative abundance of each IgG subclass. We investigated the precise repartition of each DSA subclass and their role in ABMR occurrence and severity, using an innovative mass spectrometry-based method. Between 2014 and 2018, we enrolled 69 patients who developed <i>de novo</i> DSA (<i>n</i> = 29 without ABMR, and <i>n</i> = 40 with ABMR) in two transplant centers. All IgG subclasses were detected in every samples tested: 62.7% were IgG1, 26.6% were IgG2, 6.6% were IgG3, and 4.2% were IgG4. The IgG3 proportion was significantly higher in the ABMR+ compared to the ABMR- group (8.4% vs. 5.6%, <i>p</i> = 0.003). The proportion of IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 of DSA was similar between the two groups. Higher IgG3 level was associated with higher C4d deposition, higher microvascular inflammation scores, and glomerular filtration rate decline >25%. IgG3 proportion was not correlated with DSA MFI. Multivariate analysis showed that proteinuria and high level of IgG3 DSA were the only two factors independently associated with ABMR. In conclusion, <i>de novo</i> DSA are always composed of the four IgG subclasses, but in different proportions. High IgG3 proportion is associated with ABMR occurrence and severity and with poorer outcome, independently of DSA MFI.
Project description:Transplacental antibody transfer from mother to fetus provides protection from infection in the first weeks of life, and the four different subclasses of IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) have diverse roles in protection against infection. In this study, we evaluated concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios of the IgG subclasses in a healthy UK-based cohort of mother-cord pairs, and investigated associations with maternal, obstetric, and fetal factors. In agreement with previous studies, we found a strong association between maternal and cord IgG for all subclasses. We report a transfer efficiency hierarchy of IgG1>IgG3>IgG4=IgG2 in our study population, and our review of the literature demonstrates that there is no consensus in the hierarchy of subclass transfer, despite the commonly made statement that the order is IgG1>IgG4>IgG3>IgG2. We report additional data regarding negative associations between elevated maternal IgG concentrations and maternal/cord transfer ratios, finding an effect on IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Levels of IgG subclasses were the same between venous and arterial blood samples from the umbilical cord, but there was a significantly higher level of total IgG in arterial blood. We found no correlation between placental FcRn protein levels and IgG transfer in our cohort, suggesting that IgG is the main determinant of observed differences in transplacental transfer ratios at term. Neonatal IgG1 and IgG4 levels were increased with later gestation at delivery, independent of any increase in transplacental transfer, indicating that the benefit of later gestation is through accumulation of these subclasses in the fetus. Neonatal IgG2 levels and transfer ratios were reduced in rhesus-negative pregnancies, suggesting that administered anti-D antibodies may compete for transplacental transfer of this subclass. Maternal influenza vaccination resulted in elevated maternal and neonatal levels of IgG4, whereas maternal Tdap vaccination had no impact on neonatal levels of the subclasses, nor transfer. However, within Tdap vaccinated pregnancies, later gestation at Tdap vaccination was associated with higher transplacental transfer. Our study provides information regarding levels and transfer of IgG subclasses in healthy term pregnancies and demonstrates the importance of recording detailed clinical information in studies of antibody transfer, including parity, ethnicity, and timing of maternal vaccine delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND: HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms have been associated with malaria resistance in humans, whereas cytophilic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are thought to play a critical role in immune protection against asexual blood stages of the parasite. Furthermore, HBB, IL4, TNF, and FCGR2A have been associated with both malaria resistance and IgG levels. This suggests that some malaria resistance genes influence the levels of IgG subclass antibodies. METHODS: In this study, the effect of HBB, IL4, IL12, TNF, LTA, NCR3 and FCGR2A polymorphisms on the levels of IgG responses against Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage extract was investigated in 220 individuals living in Burkina Faso. The Pearson's correlation coefficient among IgG subclasses was determined. A family-based approach was used to assess the association of polymorphisms with anti-P. falciparum IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels. RESULTS: After applying a multiple test correction, several polymorphisms were associated with IgG subclass or IgG levels. There was an association of i) haemoglobin C with IgG levels; ii) the Fc?RIIa H/R131 with IgG2 and IgG3 levels; iii) TNF-863 with IgG3 levels; iv) TNF-857 with IgG levels; and, v) TNF1304 with IgG3, IgG4, and IgG levels. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results support the hypothesis that some polymorphisms affect malaria resistance through their effect on the acquired immune response, and pave the way towards further comprehension of genetic control of an individual's humoral response against malaria.